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e- Reflection 3rd Issue - Edupublication

Volume - I, Issue - III, July – August, 2012

ISSN 2278 – 120X

e – Reflection

An International Multidisciplinary Peer Reviewed E Journal

(Bi-monthly)

1 Teaching Strategies Based On Humanistic

Psychology

2 Qualitative Reform in Learning: Issues and

Problems

3

Mid-Day Meals Scheme: Achieving Right To

Education And Right To Food

Simultaneously

4 Effectiveness Of Problem Based Learning

On M.Ed. Students

5

Adjusted And Non-Adjusted Decision-

93-104

105-121

122-130

131-139

Making Styles Among Adolescents 140-151

6 Investment in Education: A Panacea for

National Economic Vibrancy

152-163

Editor – in- Chief

Prof R G Kothari

Executive Editor

Dr J R Sonwane

i


Editor- in - chief

Prof. R G Kothari

Professor, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda,

Vadodara Gujarat

Former Vice-chancellor, VNSG University, Gujarat, INDIA

Executive Editor

Dr J R Sonwane

Associate Professor, Bhavnagar University, Gujarat, INDIA

Member of Editorial Board

Dr Bharat Joshi

Dr Dhanjay Joshi

Dr Dilip Barad

Dr Nidhi Agrawal

Dr Tapan Basantia

Dr Kamaljeet Singh

Dr Vijay Grover

Dr Shirish Pal Singh

Dr Sanjeev Kumar

Dr Manoj Saxena

Dr Amarendra Behra

Dr Ajay Surana

Dr S. Fransisca

Dr Samson Olusola

Dr Manas Panigrahi

Dr Jacinta Opara

Dr Nkasiobi Silas

Oguzor

Dr Austin N. Nosike

Professor, Gujarat Vidyapeeth, Ahmedabad, Gujarat

Associate Professor, GGSIPU University , Delhi

HOD, Dept of English, Bhavnagar University, Gujarat

HOD, INMANTEC, Ghaziabad, UP

Assistant Professor, Assam University, Silchur, Assam

Assistant Professor, Punjabi University, Punjab

Assistant Professor, Punjab University, Chandigarh

Assistant Director, IGNOU, New Delhi

Associate Professor, Patna University, Bihar

Associate Professor, Central University of HP, Dharamshala

Associate Professor, CIET, NCERT, New Delhi

Associate Professor, Banasthali University, Rajasthan

Associate Professor, St. Ignatius’ College of Education,

Tirunelveli, TN

Associate Professor, Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria

Associate Professor, Haramaya University, Ethiopia, Africa

Associate Professor, Universidad Azteca, Chalco-Mexico

Federal College of education(Technology), Omoku-Nigeria

The Granda Management Institute, Granada, Spain

ii


Content

1 Teaching Strategies Based On Humanistic Psychology

Dr. H. M. Kasinath

2 Qualitative Reform in Learning: Issues and Problems

Dr. Anjali Khirwadkar

Praful Mogera

3 Mid-Day Meals Scheme: Achieving Right to Education

and Right to Food Simultaneously

Nisha Rani

4 Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning on M.Ed.

Students

Dr J R Sonwane

5 Adjusted And Non-Adjusted Decision-Making Styles

Among Adolescents

Vidhi Bhalla

92-104

105-121

122-130

131-139

140-151

6 Investment in Education: A Panacea for National

Economic Vibrancy

Ezekiel O. Akpan

Allen Anthony Ozuruoke

152-163

Reviewers of the issue (e- Reflection, Vol- I, Issue- III):

Prof. R G Kothari

Prof. B H Joshi

Dr. Jacinta Opara

Dr Manas Panigrahi

Dr Manoj Saxena

Dr J R Sonwane

Dr Fransisca

93


Teaching Strategies Based On Humanistic

Psychology

Dr. H. M. Kasinath

Professor and Chairman,

Post-Graduate Department of Studies in Education,

Karnatak University, Dharwad (Karnataka) INDIA

Abstract

Proponents of humanistic psychology such as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers felt that

neither behavioural nor Freudian psychology adequately explained why people act as they

do. They believed that each human being has an internal force that causes all of them to

grow, develop, and fulfill their potential. This ‘growth principle’ energizes and directs all

human behaviour. Based on their beliefs that healthy human beings seek fulfilling

experiences, Abraham Maslow proposed that parents and teachers should let children to

grow intellectually, socially, and emotionally by satisfying their basic needs and allowing

them to make choices about their own development. Based on his experiences with

client–centered therapy, Carl Rogers proposed that teachers be more learner–centered.

