IB Biology IA Lab - ddissell


IB Biology IA Lab - ddissell

Group 4 Aims

Through studying any of the group 4 subjects, students should become aware of how scientists work and

communicate with each other. While the “scienti�c method” may take on a wide variety of forms, it is the emphasis

on a practical approach through experimental work that distinguishes the group 4 subjects from other disciplines

and characterizes each of the subjects within group 4.

It is in this context that all the Diploma Program experimental science courses should aim to:

1. provide opportunities for scienti�c study and creativity within a global context that will stimulate and challenge


2. provide a body of knowledge, methods and techniques that characterize science and technology

3. enable students to apply and use a body of knowledge, methods and techniques that characterize science and


4. develop an ability to analyze, evaluate and synthesize scienti�c information

5. engender an awareness of the need for, and the value of, effective collaboration and communication during

scienti�c activities

6. develop experimental and investigative scienti�c skills

7. develop and apply the students’ information and communication technology skills in the study of science

8. raise awareness of the moral, ethical, social, economic and environmental implications of using science and


9. develop an appreciation of the possibilities and limitations associated with science and scientists

10. encourage an understanding of the relationships between scienti�c disciplines and the overarching nature of the

scienti�c method.

Syllabus Outline

Semester (Year) Topic SL Hours HL Hours

Fall (Year 1) Topic 1: Statistical Analysis 2 2

Fall (Year 1) Topic 5: Ecology & Evolution 16 16

Fall (Year 1) Topic 3, 7, & 8: Biochemistry 15 26

Fall (Year 1) Topic 2: Cells 12 12

Spring (Year 1) Option: Evolution 15 22

Spring (Year 1) Topic 4: Genetics 15 15

Spring (Year 1) Topic 10: Genetics II ----- 6

Fall (Year 2) Topic 9: Plant Science ----- 11

Fall (Year 2) Topic 6 & 11: Human Health & Physiology 20 37

spring (Year 2) Selected Option 15 22

The group 4 project

The group 4 project is an interdisciplinary activity in which all Diploma Program science students must

participate. The intention is that students from the different group 4 subjects analyze a common topic

or problem. The exercise should be a collaborative experience where the emphasis is on the processes

involved in scienti�c investigation rather than the products of such investigation.

In most cases all students in a school would be involved in the investigation of the same topic. Where

there are large numbers of students, it is possible to divide them into several smaller groups containing

representatives from each of the science subjects. Each group may investigate the same topic or different

topics—that is, there may be several group 4 projects in the same school.

IB Grading

IB Internal Assessment - 24% of Grade

The IA consists of specific labs using skills acquired throughout the first year of IB. The best 2/3

scores in 3 broad categories will be sent to IB: Design, Data Collecting & Processing, and

Conclusion & Evaluation. One lab will be completed at the end of year 1 and the others will be

accomplished in each semester of year 2.

IB External Assessment - 76% of Grade

Paper 1 - HL - 20% SL - 20%

Paper 1 is made up of multiple-choice questions that test knowledge of the core only for students at SL and

the core and AHL material for students at HL. The questions are designed to be short, one- or two-stage

problems that address objectives 1 and 2 (see the “Objectives” section). No marks are deducted for incorrect

responses. Calculators are not permitted, but students are expected to carry out simple calculations.

Paper 2 - HL - 36% SL - 32%

Paper 2 tests knowledge of the core only for students at SL and the core and AHL material for students at HL.

The questions address objectives 1, 2 and 3 and the paper is divided into two sections.

In section A, there is a data-based question that requires students to analyze a given set of data. The

remainder of section A is made up of short-answer questions.

In section B, students at SL are required to answer one question from a choice of three, and students at

HL are required to answer two questions from a choice of four. These extended-response questions may

involve writing a number of paragraphs, solving a substantial problem, or carrying out a substantial piece of

analysis or evaluation. A calculator is required for this paper.

Paper 3 - HL - 20% SL - 24%

Paper 3 tests knowledge of the options and addresses objectives 1, 2 and 3. Students at SL are required

to answer several short-answer questions in each of the two options studied. Students at HL are required

to answer several short-answer questions and an extended-response question in each of the two options

studied. A calculator is required for this paper.

