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Geography Against Development • Case for Landlocked ... - OHRLLS

Geography Against Development • Case for Landlocked ... - OHRLLS

Preface It was almost

Preface It was almost fifty years ago when the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 1028 (XI) first recognized “the need of landlocked countries for adequate transit facilities in promoting international trade”. At that time, in 1957, the landlocked developing countries that were Members of the United Nations were few in number: Bolivia and Paraguay in Latin America, and Afghanistan, Bhutan, Lao People’s Dem. Rep. and Nepal in Asia. To date, the number of landlocked developing countries has increased steeply to 31 countries. The greatly increased number of landlocked developing countries, coupled with their wide geographical stretch encompassing the continents of Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, means that the particular needs and problems of landlocked developing countries have become a matter of concern to the international community as a whole. Geographical factors put landlocked developing countries at a distinct disadvantage in the development process. Lack of access to the sea and remoteness and isolation from major international markets result in prohibitive transit costs. They create formidable obstacles in importing essential items and exporting goods. Consequently, landlocked developing countries find themselves increasingly marginalized in the globalizing world economy. The development gap between them and the rest of the world is further widening. It is a fact that excessive transit costs have become more a significant barrier than tariffs. The success or failure of trade of landlocked developing countries is largely determined by the availability and cost of transit transport. Consequently, the transit problems of landlocked developing countries are generating serious interest at the United Nations. This interest has coincided with astounding growth in international trade. The most palpable demonstration of that was the 2000 United Nations Millennium Declaration, in which world leaders called for a global partnership to address the special needs and problems of landlocked developing countries. Subsequently, the 2003 UN Conference on landlocked developing countries, held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, negotiated an action-oriented programme of action. In this programme, the international community agreed to undertake specific actions in five priority areas to establish efficient transit transport systems in landlocked and transit developing countries. In addition, trade facilitation was included Preface iii

iv in the Doha Round of trade negotiations; transit is a major component in trade facilitation. In Geography Against Development, the authors attempt to analyse the impact of geographical handicaps on external trade and economic development of landlocked developing countries and identify practical solutions to address them. The book is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 analyses factors that hamper the effective participation of landlocked developing countries in international trade and economic development. Chapter 2 examines the corridor approach for establishing efficient transit systems and outlines the challenges faced and efforts made in different landlocked subregions. Chapter 3 describes major international conventions that are essential for securing freedom of transit and day-to-day transit operations. Chapter 4 outlines international support measures for establishing efficient transit transport systems. Geography Against Development Case for Landlocked Developing Countries

  • Page 2 and 3: GEOGRAPHY AGAINST DEVELOPMENT: A Ca
  • Page 6 and 7: Contents Preface . . . . . . . . .
  • Page 8 and 9: 3. Legal framework for transit coop
  • Page 10: List of figures Figure 1: Average a
  • Page 13 and 14: 2 Map 1. Landlocked developing coun
  • Page 15 and 16: 4 categorized as least developed co
  • Page 17 and 18: achieved positive average growth ra
  • Page 19 and 20: it is skewed by one country: Kazakh
  • Page 21 and 22: 10 Table 3: Share of FDI inflows, b
  • Page 23 and 24: 12 Table 5: Official development as
  • Page 25 and 26: 14 LLDC Table 6: Central government
  • Page 27 and 28: 1 to their landlocked peers in the
  • Page 29 and 30: 1 neighbours. Moreover, two thirds
  • Page 31 and 32: 20 Measuring LLDCs’ transport cos
  • Page 33 and 34: 22 Table 10: Transportation and ins
  • Page 35 and 36: 24 IV. Why are LLDC transport costs
  • Page 37 and 38: 2 Table 13: Aggregate structure of
  • Page 39 and 40: 2 delivering social services signif
  • Page 41 and 42: 30 distance adds a whopping US$ 1,3
  • Page 43 and 44: 32 Table 18: Transport costs in sel
  • Page 45 and 46: 34 and hence on their potential to
  • Page 47 and 48: 3 Country Table 20: Value and share
  • Page 49 and 50: 3 sector in such landlocked develop
  • Page 51 and 52: 40 Table 22: Latin America ratios t
  • Page 53 and 54: 42 highly dependent upon the export
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    44 governments usually find non-mar

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    4 services. As its landlocked neigh

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    4 often compounded by a lack of coo

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    0 L. Mweru Map 2. East Africa DEMOC

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    2 Republic of Tanzania through Muso

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    4 for the disintegrating Mombasa-Na

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    conference organized by the East Af

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    Map 3. Southern Africa Lobito Walvi

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    0 Box 3: The development corridor c

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    2 Five railway lines pass through M

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    4 Often the requirements are differ

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    Until 1995 most transit cargo was c

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    effect on Ethiopia’s trade costs.

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    0 due to the common currency and la

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    2 domestic transport system, consis

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    4 Map 6. Central Africa MALI Niamey

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    egards the CAR. Douala port has a p

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    discovering some problems or errors

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    0 ered to be relatively good and is

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    2 Map 7. Central Asia Murmansk Bare

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    4 Central Asian countries with majo

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    the latter routes. The closest port

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    Turkmenistan has direct access to t

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    0 TIR, introducing TIR carnets for

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    2 at Torkham, to be financed by the

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    4 on the Caspian Sea primarily serv

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    the north. Mongolia is sparsely pop

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    the goods reach their destination o

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    Map 10. South Asia Maindong Interna

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    Haldia port complex is specified un

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    to and from the Bangladesh border,

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    10 Less than half of the roads’ s

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    10 joint venture with a private com

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    110 Arica can be reached by rail or

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    112 in reasonably good condition an

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    114 Map 13. Latin America (Paraguay

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    11 covering the port of Concepción

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    CHAPTER 3 Legal framework for trans

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    must directly precede or follow suc

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    Duties, taxes and other charges Art

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    to deal with actual transport opera

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    to the large volumes of merchandise

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    contracting party to assign a certa

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    The Hamburg Rules have been adopted

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    The International Convention on the

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    and clear procedures for the sealin

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    The agreement provides for the esta

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    Europe, notably the transition econ

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    the Brazilian port of Paranaguá. I

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    Chapter 4 HOW CAN THE INTERNATIONAL

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    14 towards facilitating transit tra

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    14 including greater national resou

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    tional borders. Trade facilitation

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    1 2 also supported the Bangkok Agre

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    negotiations, having reached a brea

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    1 that most investment in LLDCs tak

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    1 still remains. 117 Elsewhere, som

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    Development (IGAD)), but none of th

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    The establishment of regional trans

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    Bibliography Publications and paper

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    United Nations United Nations Gener

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    UNCTAD/LDC/Misc.13. The Role of Air

  • Page 182 and 183:

    UNCTAD/LDC/112 and annex. Infrastru

  • Page 184:

    Thomas, Simon. The Great Lakes Corr

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