Views
5 years ago

Geography Against Development • Case for Landlocked ... - OHRLLS

Geography Against Development • Case for Landlocked ... - OHRLLS

Contents Preface . . . .

Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii 1. The development quandary of landlocked developing countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 II. Economic and social underdevelopment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Economic performance of LLDCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Foreign direct investment (FDI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Official development assistance (ODA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Central government debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Social performance of LLDCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Poverty alleviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Health care provision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Educational attainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 III. The burden of landlockedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 High transport costs discourage trade in goods and services. . .18 Measuring LLDCs’ transport costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 CIF/FOB margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Ratio of freight-to-import costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 IV. Why are LLDC transport costs so high? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Remoteness and isolation from major markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Lack of direct access to the sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Infrastructure deficiencies within LLDCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Multimodal transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 V. High transport costs and export-led growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Whither the East Asian model? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 The competitiveness of domestic firms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Expensive intermediate goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Excessive inventory costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 VI. As if that weren’t bad enough… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Diminished earnings from primary exports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Limited choice of trading partners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Suppressing human capital accumulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Obstructing technology diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Less openness to the outside world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Contents v

vi VII. Making things better . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Regional cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Improving infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Trade facilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 2. Main transit transport corridors around the world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 I. Transit transport corridors in East Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Infrastructure facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Trade facilitation measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 II. Transit transport corridors in Southern Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Infrastructure facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Trade facilitation measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 III. Transit transport corridors in the Horn of Africa . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Infrastructure facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 IV. Transit transport corridors in West Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Trade facilitation measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 V. Transit transport corridors in Central Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Trade facilitation measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 VI. Transit transport corridors in Central Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Infrastructure facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Trade facilitation measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Afghanistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Caucasus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 Republic of Moldova . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 VII. Transit transport corridors in North-East Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 Trade facilitation measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 VIII. Transit transport corridors in South Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 IX. Transit transport corridors in South-East Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 X. Transit transport corridors in Latin America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Infrastructure facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 Trade facilitation measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 Geography Against Development Case for Landlocked Developing Countries

  • Page 2 and 3: GEOGRAPHY AGAINST DEVELOPMENT: A Ca
  • Page 4 and 5: Preface It was almost fifty years a
  • Page 8 and 9: 3. Legal framework for transit coop
  • Page 10: List of figures Figure 1: Average a
  • Page 13 and 14: 2 Map 1. Landlocked developing coun
  • Page 15 and 16: 4 categorized as least developed co
  • Page 17 and 18: achieved positive average growth ra
  • Page 19 and 20: it is skewed by one country: Kazakh
  • Page 21 and 22: 10 Table 3: Share of FDI inflows, b
  • Page 23 and 24: 12 Table 5: Official development as
  • Page 25 and 26: 14 LLDC Table 6: Central government
  • Page 27 and 28: 1 to their landlocked peers in the
  • Page 29 and 30: 1 neighbours. Moreover, two thirds
  • Page 31 and 32: 20 Measuring LLDCs’ transport cos
  • Page 33 and 34: 22 Table 10: Transportation and ins
  • Page 35 and 36: 24 IV. Why are LLDC transport costs
  • Page 37 and 38: 2 Table 13: Aggregate structure of
  • Page 39 and 40: 2 delivering social services signif
  • Page 41 and 42: 30 distance adds a whopping US$ 1,3
  • Page 43 and 44: 32 Table 18: Transport costs in sel
  • Page 45 and 46: 34 and hence on their potential to
  • Page 47 and 48: 3 Country Table 20: Value and share
  • Page 49 and 50: 3 sector in such landlocked develop
  • Page 51 and 52: 40 Table 22: Latin America ratios t
  • Page 53 and 54: 42 highly dependent upon the export
  • Page 55 and 56: 44 governments usually find non-mar
  • Page 57 and 58:

    4 services. As its landlocked neigh

  • Page 59 and 60:

    4 often compounded by a lack of coo

  • Page 61 and 62:

    0 L. Mweru Map 2. East Africa DEMOC

  • Page 63 and 64:

    2 Republic of Tanzania through Muso

  • Page 65 and 66:

    4 for the disintegrating Mombasa-Na

  • Page 67 and 68:

    conference organized by the East Af

  • Page 69 and 70:

    Map 3. Southern Africa Lobito Walvi

  • Page 71 and 72:

    0 Box 3: The development corridor c

  • Page 73 and 74:

    2 Five railway lines pass through M

  • Page 75 and 76:

    4 Often the requirements are differ

  • Page 77 and 78:

    Until 1995 most transit cargo was c

  • Page 79 and 80:

    effect on Ethiopia’s trade costs.