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~ 20% Final Exam

~ 70% Major Assignments - Tests, Labs, Projects/

Activities, Reading Analysis, Study Guide

~ 10% Minor Assignments - Notebook Checks & Daily


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Levels of Thinking

■ Remembering: Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant

knowledge from long-term memory.

■ Understanding: Constructing meaning from oral, written, and

graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying,

summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.

■ Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or


■ Analyzing: Breaking material into constituent parts, determining

how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or

purpose through differentiating, organizing, and attributing.

■ Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards

through checking and critiquing.


Students will be Students will be expected

expected to review

notes and learn IB_syllabus basic

to answer questions drawn

from Private past to IB only exams. me

knowledge nightly. Every exam is a

There will be pop

quizzes often to

comprehensive exam.

establish accountability ~ 70-80% new material

and positive work habits. ~ 20-30% past material

Class time is devoted to achieving higher levels of

thinking & labs, rather than reviewing basic facts.

■ Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or

functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or

structure through generating, planning, or producing.

Save in Google Docs Share 

Late Work Penalties

Type of


1 Day


2 Days


> 2 Days


Study Guide 0 Points 0 Points 0 Points




Video &



40% Penalty

Graded for IB



40% Rule

Not Graded



40% Rule

Not Graded



0 Points 0 Points 0 Points

Notebook 0 Points 0 Points 0 Points


Textbook (Campbell, Biology)

IB Biology Reference Guide

Mechanical Pencil

8G Memory Stick

Colored Pencils

Lab Notebook - (School Store)

Composition Notebook

Home Computer with Internet

Academic Honesty

Academic honesty means the use of one's own thoughts and materials in the

writing of papers, taking of tests, and other classroom related activities. Students

intentionally aiding other students in any infraction of the academic honesty policy

are considered equally guilty.

Students are expected to give full credit for the borrowing of other's words or

ideas. Intentional or unintentional use of another's words or ideas without

acknowledging this use constitutes plagiarism.

There are four common forms of plagiarism:

1. The duplication of an author's words without quotation marks and accurate

references or footnotes.

2. The duplication of an author's words or phrases with footnotes or accurate

references, but without quotation marks.

3. The use of an author's ideas in paraphrase without accurate references or


4. Submitting a paper in which exact words are merely rearranged even though

they are the same is misrepresentation. Misrepresentation is the submission

of materials for evaluation that are not the student's own.

Paperless Classroom

Classroom Task Media Transformation & Storage End Product

Virtual Notebook www.edmodo.com

Science Reading Analysis Sign on as a student.

Put in your group code.

Lab Notes

Set up your profile.

Video Notes

Screen Cast

Self-Quizzing Results


Podcast Project

iMovie Project

Virtual Notebook

Reading Analysis Report

Lab Report

Get Parent Code from Teacher.

Video Analysis

Parents register.

Jing Link to assignment dropbox

Memory Stick

Quiz Results


Grades Edline Grades

Screencast Jing


Podcast Presentation

iMovie Presentation

Khan Academy Style Lesson.

Daily Reflection/Summary Log Review Log reflecting the main ideas from

Twitter each day and different members of class.

Article & Video Reviews

Test Question Posting

Take a Poll



IA Lab Reports + Paper Copy Managebac IA Lab Reports

Lab Report


Thought-Provoking Review Questions

Use Poll to facilitate a discussion.

Lab Report

Forms, Rubrics, & Quest Requirements Mr. Dissell’s Wiki Resources & Organization

BioLevel 1 Assessments Quia Scores & Experience Points

You are responsible for one month -1



























Science Article Guidelines

> 3 pages long.

Required Source

Professional Science Magazines

- Scientific American

- Discover

- American Scientist

- Nature

- Natural History

Video Review Guide A

1. What scientific concepts/principles were used in the video?

2. Did the video accurately portray the scientific principles? Give an example(s).

3. What was the purpose of the video? How did they accomplish it?

4. Write a brief review of the video & post it through Edmodo.

Writing a movie review is a great way of expressing your opinion of a movie. The purpose of most movie

reviews is to help the reader in determining whether they want to watch, rent or buy the movie. The

review should give enough details about the movie that the reader can make an informed decision, without

giving anyway any essentials such as the plot or any surprises.

1. Watch the movie

The first step in writing the review is to watch the movie. Watch the movie in

a relaxed environment you are familiar with. You do not want to be distracted

by an unfamiliar room. Watching the movie a second time will help you

absorb a lot more detail about the movie. Most movie reviewers take notes

as they watch the movie review.

