Group 4 Aims
Through studying any of the group 4 subjects, students should become aware of how scientists work and
communicate with each other. While the “scienti�c method” may take on a wide variety of forms, it is the emphasis
on a practical approach through experimental work that distinguishes the group 4 subjects from other disciplines
and characterizes each of the subjects within group 4.
It is in this context that all the Diploma Program experimental science courses should aim to:
1. provide opportunities for scienti�c study and creativity within a global context that will stimulate and challenge
2. provide a body of knowledge, methods and techniques that characterize science and technology
3. enable students to apply and use a body of knowledge, methods and techniques that characterize science and
4. develop an ability to analyze, evaluate and synthesize scienti�c information
5. engender an awareness of the need for, and the value of, effective collaboration and communication during
6. develop experimental and investigative scienti�c skills
7. develop and apply the students’ information and communication technology skills in the study of science
8. raise awareness of the moral, ethical, social, economic and environmental implications of using science and
9. develop an appreciation of the possibilities and limitations associated with science and scientists
10. encourage an understanding of the relationships between scienti�c disciplines and the overarching nature of the
Semester (Year) Topic SL Hours HL Hours
Fall (Year 1) Topic 1: Statistical Analysis 2 2
Fall (Year 1) Topic 5: Ecology & Evolution 16 16
Fall (Year 1) Topic 3, 7, & 8: Biochemistry 15 26
Fall (Year 1) Topic 2: Cells 12 12
Spring (Year 1) Option: Evolution 15 22
Spring (Year 1) Topic 4: Genetics 15 15
Spring (Year 1) Topic 10: Genetics II ----- 6
Fall (Year 2) Topic 9: Plant Science ----- 11
Fall (Year 2) Topic 6 & 11: Human Health & Physiology 20 37
spring (Year 2) Selected Option 15 22
The group 4 project
The group 4 project is an interdisciplinary activity in which all Diploma Program science students must
participate. The intention is that students from the different group 4 subjects analyze a common topic
or problem. The exercise should be a collaborative experience where the emphasis is on the processes
involved in scienti�c investigation rather than the products of such investigation.
In most cases all students in a school would be involved in the investigation of the same topic. Where
there are large numbers of students, it is possible to divide them into several smaller groups containing
representatives from each of the science subjects. Each group may investigate the same topic or different
topics—that is, there may be several group 4 projects in the same school.
IB Internal Assessment - 24% of Grade
The IA consists of specific labs using skills acquired throughout the first year of IB. The best 2/3
scores in 3 broad categories will be sent to IB: Design, Data Collecting & Processing, and
Conclusion & Evaluation. One lab will be completed at the end of year 1 and the others will be
accomplished in each semester of year 2.
IB External Assessment - 76% of Grade
Paper 1 - HL - 20% SL - 20%
Paper 1 is made up of multiple-choice questions that test knowledge of the core only for students at SL and
the core and AHL material for students at HL. The questions are designed to be short, one- or two-stage
problems that address objectives 1 and 2 (see the “Objectives” section). No marks are deducted for incorrect
responses. Calculators are not permitted, but students are expected to carry out simple calculations.
Paper 2 - HL - 36% SL - 32%
Paper 2 tests knowledge of the core only for students at SL and the core and AHL material for students at HL.
The questions address objectives 1, 2 and 3 and the paper is divided into two sections.
In section A, there is a data-based question that requires students to analyze a given set of data. The
remainder of section A is made up of short-answer questions.
In section B, students at SL are required to answer one question from a choice of three, and students at
HL are required to answer two questions from a choice of four. These extended-response questions may
involve writing a number of paragraphs, solving a substantial problem, or carrying out a substantial piece of
analysis or evaluation. A calculator is required for this paper.
Paper 3 - HL - 20% SL - 24%
Paper 3 tests knowledge of the options and addresses objectives 1, 2 and 3. Students at SL are required
to answer several short-answer questions in each of the two options studied. Students at HL are required
to answer several short-answer questions and an extended-response question in each of the two options
studied. A calculator is required for this paper.
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~ 20% Final Exam
~ 70% Major Assignments - Tests, Labs, Projects/
Activities, Reading Analysis, Study Guide
~ 10% Minor Assignments - Notebook Checks & Daily
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no excuse for an extension.
