The Digital Divide

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Communications for Wide-Area Real-Time System ... - CacheFly

Communications for Wide-Area

Real-Time System Protection and

Control

Mark Simon

June 7, 2012

Copyright © SEL 2012

• Utilities need

communications for

their core business.

• All of the common

communication

types are used.

The culture of the

utility has changed

to keep up with the

technology.

The Digital Divide

1


In the beginning….

• In 1980: Graduated with a BSEE in

“Information Engineering”. Hired by

ComEd’s Computer department.

• ComEd Power System Protection – Analysis

and Labs.

• For 30 years I had the opportunity to work on

every form of communications that the

company has. “DC to Light”. Tubes,

Transistors, Integrated Circuits,

Microprocessors.

The Organization 1980

• Office Systems.

• Computer Systems.

• Nuclear: Emergency Preparedness.

• System Protection.

• No overarching “steering committee”.

2


Technology 1984

The first fiber installation.

• Fiber used for System Protection.

• IT uses fiber for networking.

Technology 1990

• Analog becomes digital.

• Point to point becomes networked.

The full effect of Telco divesture hits the

utility.

1990’s The Organization Changes

• Corporate Telecommunications Department

(C-TEL). Information Technology (IT).

• Protection departments move expertise to

C-TEL.

• Major growth in fiber. Refresh of Analog

Microwave.

Digital channels are used for protection.

3


C-TEL has issues…

• Downsizing, retirements, attrition.

• Succession planning did not keep up.

• Reliability starts to suffer. Attributed to

communication issues.

• Microwave, phone circuits, 2-way and DA

radio go to Protection Engineering.

Toys for Technology

• Microprocessor relays improve protection.

Digital Fault Recorders (DFR’s) and Relays

with fault recording allow analysis.

• Communication becomes more reliable.

• Time synchronization for data (seconds).

• Reliability improves.

4


Get out of the way; Digital is coming

• Industry was moving to digital

communication in the substation.

• Must be as good or better than today.

• A GOOSE is born.

The IT and Protection people start to speak

the same language. Translation still

necessary. Communication GAPS exist.

• Smart Grid: The old becomes new.

Gaps: Requirements

• What are the services needed?

• What are the security requirements?

• What level of reliability is needed?

• What latency is required?

• What are the environmental requirements?

• What are the operational requirements?

5


Requirements vs. Desirements

• Understand

• Challenge

Shared Infrastructure design options

(pick one)

• Go with the most bang for the buck. Most

requirements will be met.

• Design for the most stringent requirements

that you have. All requirements will be met

everywhere.

• Mixed design using the “highest common

denominator” for each section of the

network. All requirements will be met where

they need to be met.

6


The Split Tree Network

Split Tree vs “to each their own”

• Sharing can be a challenge.

• Users have to work together.

• Cost sharing methodology.

• Cost recovery

• Other costs: Upgrades and Refresh.

• Operating: firmware, planed outages.

7


Communication Tiers

Virtual Nested Rings

8


Virtual Circuits

Keys to Success

• Formal collection of requirements





Performance

Standards

Corporate needs

Legislative

• How will the network be used




What do need today.

Dreaming is good. But……

Nail down the scope before you start.

9


Keys to Success

• Give presentations. Share, justify, solicit

feedback.

• Involve stakeholders. They are part of the

team.

• Rotate personnel. Succession plan.

Keys to Success

• Training Classes

• Progress Reports

• Determine the accounting and

apportionment process.

• Standards Organizations.

10

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