This involves establishing a trusting, acceptant environment in which the teacher is

genuine and empathize with the student’s point of view. Other humanists like Arthur

Combs proposed that teachers should try to understand learning tasks from the student’s

point of view and help each student to develop a positive self-concept. C. H.

Patterson criticized the emphasis on technological approaches to teaching. George Brown

proposed that teachers practice confluent education, which he described as a flowing

together of affective and cognitive elements in individual and group learning. Thomas

Gordon suggested that teachers use two humanistic techniques: determining who “owns”

a problem and conveying I-messages. The point of both techniques is to indicate

awareness and acceptance of feelings. In order to help the students to determine who

owns a particular problem, Gordon suggests that, listen actively to student concerns, and

adopt the no-lose method. This method calls the teacher and misbehaving student to

discuss the situation and formulate a mutually agreeable solution. William Purkey

stressed that learning depends on how students perceive themselves and urged teachers to

encourage invitational learning by communicating to students that they are responsible,

able, and valuable. It will encourage feelings of self-worth among students.

Key words. Teaching Strategies, Humanistic Psychology, Confluent Education, I-message, No-

Lose Method, Problem Ownership and Invitational Learning.

92


Humanistic Theory of Development

The humanistic theory of development

holds that human beings are to be

described in terms of potentials which

have the capacity for growth or

actualization, and the capacity for

harmonious or integrative relationships

with one another. The wellsprings of the

humanistic theory of development lie in

three bodies of philosophical thought:

humanism, existentialism, and

phenomenology. Its conceptual refinement

and application, however, occur in such

fields as education, psychology, religion,

sociology and so on. Among the major

contributors to this theory of development

are: G. W. Allport, A. Angyal, C. Buhler,

A.W. Combs, E. Fromm, K. Goldstein, I.

J. Gordon, A. H. Maslow, R. May, C.

Moustakas, C. Rogers, and others.

Humanistic psychology emerged as

a more genuine science of man. It deals

with man’s abilities to think, experience

feelings and make decisions. Thus,

concepts such as love, fear, happiness,

humour, choice, beliefs, trust, values, etc.,

are to be incorporated into psychological

theory. It is an approach to psychology that

reacts against thinking about human

behaviour as a response to either the

environment or internal instincts and

instead examines the total person –

intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal –

and how these factors affect learning and

motivation. Humanists emphasize personal

freedom, choice, self-determination, and

striving for personal growth. They are

concerned with describing activities from

the viewpoint of the person rather than the

observer. There is a concern with the

growth of the person in whatever direction

that person chooses or values. Thus,

self-understanding to make better choices

about one’s own directions for growth and

creativity as a means of fulfillment are

central concepts in the humanistic

psychology.

Basic Assumptions of Humanistic

Theory

There is a basic assumption that, in any

situation, a person’s acts depend upon how

he perceives a situation from his own

personal view point. Humanists are

particularly concerned with the way that an

individual views himself and the values

which one prefers in directing and

developing oneself. They called this

process as “self-actualization”, “selffulfillment”,

or “self-realization”. They

emphasize the importance of trusting man

individually to have the capacity and the

93


initiative to grow, to “become”, and to

fulfill himself in such a way as to

contribute to society. It is based on the

assumption that the wholly functioning,

self-actualizing individual would be a

contributor. Learning in true sense is

becoming, and becoming (learning how to

be) fully human is the only true learning.

True learning experiences enables

the learner both to discover his own unique

qualities and to find in himself those

features of loving, caring, experiencing,

and thinking which make him one with all

mankind. Useful learning is that which

pervades the whole person and which is

relevant to one’s personal style, needs, and

human development. Teachers have the

major responsibility of helping students to

become more fully developed human

beings.