2. Give your opinion

Most movie reviewers will give their opinion of the movie. This is important

as the reviewer can express the elements of the movie they enjoyed

or disliked. However, as in all good journalism, the reviewer should also give

impartial details, and allow the reader to make their own mind over an issue

the reader liked or disliked. Opinions should be explained to allow the reader

to determine whether they would agree with your opinion .

Many regular movie reviewers will develop a following. If one can find a

reviewer who shares a similar taste in films, one can confidently follow the

reviewers recommendations.

3. Who is your audience?

You need to consider who your likely readers are. Writing a movie review

for children requires a different approach than if writing for a movie club.

Ensure you report on the factors that matter to your likely audience.

4. Give an outline

Video Review Guide B

Give the outline of the movie, but don't give away essential details such as

the end or any surprises. If there is a big surprise you want to entice readers

by telling them something special happens, just don't say what.

Mr. Dissellʼs

Mr. Dissell’s Managebac.

Grading Translation for IA

17-18 = A

13-16 = B

9-12 = C

6-8 = D

15% = On Time

American International School Lagos





Data Collection and Processing

IA Check-List

Aspect 1: Define the Problem and Select the Variables

Research Ques+on or Aim clearly stated

RQ/Aim includes IV and DV

Background to inves+ga+on included

IV correctly iden+fied with units/ range

DV correctly iden+fied with units and


Aspect 2: Controlling Variables

Method to manipulate IV, including specific

details of range or increments

Method for recording results, including units and

uncertainty of tools (± __________ )

Annotated photo of equipment or experimental


Full cita+on of published protocol, if used

If a hypothesis is required:

It is quan+ta+ve

Predic+on is explained using scien+fic


Sources are cited

Includes Null Hypothesis (HO)

Controlled variables presented as a table:

List all variables to be controlled For each


How could it impact the results? Exactly how

will it be controlled?

Aspect 3: Developing a Method for Collection of Sufficient Relevant Data

How will results be presented? Reason.

What sta+s+cal test(s) will be used? Why?

Does plan to collect data address RQ?

Explain how range of IV was selected.

Aspect 1: Recording Raw Data

Table presents only raw, unmodified data

Data table +tle outlines the inves+ga+on

Units of IV and DV present and correct

Uncertain+es correct (± ___________ )

All data are recorded correctly

Aspect 2: Processing Raw Data

Calcula+ons to determine DV carried out, if


Calcula+ons or sta+s+cal tests appropriate to

inves+ga+on and address RQ

Mathema+cs correctly applied

Worked example calcula+ons given

Aspect 3: Presenting Processed Data

Separate processed data tables from raw data

tables for clarity of presenta+on

Titles self-­‐explanatory and complete

Consistent decimal places

Uncertain+es/ errors included

Appropriate choice of graph

Graphs clear, no funny coloring


Attempted/Inaccurate or Incomplete


Sufficient repeats (3-­‐5) at each increment to

ensure reliability and allow for stats.

Method clearly presented in step-­‐wise format and

can be repeated by others.

Safety/ ethics concerns addressed, including

animal experimenta,on policy.

Decimal points consistent throughout Decimal

points consistent with precision of the measuring


Associated qualita+ve data (observa+ons).

MUST be recorded or zero awarded.

Processed data (and decimal places)

consistent with precision of recorded data

Standard devia+ons included where


Axes labeled clearly, including metric/ SI units and

uncertain+es of values

Axes scaled appropriately

Error bars included, unless insignificant

Error bar source (e.g. standard devia+on) stated

and data are correct

Best fit line produced by you, not by computer.

Conclusion & Evaluation


Aspect 1: Concluding

Pa^erns and trends in data stated, with

reference to the graph/ tables.

Comparisons, if appropriate, are made

Data related to hypothesis or RQ – to what

extent to they agree/ disagree?

Scien+fic explana+on for results

Associated qualita+ve data add value to


Aspect 2: Evaluating Procedures

Reference to error bars (or STDEV) with

regard to suggested reliability of results

Explana+on of reliability of results

Are data sufficient to address the RQ?

Was the range of the IV appropriate?

Explain any anomalous data points.

