the model of 4 prisms

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Effectiveness of public administration: the model of 4 prisms ...

Effectiveness of public administration:

the model of 4 prisms

Effectiveness of public administration – one of the most

important objectives of any society.

The main goals:

— high level of competitiveness,

— sustainable economy,

—public order

—and welfare.

What is the meaning of the terms "efficiency", “state

governance”, "public administration", as well as “public” and

“administration” separately?


“Administration“ –targeted impact of a subject on

object

Game of terms

between Russian and English understandings:

"public administration"

"state governance“

“social administration”


Understandings of the state

T S SS Ex.branch State organ

The state – as a governed sovereign populated territory.

The state as a political design of a sovereign society.

The state - as the political superstructure of society, represented, for

instance, in the form of the three branches of power.

The state - as the executive branch of power, which implements state policy

defined by the representatives of the society (legislative power).

The state – as any state organ exercising state policy and functions

determined by elected public representative (Minister, mayor etc.).

the state is a system


1. System design

description of

the internal

structure of the

object, its parts

and their

interconnections

.

2. Elements

an independent

part, which is the

basis of something

(structure,

systems)

The state as a system: the model of 4 prisms

i

i

3. Processes

(interactions)

i

i

4. External

environment

the set of

elements

which are not

included in

the system,

but their

change of

state causes a

change in the

behavior of

the system.

a typical description of the action,

with a particular set of procedures,

aimed at converting something from

one state to another


Applying the method of 4 prisms to public administration

1. State as a territory

state manager

territory

State governance - is the management of a single territory.

The design of the system – administrative -territorial (objects of federation,

municipalities and others), which depend on the historical development and

climatic characteristics and types of economy. In the case of Kazakhstan it is 16

provinces and cities under republic's jurisdiction, more than 200 districts and 2000

villages.

The elements – its administrative-territorial subdivisions.

Processes –information and communication, taxation, social, political, economic

and other.

External environment –foreign territories (other states).

Objective – satisfaction of needs and smoothing the contradictions of the

administrative and territorial units.


Applying the method of 4 prisms to public administration

2. State as a society

state manager

society

State governance – state administration.

The design of the system – self-governance, a sovereign independent society.

The elements – citizens and their structural units.

Processes –economic, political and social.

External environment –the citizens and structural units of other societies.

Objective – satisfaction of the whole society.


Applying the method of 4 prisms to public administration

3. State as power, political superstructure of society

state manager

power, political superstructure of society

State governance –power management.

The design of the system – constitutional (the balance of the three branches),

which depends on the public will.

The elements – three branches of government.

Processes – legislative, executive and judicial.

External environment – society.

Objective – satisfaction of the population.


Applying the method of 4 prisms to public administration

4. State as executive power

state manager

executive power

State governance – management of the government.

The design of the system – executive power, which depends on the public policy

of the successful political party.

The elements – state bodies.

Processes – budgeting, legislation, information, communication and other.

External environment – society.

Objective – satisfaction of the representative (legislative) power.


Applying the method of 4 prisms to public administration

5. State as state organ

state manager

state organ

State governance – management of a state organ.

The design of the system – depends on the organ’s functions.

The elements – civil servants, structural units.

Processes – Human Resource Management (civil service), documentarycommunicative,

and others.

External environment – society, other state organs and their employees.

Objective – satisfaction of political leader of the organ who represents the public.