Levels of Thinking
■ Remembering: Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant
knowledge from long-term memory.
■ Understanding: Constructing meaning from oral, written, and
graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying,
summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.
■ Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or
■ Analyzing: Breaking material into constituent parts, determining
how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or
purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing.
■ Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards
through checking and critiquing.
Students will be Students will be expected
expected to review
notes and learn IB_syllabus basic
to answer questions drawn
from Private past to IB only exams. me
knowledge nightly. Every exam is a
There will be pop
quizzes often to
establish accountability ~ 70-80% new material
and positive work habits. ~ 20-30% past material
Class time is devoted to achieving higher levels of
thinking & labs, rather than reviewing basic facts.
■ Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or
functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or
structure through generating, planning, or producing.
Save in Google Docs Share
Late Work Penalties
> 2 Days
Study Guide 0 Points 0 Points 0 Points
Graded for IB
0 Points 0 Points 0 Points
Notebook 0 Points 0 Points 0 Points
Textbook (Campbell, Biology)
IB Biology Reference Guide
8G Memory Stick
Lab Notebook - (School Store)
Home Computer with Internet
Academic honesty means the use of one's own thoughts and materials in the
writing of papers, taking of tests, and other classroom related activities. Students
intentionally aiding other students in any infraction of the academic honesty policy
are considered equally guilty.
Students are expected to give full credit for the borrowing of other's words or
ideas. Intentional or unintentional use of another's words or ideas without
acknowledging this use constitutes plagiarism.
There are four common forms of plagiarism:
1. The duplication of an author's words without quotation marks and accurate
references or footnotes.
2. The duplication of an author's words or phrases with footnotes or accurate
references, but without quotation marks.
3. The use of an author's ideas in paraphrase without accurate references or
4. Submitting a paper in which exact words are merely rearranged even though
they are the same is misrepresentation. Misrepresentation is the submission
of materials for evaluation that are not the student's own.
Classroom Task Media Transformation & Storage End Product
Virtual Notebook www.edmodo.com
Science Reading Analysis Sign on as a student.
Put in your group code.
Set up your profile.
Reading Analysis Report
Get Parent Code from Teacher.
Jing Link to assignment dropbox
Grades Edline Grades
Khan Academy Style Lesson.
Daily Reflection/Summary Log Review Log reflecting the main ideas from
Twitter each day and different members of class.
Article & Video Reviews
Test Question Posting
Take a Poll
IA Lab Reports + Paper Copy Managebac IA Lab Reports
Thought-Provoking Review Questions
Use Poll to facilitate a discussion.
Forms, Rubrics, & Quest Requirements Mr. Dissell’s Wiki Resources & Organization
BioLevel 1 Assessments Quia Scores & Experience Points
You are responsible for one month -1
Science Article Guidelines
> 3 pages long.
Professional Science Magazines
- Scientific American
- American Scientist
- Natural History
Video Review Guide A
1. What scientific concepts/principles were used in the video?
2. Did the video accurately portray the scientific principles? Give an example(s).
3. What was the purpose of the video? How did they accomplish it?
4. Write a brief review of the video & post it through Edmodo.
Writing a movie review is a great way of expressing your opinion of a movie. The purpose of most movie
reviews is to help the reader in determining whether they want to watch, rent or buy the movie. The
review should give enough details about the movie that the reader can make an informed decision, without
giving anyway any essentials such as the plot or any surprises.
1. Watch the movie
The first step in writing the review is to watch the movie. Watch the movie in
a relaxed environment you are familiar with. You do not want to be distracted
by an unfamiliar room. Watching the movie a second time will help you
absorb a lot more detail about the movie. Most movie reviewers take notes
as they watch the movie review.
2. Give your opinion
Most movie reviewers will give their opinion of the movie. This is important
as the reviewer can express the elements of the movie they enjoyed
or disliked. However, as in all good journalism, the reviewer should also give
impartial details, and allow the reader to make their own mind over an issue
the reader liked or disliked. Opinions should be explained to allow the reader
to determine whether they would agree with your opinion .