Associated qualita+ve data where


Aspect 3: Improving the Investigation

Appropriate language used “Supports

my hypothesis” (not ‘proves’ or ‘is correct’)

Comparison with published data, if


Sources cited appropriately

Evaluate random biological varia:on,

measurement/ instrument errors, systema:c

error (problems with the method) in terms of:

Possible effect on data

Significance of the weakness or limita+on in

terms of the data set (This can be clearly

presented in a table).

For each weakness or limita+on men+oned above, how could improved experimental design

remove or reduce the impact of the error in terms of:

Techniques used to collect and record data, including precision of equipment

Design of the inves+ga+on, including range of values chosen and repeats of each IV data point

Realis+c and achievable improvements

IB Biology IA Lab “Tool-Kit” Name: ______________________

There are two main types of investigations that you will perform in IB biology:

1. Experiments are studies that allow scientists to manipulate a variable and observe its effects. For

example: Does changing light affect the growth of radishes? Experiments are powerful studies

because they can establish whether a variable influences or determines an outcome.

2. Sometimes experiments are neither possible nor desirable. Human subjects, for example, are

often unsuitable for experimentation for ethical reasons. Jane Goodall, wishing to discover the

behavior and social structure of chimpanzees in their natural habitat, did not perform experiments

with her subjects but instead observed them with minimal human interference. When subjects are

studied “as is” rather than manipulated in controlled settings, they are part of descriptive


The purpose of writing a lab report is to determine how well you performed your investigation, how much

you understood what happened during the process, and how well you can convey that information in an

organized fashion. Remember that lab reports are individual assignments. You may have had a lab

partner, but the work that you do and report on should be your own.


� Raw data must be collected in a bound lab book

Lab must be typed or neatly hand written

� Title of lab is clear and relevant

� 1.5 line spacing

� Logical order, with clear headings

� The spelling, grammar, and flow of the writing must be understandable. When you write a lab

report, you will have already performed the investigation. Please use the past tense throughout

the paper.

DESIGN ASPECT 1: Defining the Problem and Selecting Variables

� Include a Background Information section. Introduce and explain the biological principles and/or

concepts that are being investigated. Exhibit an independent understanding of what you did in lab

and why you did it. Provide the scientific name of the organism being investigated (Genus


� State the PROBLEM QUESTION (PQ). Be sure your problem question is focused enough so that it

specifically states what was under investigation in the experiment. If a controlled experiment was

done, the manipulated and responding variables must be clearly identified. Often, but not always,

written as, “What is the effect of __MV__ on __RV__?”

� In the case of a true experiment, you need to explain what you changed between groups, the

Manipulated Variable. Indicate the manipulated variable and list the levels of the MV that you

included in your experimental protocol. Provide the unit for your MV. Typically you should have a

minimum of 5 levels of the MV. Explain how the range of levels of your MV was selected. If you

performed a descriptive study, explain why no variable was or could be manipulated.

� You need to explain what was measured, the Responding Variable. List what was measured (both

qualitative and quantitative data) and explain how it was measured. Provide the unit for your RV.

If no qualitative data was collected, say so, and explain why qualitative data was not gathered.

� For true experiments in which you are determining the effect of a MV on and RV, you need to

include a hypothesis. A hypothesis is like a prediction. It will often take the form of a proposed

relationship between two or more variables that can be tested by experiment. Hypothesis

statements are often written as: If __describe MV_manipulation__, then ____explain expected

result on the RV___. You must also provide an explanation for your hypothesis. This should be a

brief discussion (paragraph form) about the science behind your hypothesis and prediction. You

should site credible references that support your explanation (see section on citations)

DESIGN ASPECT 2: Controlling Variables

€ At least three CONTROLLED VARIABLES are required, but more may be necessary. The

controlled variables you list must be relevant to your investigation. You need to control for all

variables that may reasonably affect the outcome of the investigation. Materials used and

measurement techniques are NOT controlled variables (they are validity measures).

While materials and techniques must be consistent, a true variable is something that could

directly influence the responding variable, not just how it is measured.

