The Digital Divide
  • No tags were found...

Communications for Wide-Area Real-Time System ... - CacheFly

Communications for Wide-Area

Real-Time System Protection and


Mark Simon

June 7, 2012

Copyright © SEL 2012

• Utilities need

communications for

their core business.

• All of the common


types are used.

The culture of the

utility has changed

to keep up with the


The Digital Divide


In the beginning….

• In 1980: Graduated with a BSEE in

“Information Engineering”. Hired by

ComEd’s Computer department.

• ComEd Power System Protection – Analysis

and Labs.

• For 30 years I had the opportunity to work on

every form of communications that the

company has. “DC to Light”. Tubes,

Transistors, Integrated Circuits,


The Organization 1980

• Office Systems.

• Computer Systems.

• Nuclear: Emergency Preparedness.

• System Protection.

• No overarching “steering committee”.


Technology 1984

The first fiber installation.

• Fiber used for System Protection.

• IT uses fiber for networking.

Technology 1990

• Analog becomes digital.

• Point to point becomes networked.

The full effect of Telco divesture hits the


1990’s The Organization Changes

• Corporate Telecommunications Department

(C-TEL). Information Technology (IT).

• Protection departments move expertise to


• Major growth in fiber. Refresh of Analog


Digital channels are used for protection.


C-TEL has issues…

• Downsizing, retirements, attrition.

• Succession planning did not keep up.

• Reliability starts to suffer. Attributed to

communication issues.

• Microwave, phone circuits, 2-way and DA

radio go to Protection Engineering.

Toys for Technology

• Microprocessor relays improve protection.

Digital Fault Recorders (DFR’s) and Relays

with fault recording allow analysis.

• Communication becomes more reliable.

• Time synchronization for data (seconds).

• Reliability improves.


Get out of the way; Digital is coming

• Industry was moving to digital

communication in the substation.

• Must be as good or better than today.

• A GOOSE is born.

The IT and Protection people start to speak

the same language. Translation still

necessary. Communication GAPS exist.

• Smart Grid: The old becomes new.

Gaps: Requirements

• What are the services needed?

• What are the security requirements?

• What level of reliability is needed?

• What latency is required?

• What are the environmental requirements?

• What are the operational requirements?


Requirements vs. Desirements

• Understand

• Challenge

Shared Infrastructure design options

(pick one)

• Go with the most bang for the buck. Most

requirements will be met.

• Design for the most stringent requirements

that you have. All requirements will be met


• Mixed design using the “highest common

denominator” for each section of the

network. All requirements will be met where

they need to be met.


The Split Tree Network

Split Tree vs “to each their own”

• Sharing can be a challenge.

• Users have to work together.

• Cost sharing methodology.

• Cost recovery

• Other costs: Upgrades and Refresh.

• Operating: firmware, planed outages.


Communication Tiers

Virtual Nested Rings


Virtual Circuits

Keys to Success

• Formal collection of requirements



Corporate needs


• How will the network be used

What do need today.

Dreaming is good. But……

Nail down the scope before you start.


Keys to Success

• Give presentations. Share, justify, solicit


• Involve stakeholders. They are part of the


• Rotate personnel. Succession plan.

Keys to Success

• Training Classes

• Progress Reports

• Determine the accounting and

apportionment process.

• Standards Organizations.


More magazines by this user
Similar magazines