Many regular movie reviewers will develop a following. If one can find a
reviewer who shares a similar taste in films, one can confidently follow the
3. Who is your audience?
You need to consider who your likely readers are. Writing a movie review
for children requires a different approach than if writing for a movie club.
Ensure you report on the factors that matter to your likely audience.
4. Give an outline
Video Review Guide B
Give the outline of the movie, but don't give away essential details such as
the end or any surprises. If there is a big surprise you want to entice readers
by telling them something special happens, just don't say what.
Mr. Dissell’s Managebac.
Grading Translation for IA
17-18 = A
13-16 = B
9-12 = C
6-8 = D
15% = On Time
American International School Lagos
Data Collection and Processing
Aspect 1: Define the Problem and Select the Variables
Research Ques+on or Aim clearly stated
RQ/Aim includes IV and DV
Background to inves+ga+on included
IV correctly iden+fied with units/ range
DV correctly iden+fied with units and
Aspect 2: Controlling Variables
Method to manipulate IV, including specific
details of range or increments
Method for recording results, including units and
uncertainty of tools (± __________ )
Annotated photo of equipment or experimental
Full cita+on of published protocol, if used
If a hypothesis is required:
It is quan+ta+ve
Predic+on is explained using scien+fic
Sources are cited
Includes Null Hypothesis (HO)
Controlled variables presented as a table:
List all variables to be controlled For each
How could it impact the results? Exactly how
will it be controlled?
Aspect 3: Developing a Method for Collection of Sufficient Relevant Data
How will results be presented? Reason.
What sta+s+cal test(s) will be used? Why?
Does plan to collect data address RQ?
Explain how range of IV was selected.
Aspect 1: Recording Raw Data
Table presents only raw, unmodified data
Data table +tle outlines the inves+ga+on
Units of IV and DV present and correct
Uncertain+es correct (± ___________ )
All data are recorded correctly
Aspect 2: Processing Raw Data
Calcula+ons to determine DV carried out, if
Calcula+ons or sta+s+cal tests appropriate to
inves+ga+on and address RQ
Mathema+cs correctly applied
Worked example calcula+ons given
Aspect 3: Presenting Processed Data
Separate processed data tables from raw data
tables for clarity of presenta+on
Titles self-‐explanatory and complete
Consistent decimal places
Uncertain+es/ errors included
Appropriate choice of graph
Graphs clear, no funny coloring
Attempted/Inaccurate or Incomplete
Sufficient repeats (3-‐5) at each increment to
ensure reliability and allow for stats.
Method clearly presented in step-‐wise format and
can be repeated by others.
Safety/ ethics concerns addressed, including
animal experimenta,on policy.
Decimal points consistent throughout Decimal
points consistent with precision of the measuring
Associated qualita+ve data (observa+ons).
MUST be recorded or zero awarded.
Processed data (and decimal places)
consistent with precision of recorded data
Standard devia+ons included where
Axes labeled clearly, including metric/ SI units and
uncertain+es of values
Axes scaled appropriately
Error bars included, unless insignificant
Error bar source (e.g. standard devia+on) stated
and data are correct
Best fit line produced by you, not by computer.
Conclusion & Evaluation
Aspect 1: Concluding
Pa^erns and trends in data stated, with
reference to the graph/ tables.
Comparisons, if appropriate, are made
Data related to hypothesis or RQ – to what
extent to they agree/ disagree?
Scien+fic explana+on for results
Associated qualita+ve data add value to
Aspect 2: Evaluating Procedures
Reference to error bars (or STDEV) with
regard to suggested reliability of results
Explana+on of reliability of results
Are data sufficient to address the RQ?
Was the range of the IV appropriate?
Explain any anomalous data points.
Associated qualita+ve data where
Aspect 3: Improving the Investigation
Appropriate language used “Supports
my hypothesis” (not ‘proves’ or ‘is correct’)
Comparison with published data, if
Sources cited appropriately
Evaluate random biological varia:on,
measurement/ instrument errors, systema:c
error (problems with the method) in terms of:
Possible effect on data
Significance of the weakness or limita+on in
terms of the data set (This can be clearly
presented in a table).