€ You must explain why and how variables were controlled. When explaining why a variable

needs to be controlled, describe how the variable could impact the results if it was not

controlled. Often times, students create a table to organize this information:

CONTROLLED VARIABLES WHY in must be controlled HOW it was controlled




DESIGN ASPECT 3: Developing a Method for Collection of Data

€ Make a list of the MATERIALS needed in the investigation. Be as specific as possible

(example: ’50 mL beaker’ instead of ‘beaker’); include the volumes of tubes and cylinders, the

concentrations of solutions, the model and manufacturer of any complex apparatus. If you

have to decide how much of a substance or a solution to use, state your reasoning or show the


€ Include a DIAGRAM OR PHOTOGRAPH of how you set up the experiment. Be sure your

diagram includes a title and any necessary labels. It is recommended that this be annotated to

illustrate how the variables were involved.

€ State or discuss the PROCEDURE that you used in the experiment. Be sure your procedure

explains how you changed the manipulated variable. This can be in paragraph form or a list of

step-by-step directions. Provide enough detail so that another person could repeat your work

by reading your report.

o If you use a known, published protocol than you must provide a full citation as a reference.

o Your procedure must include a few VALIDITY MEASURES (i.e. cleaning test tubes prior to

use, cleaning the microscope lenses, using the same ruler…). Validity measures are things

kept constant to make sure experimental measurements are valid and consistent.

o Your procedure must CLEARLY STATE HOW YOU COLLECTED DATA. What measuring

device did you use, what data did you record, when did you collect data? What qualitative

observations did you look for?

o Explain how you set up the investigation so you had MULTIPLE TRIALS of data collection.

The procedure must allow collection of “sufficient relevant data”. The definition of “sufficient

relevant data” depends on the context. The planned investigation should anticipate the

collection of enough data so that the problem question can be suitably addressed and an

evaluation of the reliability of the data can be made. As a rule, the lower limit is a sample

size of five. Very small samples run from 5 to 20, small samples run from 20 to 30, and big

samples run from 30 upwards. Obviously, this will vary within the limits of the time available

for an investigation.

o If you will be COMBINING DATA with data collected by other students in the class, you should

indicate that, “pooling data was done to ensure collection of significant, relevant data” (IB

Biology subject guide, 2009, page 26). Be sure to cite this reference if you pool data.

o If you are SAMPLING only a portion of a population, you must explain how and why you

ensured that the sample was randomly selected.

o Your procedure must be safe and ethical. Organisms, including humans, can not be subject to

harm in your investigation. List any SAFETY PRECAUTIONS that were taken during the lab.

If necessary, address the IBO animal experimentation policy.


€ Create a formal DATA TABLE in which to present the raw, unmodified data you collected. Be sure

your table:

o Is easy to understand

o Has a specific title

o Tables are titled in sequential order as “Table 1: title.” “Table 2: title”

o Has column headings

o Includes the unit of measurement of the MV and RV (always in metric units)

o Includes the measurement uncertainty of the measurement tools used (or, if the data was a

count, indicates that “counts have no measurable uncertainty”). Uncertainly is usually

stated in a column heading or as a footnote at the bottom of the table.

o Has a consistent and correct number of digits for each measurement

o Has decimal points aligning down a column (if applicable) and numbers centered in the


o Indicates which data was collected by which student IF the data was collected and pooled

across multiple students.

€ Your report must include QUALITATIVE DATA. This might be a paragraph in which you describe

the qualitative observations and results in general or be specific qualitative data for each trial that

is presented in table form.

€ LAB DRAWINGS are considered data by the IB Organization. Not all labs will include a lab

drawing. However, when included, please be sure your lab drawings:

o Are done with a sharp pencil line on white, unlined paper.

o Have the drawing occupy at least half a page, centered on the page.

o Include labels written off straight, horizontal lines to the right of the side of the drawing.

The labels should form a vertical list.

o Are accurate. Draw what you see; as you see it, not what you imagine should be there.

o Include a title that states what has been drawn and what lens power it was drawn under.

The title must be informative, centered, and larger than other text.

o Has a scale that indicates how many times larger the drawing is compared to life size and a

scale line that indicates relative size.


€ STATISTICS are useful mathematical tools which are used to analyze data. Common statistics

used in biology are:

o Mean

o Range

o Median

o Percent change

o Standard deviation (to determine amount of variation around a mean)

o T-test (to compare two means to determine if they are statistically different from each

other). When a t-test is calculated, you must indicate the significance level at which your

critical T value is determined (we typically use the 95% confidence interval, 0.05).

o Chi-square (to determine if “observed” results are significantly different from “expected”


Use only the statistical tests appropriate to investigate and address your problem question.