System boundary

External Environment

State as Governed Sovereign Populated

Territory

Criteria Challenges Function

Directivity Territory manageability Provision of territorial integrity

System structure

Impulse taking of

External

Environment

Administrative-territorial

structure

Challenges of the

external environment

(external geographical

factors), threat to

national sovereignty

Provision of a balance between the

interest of centre and regions,

conflict account/consideration of

local power elites

National sovereignty provision,

getting into the list of the developed

nation-states, usage of external

geographical factors in the state

policy

Impact on the

external

environment

Inner geographical

potential

Usage of inner geographical factors

in international contacts,

participation in the international

division of labor


Interaction of

elements

Elements

State as Governed Sovereign Populated

Territory

Criteria Challenges Function

Elements integrity

Competitiveness of

the elements

Links forfeit of

administrative-territorial

units

Imbalance in the territory

development, differences in

starting conditions

Cooperation and integration links

development

Equation of the territory development

level

Capacity building

Resource depletion due to

extensive production and

manufacturing

Transfer to intensive production,

diversification of production, search of

new sources of production

Use improvement Inner geographical

potential

Usage of inner geographical factors in

international contacts, participation in

the international division of labor


System

boundary

External Environment

State as Political Organization of Society

Criteria Challenges Function

Directivity

Life quality

deterioration

System structure Social polarization

Public welfare maximization

Provision of integrity and social

cohesion, needs meeting of the

whole list of social strata

Impulse Taking

of External

Environment

Globalization and

integration

consequences

Preservation of social values and

identity

Impact on the

external

environment

Uncompetitive culture

and social values

Providing the place and role of

social values in international

system


Interaction of

elements

Elements

State as Political Organization of Society

Criteria Challenges Function

Elements integrity

Competitiveness

of the elements

Problems in business,

social, political and

economic processes

Lack of equality, social

conflicts

Effective realization of in business,

social, political and economic

processes

Ensuring equal rights and freedom,

conflicts prevention and resolution

Capacity building

Loss of social values and

benchmarks

Competitive mentality upbringing

Use improvement Values erosion Formation of governmental values

preservation and development policy


System boundary

External Environment

State as Political superstructure of

society

Criteria Challenges Function

Elements integrity

System structure

Impulse Reception

of External

Environment

System inconsistency to

externals and internal

challenges

Structure inconsistency of

the executive authority to

the objects and functions

of public policy

Closed nature of the

systems in regard to the

society, lack of control to

the society

Compliance provision to externals and

internal challenges

Building executive authority structure

in line with the objects and functions

of public policy

Endurance of system openness,

creation of effective public control

system

Impact on the

external

environment

Inconsistency of

government decisions and

actions to public interests

Meeting interests of society in making

decisions


Interaction of elements

Elements

State as Political superstructure of

society

Criteria Challenges Function

Elements integrity

Competitiveness

of the elements

Duplication, excess and

disbalance in seals and

authority, lack of

coordination

Struggle for sphere of

influence

Provision of coordinated functioning

of all branches of power in a single

government

Effective delimitation of functions and

competencies

Capacity building

Use improvement

Deterioration of

professionalism and

judiciary conflicts;

feedback deficiency

of state bodies’ work

quality

Subtraction of power from

the society

Professionalization of all branches of

power, legislation improvement

Strengthening feedback


System boundary

External Environment

State as Executive Branch of Power

Criteria Challenges Function

Directivity

System structure

Public representatives’ will

neglect

Disbalance between the

branches of power

Ensuring timely and qualitative

realization of public representatives’ will

Ensuring consistent function of the

branches of power

Impulse Reception

of External

Environment

Closed nature of the system,

unaccountability to the

society to the public

representatives

Endurance of system openness, creation

and introduction of effectiveness

evaluation system to the state bodies

Impact on the

external

environment

Inferior quality performance

of governmental programs

Development and implementation of

governmental and regional state

programs; ensuring quality and

effectiveness of governmental programs


Interaction of elements

Elements

State as Executive Branch of Power

Criteria Challenges Function

Elements integrity

Competitiveness of

the elements

Capacity building

Inter-structural estrangement,

inferior level of executive

discipline both vertically and

horizontally, duplication

Regional disproportions,

interests conflict, interstructural

estrangement

Deterioration of state

bodies’ work quality

Improving performance discipline,

duplication reduction

Enhancement of state projection,

strategic planning, results oriented

budget

Organization system development of

civil service, development of state

bodies’ infrastructure

Use improvement

Inefficiency and inferior

quality of decisions

Enhancement of decision-making

system, introduction of HRM


System boundary

External Environment

State as a State Organ

Criteria Challenges Function

Directivity

Substandard fulfillment of

state functions

Ensuring quality of performance of

state functions

System structure

Impulse Reception

of External

Environment

State body’s structure in

accordance with staff

register

Lack of transparency,

formalization of

accountability, decrease

in public confidence

Scheduling functions and public

services, structure building according

to the scheduled functions

Insurance of transparency and

accountability quality, targeting the

satisfaction of public needs,

coordination with other government

agencies

Impact on the

external

environment

Inferior quality in tasks

solving, dissatisfaction of

public needs

Provision of qualitative realization of

state functions and public services


Interaction of elements

Elements

State as a State Organ

Criteria Challenges Function

Elements integrity

Inter-structural

estrangement, staff

disunity

Introduction of results management

(HRM, management enhancement)

Competitiveness

of the elements

Capacity building

Inefficient administration,

low level of

professionalism, rentoriented

behavior

Inferior personnel

potential

Introduction of quality management

system, KPI

Enhancement of recruitment and

personnel selection system

Use improvement

Low performance and

efficiency of personnel

Development of adequate evaluation

and motivation system, system of

career development


Different fields of comparison

To determine the effectiveness , it is needed:

1. to clarify definitions;

2. determine the parallel systems that are equidistant from ours;

3. to apply the method of 4 prisms for comparison.

To measure the effectiveness of public administration, you can

use a comparative approach:

— comparing with the previous period (retrospective

analysis);

— comparing with available analogs (equivalent analysis).

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