For each weakness or limita+on men+oned above, how could improved experimental design
remove or reduce the impact of the error in terms of:
Techniques used to collect and record data, including precision of equipment
Design of the inves+ga+on, including range of values chosen and repeats of each IV data point
Realis+c and achievable improvements
IB Biology IA Lab “Tool-Kit” Name: ______________________
There are two main types of investigations that you will perform in IB biology:
1. Experiments are studies that allow scientists to manipulate a variable and observe its effects. For
example: Does changing light affect the growth of radishes? Experiments are powerful studies
because they can establish whether a variable influences or determines an outcome.
2. Sometimes experiments are neither possible nor desirable. Human subjects, for example, are
often unsuitable for experimentation for ethical reasons. Jane Goodall, wishing to discover the
behavior and social structure of chimpanzees in their natural habitat, did not perform experiments
with her subjects but instead observed them with minimal human interference. When subjects are
studied “as is” rather than manipulated in controlled settings, they are part of descriptive
The purpose of writing a lab report is to determine how well you performed your investigation, how much
you understood what happened during the process, and how well you can convey that information in an
organized fashion. Remember that lab reports are individual assignments. You may have had a lab
partner, but the work that you do and report on should be your own.
� Raw data must be collected in a bound lab book
� Lab must be typed or neatly hand written
� Title of lab is clear and relevant
� 1.5 line spacing
� Logical order, with clear headings
� The spelling, grammar, and flow of the writing must be understandable. When you write a lab
report, you will have already performed the investigation. Please use the past tense throughout
DESIGN ASPECT 1: Defining the Problem and Selecting Variables
� Include a Background Information section. Introduce and explain the biological principles and/or
concepts that are being investigated. Exhibit an independent understanding of what you did in lab
and why you did it. Provide the scientific name of the organism being investigated (Genus
� State the PROBLEM QUESTION (PQ). Be sure your problem question is focused enough so that it
specifically states what was under investigation in the experiment. If a controlled experiment was
done, the manipulated and responding variables must be clearly identified. Often, but not always,
written as, “What is the effect of __MV__ on __RV__?”
� In the case of a true experiment, you need to explain what you changed between groups, the
Manipulated Variable. Indicate the manipulated variable and list the levels of the MV that you
included in your experimental protocol. Provide the unit for your MV. Typically you should have a
minimum of 5 levels of the MV. Explain how the range of levels of your MV was selected. If you
performed a descriptive study, explain why no variable was or could be manipulated.
� You need to explain what was measured, the Responding Variable. List what was measured (both
qualitative and quantitative data) and explain how it was measured. Provide the unit for your RV.
If no qualitative data was collected, say so, and explain why qualitative data was not gathered.
� For true experiments in which you are determining the effect of a MV on and RV, you need to
include a hypothesis. A hypothesis is like a prediction. It will often take the form of a proposed
relationship between two or more variables that can be tested by experiment. Hypothesis
statements are often written as: If __describe MV_manipulation__, then ____explain expected
result on the RV___. You must also provide an explanation for your hypothesis. This should be a
brief discussion (paragraph form) about the science behind your hypothesis and prediction. You
should site credible references that support your explanation (see section on citations)
DESIGN ASPECT 2: Controlling Variables
€ At least three CONTROLLED VARIABLES are required, but more may be necessary. The
controlled variables you list must be relevant to your investigation. You need to control for all
variables that may reasonably affect the outcome of the investigation. Materials used and
measurement techniques are NOT controlled variables (they are validity measures).
While materials and techniques must be consistent, a true variable is something that could
directly influence the responding variable, not just how it is measured.
€ You must explain why and how variables were controlled. When explaining why a variable
needs to be controlled, describe how the variable could impact the results if it was not
controlled. Often times, students create a table to organize this information:
CONTROLLED VARIABLES WHY in must be controlled HOW it was controlled
DESIGN ASPECT 3: Developing a Method for Collection of Data
€ Make a list of the MATERIALS needed in the investigation. Be as specific as possible
(example: ’50 mL beaker’ instead of ‘beaker’); include the volumes of tubes and cylinders, the
concentrations of solutions, the model and manufacturer of any complex apparatus. If you
have to decide how much of a substance or a solution to use, state your reasoning or show the
€ Include a DIAGRAM OR PHOTOGRAPH of how you set up the experiment. Be sure your
diagram includes a title and any necessary labels. It is recommended that this be annotated to
illustrate how the variables were involved.