€ For each statistic you calculate, you must EXPLAIN WHY YOU ELECTED TO DO THAT

CALCULATION. What does the calculation tell you about the data?


€ Show an EXAMPLE CALCULATION for each statistic you calculate. Use plenty of room; make

sure they are labeled, are clear and are legible. Show the units of measurements in all

calculations. Pay attention to the number of digits! Don’t lose accuracy by carelessly rounding

off. Round only at the end of a calculation. Do not truncate.

€ Present your data processing results in a TABLE. The initial raw data and the processed

(calculated) data may be shown in one table provided they are clearly distinguishable. Be sure

your processed data table:

o Is easy to understand

o Has a specific title

o Has column headings

o Includes the unit of measurement

o Has a consistent and correct number of digits for each measurement (to the same

precision as your raw data)

o Has decimal points aligning down a column (if applicable) and numbers centered in the


€ You must also present your results in a GRAPH.

o Use the correct type of graph for the type of data you are presenting.

o Graphs must be clear and easy to understand. Please avoid “creative” or “funny”

coloring of graphs.

o Graphs need to have appropriate scales, labeled axes with units, and accurately plotted

data points.

o Graphs are titled in sequential order as “Figure 1: title.” “Figure 2: title”

o If necessary, add smooth lines or curves to show the overall trend of the data.

o If a mean is calculated, only graph the mean, not all data points. When a mean is

graphed, its associated standard deviation error bar must also be included (and labeled

as such).

o Legends (keys) are not always necessary. Delete “series 1” and “series 2” boxes from

graphs created in Excel.


€ Write one (or more) paragraphs in which you DRAW CONCLUSIONS FROM YOUR RESULTS.

Your conclusion should be clearly related to the research question and the purpose of the


o Answer the problem question (if you used a T-test, be sure your conclusion matches

what the T-test tells you; don’t say there is a difference if the T-test says the difference

is insignificant).

o Was your hypothesis supported or refuted? Use the appropriate language, i.e. “Supports

my hypothesis” (not ‘proves’ or ‘is correct’).

o Provide a brief explanation as to how you came to this conclusion from your results. In

other words, sum up the evidence and explain observations, trends or patterns revealed

by the data. Summarize the processed data: mean, range and standard deviation.

Refer directly to tables and graphs by referencing tables and figures (i.e. “as seen in

Figure 1…”)

o Summarize the results of the T-test: was the effect of the MV significant or not?

€ If possible, CITE LITERATURE related to your conclusion. Does you result coincide with

published results? Does it refute published results?


€ In general, how much CONFIDENCE do you have in the results? Avoid giving your confidence

as a percentage; use words such as “very” or “somewhat.” Are your results fairly conclusive,

or are other interpretations/results possible?

€ Why are you (or aren’t you) confident? What did you do to make sure your results are valid?

Was the range of the MV levels appropriate? Was the data collected relevant to the problem


€ Explain any anomalous data points

€ Identify and discuss significant ERRORS that actually affected your data collection. You must

identify the source of error and tie it to how it likely affected your results. Avoid hypothetical

errors (“could have” or “I might have”) without evidence to back it up. Common errors


o Human error: Human error can occur when tools or instruments are used or read

incorrectly. Human errors can be systematic because the experimenter does not know

how to use the apparatus properly or they can be random because the power of

concentration of the experimenter is fading. Automated measuring using a data-logger

system can help reduce the likelihood of this error; alternatively you can take a break

from measuring from time to time. Do not list time constraints or time management as

errors - they should be eliminated with good practical skills. The focus here should be on

the investigation.

o Calibration error: Some instruments need calibrating before you use them. If this is

done incorrectly it can increase the risk of systematic error.

o Random errors: In biological investigations, the changes in the material used or the

conditions in which they are carried out can cause a lot of errors. Biological material is

notably variable.

o The act of measuring: Could the measurement uncertainty have affected the results?

Why or why not?

o Uncontrolled variables: What variables were not controlled? What effect might each of

these uncontrolled variables have had on your data? On the conclusion?

o Systematic errors: could the measurement uncertainty have affected the results? Why

or why not? Did systematic errors affect the data? The conclusion?

Errors and their effect on the results can be clearly presented in a table.