  • Page 81 and 82:

    0 due to the common currency and la

  • Page 83 and 84:

    2 domestic transport system, consis

  • Page 85 and 86:

    4 Map 6. Central Africa MALI Niamey

  • Page 87 and 88:

    egards the CAR. Douala port has a p

  • Page 89 and 90:

    discovering some problems or errors

  • Page 91 and 92:

    0 ered to be relatively good and is

  • Page 93 and 94:

    2 Map 7. Central Asia Murmansk Bare

  • Page 95 and 96:

    4 Central Asian countries with majo

  • Page 97 and 98:

    the latter routes. The closest port

  • Page 99 and 100:

    Turkmenistan has direct access to t

  • Page 101 and 102:

    0 TIR, introducing TIR carnets for

  • Page 103 and 104:

    2 at Torkham, to be financed by the

  • Page 105 and 106:

    4 on the Caspian Sea primarily serv

  • Page 107 and 108:

    the north. Mongolia is sparsely pop

  • Page 109 and 110:

    the goods reach their destination o

  • Page 111 and 112:

    Map 10. South Asia Maindong Interna

  • Page 113 and 114:

    Haldia port complex is specified un

  • Page 115 and 116:

    to and from the Bangladesh border,

  • Page 117 and 118:

    10 Less than half of the roads’ s

  • Page 119 and 120:

    10 joint venture with a private com

  • Page 121 and 122:

    110 Arica can be reached by rail or

  • Page 123 and 124:

    112 in reasonably good condition an

  • Page 125 and 126:

    114 Map 13. Latin America (Paraguay

  • Page 127 and 128:

    11 covering the port of Concepción

  • Page 130 and 131:

    CHAPTER 3 Legal framework for trans

  • Page 132 and 133:

    must directly precede or follow suc

  • Page 134 and 135:

    Duties, taxes and other charges Art

  • Page 136 and 137:

    to deal with actual transport opera

  • Page 138 and 139:

    to the large volumes of merchandise

  • Page 140 and 141:

    contracting party to assign a certa

  • Page 142 and 143:

    The Hamburg Rules have been adopted

  • Page 144 and 145:

    The International Convention on the

  • Page 146 and 147:

    and clear procedures for the sealin

  • Page 148 and 149:

    The agreement provides for the esta

  • Page 150 and 151:

    Europe, notably the transition econ

  • Page 152 and 153:

    the Brazilian port of Paranaguá. I

  • Page 154:

    Chapter 4 HOW CAN THE INTERNATIONAL

  • Page 157 and 158:

    14 towards facilitating transit tra

  • Page 159 and 160:

    14 including greater national resou

  • Page 161 and 162:

    tional borders. Trade facilitation

  • Page 163 and 164:

    1 2 also supported the Bangkok Agre

  • Page 165 and 166:

    negotiations, having reached a brea

  • Page 167 and 168:

    1 that most investment in LLDCs tak

  • Page 169 and 170:

    1 still remains. 117 Elsewhere, som

  • Page 171 and 172:

    Development (IGAD)), but none of th

  • Page 173 and 174:

    The establishment of regional trans

  • Page 176 and 177:

    Bibliography Publications and paper

  • Page 178 and 179:

    United Nations United Nations Gener

  • Page 180 and 181:

    UNCTAD/LDC/Misc.13. The Role of Air

  • Page 182 and 183:

    UNCTAD/LDC/112 and annex. Infrastru

  • Page 184:

    Thomas, Simon. The Great Lakes Corr

Geography - School of Environment and Development - The ...
GEOGRAPHY - School of Environment and Development - The ...
Geography of Transport Systems_1ed
Geography Education for Sustainable Development - HERODOT ...
The business case for the living wage - Geography - Queen Mary ...
Geographies of Islam - Aga Khan Development Network
Trade Facilitation and Maritime Transport: The Development Agenda
A case for early childhood development in sub-Saharan Africa
International Investment Law and Sustainable Development Key cases
Download PDF - ITDP | Institute for Transportation and Development ...
Country Case Study: Development and Status of Freshwater ...
A business case for sustainable development
The Race Against Drug Resistance - Center for Global Development
case study Haiti - United Nations Development Programme
PDF (1043 KB) - Transport for Development
Strengthening the Global Partnership for Development in a Time of ...
[+][PDF] TOP TREND Trade Policy in Developing Countries [DOWNLOAD]
Transit Oriented Development: Three Case Studies - Rail~Volution
Transportation - Arab Forum for Environment and Development
property tax reform in developing and transition countries
Procurement from developing countries and economies in transition
Land Grab or Development Opportunity? Agricultural ... - IFAD
Department of Geography - University at ...
TCRP Report 95 – Chapter 17—Transit Oriented Development
Retooling Global Development - the United Nations
[+][PDF] TOP TREND Accounting and Financial Management: Developments in the International Hospitality Industry [FREE]