€ State or discuss the PROCEDURE that you used in the experiment. Be sure your procedure
explains how you changed the manipulated variable. This can be in paragraph form or a list of
step-by-step directions. Provide enough detail so that another person could repeat your work
by reading your report.
o If you use a known, published protocol than you must provide a full citation as a reference.
o Your procedure must include a few VALIDITY MEASURES (i.e. cleaning test tubes prior to
use, cleaning the microscope lenses, using the same ruler…). Validity measures are things
kept constant to make sure experimental measurements are valid and consistent.
o Your procedure must CLEARLY STATE HOW YOU COLLECTED DATA. What measuring
device did you use, what data did you record, when did you collect data? What qualitative
observations did you look for?
o Explain how you set up the investigation so you had MULTIPLE TRIALS of data collection.
The procedure must allow collection of “sufficient relevant data”. The definition of “sufficient
relevant data” depends on the context. The planned investigation should anticipate the
collection of enough data so that the problem question can be suitably addressed and an
evaluation of the reliability of the data can be made. As a rule, the lower limit is a sample
size of five. Very small samples run from 5 to 20, small samples run from 20 to 30, and big
samples run from 30 upwards. Obviously, this will vary within the limits of the time available
for an investigation.
o If you will be COMBINING DATA with data collected by other students in the class, you should
indicate that, “pooling data was done to ensure collection of significant, relevant data” (IB
Biology subject guide, 2009, page 26). Be sure to cite this reference if you pool data.
o If you are SAMPLING only a portion of a population, you must explain how and why you
ensured that the sample was randomly selected.
o Your procedure must be safe and ethical. Organisms, including humans, can not be subject to
harm in your investigation. List any SAFETY PRECAUTIONS that were taken during the lab.
If necessary, address the IBO animal experimentation policy.
DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING ASPECT 1: Recording Raw Data
€ Create a formal DATA TABLE in which to present the raw, unmodified data you collected. Be sure
o Is easy to understand
o Has a specific title
o Tables are titled in sequential order as “Table 1: title.” “Table 2: title”
o Has column headings
o Includes the unit of measurement of the MV and RV (always in metric units)
o Includes the measurement uncertainty of the measurement tools used (or, if the data was a
count, indicates that “counts have no measurable uncertainty”). Uncertainly is usually
stated in a column heading or as a footnote at the bottom of the table.
o Has a consistent and correct number of digits for each measurement
o Has decimal points aligning down a column (if applicable) and numbers centered in the
o Indicates which data was collected by which student IF the data was collected and pooled
across multiple students.
€ Your report must include QUALITATIVE DATA. This might be a paragraph in which you describe
the qualitative observations and results in general or be specific qualitative data for each trial that
is presented in table form.
€ LAB DRAWINGS are considered data by the IB Organization. Not all labs will include a lab
drawing. However, when included, please be sure your lab drawings:
o Are done with a sharp pencil line on white, unlined paper.
o Have the drawing occupy at least half a page, centered on the page.
o Include labels written off straight, horizontal lines to the right of the side of the drawing.
The labels should form a vertical list.
o Are accurate. Draw what you see; as you see it, not what you imagine should be there.
o Include a title that states what has been drawn and what lens power it was drawn under.
The title must be informative, centered, and larger than other text.
o Has a scale that indicates how many times larger the drawing is compared to life size and a
scale line that indicates relative size.
DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING ASPECT 2: Processing Raw Data
€ STATISTICS are useful mathematical tools which are used to analyze data. Common statistics
used in biology are:
o Percent change
o Standard deviation (to determine amount of variation around a mean)
o T-test (to compare two means to determine if they are statistically different from each
other). When a t-test is calculated, you must indicate the significance level at which your
critical T value is determined (we typically use the 95% confidence interval, 0.05).
o Chi-square (to determine if “observed” results are significantly different from “expected”
Use only the statistical tests appropriate to investigate and address your problem question.
€ For each statistic you calculate, you must EXPLAIN WHY YOU ELECTED TO DO THAT
CALCULATION. What does the calculation tell you about the data?
DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING ASPECT 3: Presenting Processed Data
€ Show an EXAMPLE CALCULATION for each statistic you calculate. Use plenty of room; make
sure they are labeled, are clear and are legible. Show the units of measurements in all
calculations. Pay attention to the number of digits! Don’t lose accuracy by carelessly rounding
off. Round only at the end of a calculation. Do not truncate.
€ Present your data processing results in a TABLE. The initial raw data and the processed
(calculated) data may be shown in one table provided they are clearly distinguishable. Be sure
your processed data table:
o Is easy to understand
o Has a specific title
o Has column headings
o Includes the unit of measurement
o Has a consistent and correct number of digits for each measurement (to the same
precision as your raw data)
o Has decimal points aligning down a column (if applicable) and numbers centered in the
€ You must also present your results in a GRAPH.
o Use the correct type of graph for the type of data you are presenting.
o Graphs must be clear and easy to understand. Please avoid “creative” or “funny”
coloring of graphs.
o Graphs need to have appropriate scales, labeled axes with units, and accurately plotted
o Graphs are titled in sequential order as “Figure 1: title.” “Figure 2: title”
o If necessary, add smooth lines or curves to show the overall trend of the data.
o If a mean is calculated, only graph the mean, not all data points. When a mean is
graphed, its associated standard deviation error bar must also be included (and labeled
o Legends (keys) are not always necessary. Delete “series 1” and “series 2” boxes from
graphs created in Excel.
CONCLUSION AND EVALUATION ASPECT 1: Concluding
€ Write one (or more) paragraphs in which you DRAW CONCLUSIONS FROM YOUR RESULTS.
Your conclusion should be clearly related to the research question and the purpose of the
o Answer the problem question (if you used a T-test, be sure your conclusion matches
what the T-test tells you; don’t say there is a difference if the T-test says the difference
o Was your hypothesis supported or refuted? Use the appropriate language, i.e. “Supports
my hypothesis” (not ‘proves’ or ‘is correct’).
o Provide a brief explanation as to how you came to this conclusion from your results. In
other words, sum up the evidence and explain observations, trends or patterns revealed
by the data. Summarize the processed data: mean, range and standard deviation.
Refer directly to tables and graphs by referencing tables and figures (i.e. “as seen in
o Summarize the results of the T-test: was the effect of the MV significant or not?
€ If possible, CITE LITERATURE related to your conclusion. Does you result coincide with
published results? Does it refute published results?
CONCLUSION AND EVALUATION ASPECT 2: EVALUATING PROCEDURE
€ In general, how much CONFIDENCE do you have in the results? Avoid giving your confidence
as a percentage; use words such as “very” or “somewhat.” Are your results fairly conclusive,
or are other interpretations/results possible?
€ Why are you (or aren’t you) confident? What did you do to make sure your results are valid?
Was the range of the MV levels appropriate? Was the data collected relevant to the problem
€ Explain any anomalous data points
€ Identify and discuss significant ERRORS that actually affected your data collection. You must
identify the source of error and tie it to how it likely affected your results. Avoid hypothetical
errors (“could have” or “I might have”) without evidence to back it up. Common errors
o Human error: Human error can occur when tools or instruments are used or read
incorrectly. Human errors can be systematic because the experimenter does not know
how to use the apparatus properly or they can be random because the power of
concentration of the experimenter is fading. Automated measuring using a data-logger
system can help reduce the likelihood of this error; alternatively you can take a break
from measuring from time to time. Do not list time constraints or time management as
errors - they should be eliminated with good practical skills. The focus here should be on
o Calibration error: Some instruments need calibrating before you use them. If this is
done incorrectly it can increase the risk of systematic error.
o Random errors: In biological investigations, the changes in the material used or the
conditions in which they are carried out can cause a lot of errors. Biological material is
o The act of measuring: Could the measurement uncertainty have affected the results?
Why or why not?
o Uncontrolled variables: What variables were not controlled? What effect might each of
these uncontrolled variables have had on your data? On the conclusion?
o Systematic errors: could the measurement uncertainty have affected the results? Why
or why not? Did systematic errors affect the data? The conclusion?
Errors and their effect on the results can be clearly presented in a table.
€ What are the LIMITATIONS of your conclusion? Can the results be generalized to other
situations/conditions? How might your results explain a process in the “real world”?