€ What are the LIMITATIONS of your conclusion? Can the results be generalized to other

situations/conditions? How might your results explain a process in the “real world”?


€ What could you do to make IMPROVEMENTS to the investigation? Suggestions for

improvements should be based on the weaknesses and limitations identified in aspect 2.

€ As appropriate, address modifications to the experimental technique and the data range.

€ Propose only realistic and specific modifications. “More time” and “be more careful” are



€ It is permissible in the design and conclusion sections to use brief quotations. Sometimes a book

or reference has a phrase or sentence that expresses exactly the thought you are trying to

convey; you may use that phrase or sentence IF you use quotation marks and cite a reference at

the end of the sentence. It is NOT appropriate to borrow extensive passages (more than two

sentences) from a text or web site. You should also acknowledge where ideas or knowledge not

originally your own come from, even if you state your understanding of the idea in your own

words. This is usually done by putting the first author’s last name and the date of the paper, or

the page of a textbook, in parentheses at the end of the sentence containing the idea.

€ Any source you mention in the text of your paper should be included in a list of references in a

separate section at the end of the paper. These references are usually listed in alphabetical order

by the first author’s last name. Make sure all the authors of a paper or book are listed, and

include the title of the book or article, the journal or publisher (and place), and the date. If you

used just part of a book, indicate the chapter or pages used. For web sites, give the exact

electronic address and any other information you have about it (the author, the name of the

organization that sponsors the site). Examples:

o Book:

� Author(s). Year. Title. Location: Publisher. Number of pages, or pages cited.

� Hille, Bertil. 1992. Ionic Channels of Excitable Membranes. Second Edition.

Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. 607p.

o Article:

� Author(s). Year. Title of Article. Journal, volume number, pages.

� Huxley, A.F. and R. Stämpfli. 1949. Evidence for salutatory conduction in

peripheral myelinated nerve fibres. J Physiol. (Lond.) 108: 315-339.

o Web page:

� Name of web page. Creator or publisher. Subject. Web address.

� The Animated Brain. Brainviews, Ltd. Saltatory conduction. http://


o Lecture or information from a teacher.

� Name of teacher(alphabetically, by last name). The exact date and topic of the

lecture (including the course in which it was given).

� Or for individual answers to questions you asked a teacher, you can call it

“personal communication” and give the date.

€ Do not use Wikipedia as a resource site; however you may read it to gain understanding.


Laboratory skills are assessed summatively over the course of the entire IB Biology course. Your

teacher will be watching to see if you:

€ Follow directions carefully

€ Do not fabricate data

€ Seek assistance when appropriate (independence is encouraged)

€ Consistently carry out proper safety measures

€ Effectively use a variety of biological techniques

€ Properly use experimental equipment

€ Safely dispose and reduce waste

€ Work in the lab in a way that does not put yourself or others in harms way

€ Follow the IBO animal experimentation policy

Parent/Guardian Contract:

Parent-Student Contract

I have reviewed the IB Biology Syllabus & the Classroom Rules & Procedures with my daughter/son. I understand

that in order for him/her to be successful this year at AISL I will need to provide a quiet study environment at home.

In addition, I will encourage and communicate with her/him about homework, assignments, and their

responsibilities. I will also set up and use Managebac & EdLine to monitor my student’s progress in all his/her

classes. I understand my student’s job this year is to take a serious approach to his/her studies, cooperate with peers,

stay on task, be willing to listen and follow directions, be responsible for him/herself, and be able to maintain their

work habits without supervision.

Parent/Guardian #1 Print Name Parent/Guardian #2 Print Name

Parent/Guardian #1 Signature Parent/Guardian #2 Signature

Phone # Parent #1 Phone # Parent #2

Email address Parent #1 Email address Parent #2

Student Contract:

I have reviewed the IB Biology Syllabus & the Classroom Rules & Procedures with my parent/guardian. I

understand that I am the most important stakeholder in my education and future; whether or not I have a successful

year depends on my actions. My job this year is to take a serious approach to studies, cooperate with peers, stay on

task, be willing to listen and follow directions, be responsible for myself, and be able to maintain work habits

without supervision. I also understand the importance of being proactive and using online resources to check grades

and self-monitor my progress; it is my responsibility to ask if there is anything that I am unsure about.


Print Student Name


Student Signature Date

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