CONCLUSION AND EVALUATION ASPECT 3: IMPROVING THE INVESTIGATION
€ What could you do to make IMPROVEMENTS to the investigation? Suggestions for
improvements should be based on the weaknesses and limitations identified in aspect 2.
€ As appropriate, address modifications to the experimental technique and the data range.
€ Propose only realistic and specific modifications. “More time” and “be more careful” are
REFERENCES AND CITATIONS
€ It is permissible in the design and conclusion sections to use brief quotations. Sometimes a book
or reference has a phrase or sentence that expresses exactly the thought you are trying to
convey; you may use that phrase or sentence IF you use quotation marks and cite a reference at
the end of the sentence. It is NOT appropriate to borrow extensive passages (more than two
sentences) from a text or web site. You should also acknowledge where ideas or knowledge not
originally your own come from, even if you state your understanding of the idea in your own
words. This is usually done by putting the first author’s last name and the date of the paper, or
the page of a textbook, in parentheses at the end of the sentence containing the idea.
€ Any source you mention in the text of your paper should be included in a list of references in a
separate section at the end of the paper. These references are usually listed in alphabetical order
by the first author’s last name. Make sure all the authors of a paper or book are listed, and
include the title of the book or article, the journal or publisher (and place), and the date. If you
used just part of a book, indicate the chapter or pages used. For web sites, give the exact
electronic address and any other information you have about it (the author, the name of the
organization that sponsors the site). Examples:
� Author(s). Year. Title. Location: Publisher. Number of pages, or pages cited.
� Hille, Bertil. 1992. Ionic Channels of Excitable Membranes. Second Edition.
Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. 607p.
� Author(s). Year. Title of Article. Journal, volume number, pages.
� Huxley, A.F. and R. Stämpfli. 1949. Evidence for salutatory conduction in
peripheral myelinated nerve fibres. J Physiol. (Lond.) 108: 315-339.
o Web page:
� Name of web page. Creator or publisher. Subject. Web address.
� The Animated Brain. Brainviews, Ltd. Saltatory conduction. http://
o Lecture or information from a teacher.
� Name of teacher(alphabetically, by last name). The exact date and topic of the
lecture (including the course in which it was given).
� Or for individual answers to questions you asked a teacher, you can call it
“personal communication” and give the date.
€ Do not use Wikipedia as a resource site; however you may read it to gain understanding.
Laboratory skills are assessed summatively over the course of the entire IB Biology course. Your
teacher will be watching to see if you:
€ Follow directions carefully
€ Do not fabricate data
€ Seek assistance when appropriate (independence is encouraged)
€ Consistently carry out proper safety measures
€ Effectively use a variety of biological techniques
€ Properly use experimental equipment
€ Safely dispose and reduce waste
€ Work in the lab in a way that does not put yourself or others in harms way
€ Follow the IBO animal experimentation policy
I have reviewed the IB Biology Syllabus & the Classroom Rules & Procedures with my daughter/son. I understand
that in order for him/her to be successful this year at AISL I will need to provide a quiet study environment at home.
In addition, I will encourage and communicate with her/him about homework, assignments, and their
responsibilities. I will also set up and use Managebac & EdLine to monitor my student’s progress in all his/her
classes. I understand my student’s job this year is to take a serious approach to his/her studies, cooperate with peers,
stay on task, be willing to listen and follow directions, be responsible for him/herself, and be able to maintain their
work habits without supervision.
Parent/Guardian #1 Print Name Parent/Guardian #2 Print Name
Parent/Guardian #1 Signature Parent/Guardian #2 Signature
Phone # Parent #1 Phone # Parent #2
Email address Parent #1 Email address Parent #2
I have reviewed the IB Biology Syllabus & the Classroom Rules & Procedures with my parent/guardian. I
understand that I am the most important stakeholder in my education and future; whether or not I have a successful
year depends on my actions. My job this year is to take a serious approach to studies, cooperate with peers, stay on
task, be willing to listen and follow directions, be responsible for myself, and be able to maintain work habits
without supervision. I also understand the importance of being proactive and using online resources to check grades
and self-monitor my progress; it is my responsibility to ask if there is anything that I am unsure about.
Print Student Name
Student Signature Date