Proponents of Humanistic Psychology

Proponents of humanistic psychology such

as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

felt that neither behavioural nor Freudian

psychology adequately explained why

people act as they do. They believed that

each human being has an internal force

that causes all of them to grow, develop,

and fulfill their potential. This ‘growth

principle’ energizes and directs all human

behaviour. Based on their beliefs that

healthy human beings seek fulfilling

experiences, Abraham Maslow proposed

that parents and teachers should let

children to grow intellectually, socially,

and emotionally by satisfying their basic

needs and allowing them to make choices

about their own development. Based on his

experiences with client–centered therapy,

Carl Rogers proposed that teachers be

more learner–centered. This involves

establishing a trusting, acceptant

environment in which the teacher is

genuine and empathize with the student’s

point of view. Other humanists like

Arthur Combs proposed that teachers

should try to understand learning tasks

from the student’s point of view and help

each student to develop a positive selfconcept.

C. H. Patterson criticized the

emphasis on technological approaches to

teaching. George Brown proposed that

teachers practice confluent education,

which he described as a flowing together

of affective and cognitive elements in

individual and group learning. Thomas

Gordon suggested that teachers use two

humanistic techniques: determining who

“owns” a problem and conveying I-

messages. The point of both techniques is

to indicate awareness and acceptance of

94


feelings. In order to help the students to

determine who owns a particular problem,

Gordon suggests that, listen actively to

student concerns, and adopt the no-lose

method. This method calls the teacher and

misbehaving student to discuss the

situation and formulate a mutually

agreeable solution. William Purkey

stressed that learning depends on how

students perceive themselves and urged

teachers to encourage invitational learning

by communicating to students that they are

responsible, able, and valuable. It will

encourage feelings of self-worth among

students.

Humanistic Psychology and Educational

Implications

All humanists endorse the notion that we

act as we do because of the ways in which

we perceive ourselves and the various

situations in which we find ourselves. Four

basic features of humanistic psychology

are:

(i) Behaving and learning are

products of perceiving; (ii) Behaviour

exists in and can be dealt within the

present; (iii) All people have a basic drive

toward health and actualization; and (iv)

Much of a person’s behaviour is the result

of his conception of himself (Combs,

1962).

Humanists contend that education

should foster one’s sensitivity to one’s

feelings and to the feelings of others. They

contend that it is far more important for the

student to learn how to find new

knowledge and to cope with a changing

world than merely to absorb the

information of yesterday and today. Here

the focus is on creating the kind of

emotional and intellectual climate in which

the student can grow intellectually and

affectively. One must understand student

as a unique individual – his style, his

aptitudes, his strengths and weaknesses,

his potentialities, and his good raw

materials. Beyond the accumulation of

facts, skills, knowledge, and even learning

how to cope with life’s changing demands

lies a higher educational objective.

Maslow (1968) suggests that we “think of

the peak – experience, the experience of

awe, mystery, wonder, or of perfect

completion, as the goal and reward of

learning…. its end as well as its

beginning” (p. 695).

Teaching Strategies based on

Humanistic Approaches

Psychologists who were bothered by the

95


impersonal nature of technological and

cognitive approaches to instruction

proposed a variety of humanistic

instructional techniques like Confluent

Education (Brown), Problem Ownership

(Gordon), I-messages (Ginott), No-Lose

Method (Gordon).

i. Confluent Education: George

Isaac Brown described confluent

education, in his book Human

Teaching for Human Learning

(1971) as a flowing together of

affective and cognitive elements in

individual and group learning. He

observed, “It should be apparent

that there is no intellectual learning

without some sort of feeling, and

there are no feelings without the

mind’s being somehow involved”

(p.4). He described some basic

affective techniques (for e.g.,

having individuals explore each

other’s faces with their hands or

forming groups without speaking to

one another) and outlined some

classroom applications. For

instance, a unit in ninth-grade

social studies was introduced with

lectures by the instructor on

theories of the nature of

ii.

humankind. Then, students were

asked to try to discover things

about themselves by examining

their thoughts, perceptions, and

aspirations. Finally, they were

asked to relate what they had

discovered about themselves to

what others had discovered about

the nature of human beings in

general. Toward the end of the

book, Brown also warned readers to

proceed with caution; but he also

urged teachers to try to avoid

presenting affective learning as if it

were isolated from the regular

curriculum.

I-message: Haim Ginott proposed

that teachers use I-messages (tell

how you feel about an unacceptable

situation) when they confront

students about misbehaviour. By

this he meant that the teacher

should explain how he or she feels

about the behaviour of one or more

students rather than defaming the

student’s character. These are

statements that indicate to students

how the teacher feels when

misbehaviour occurs. The aim is to

comment on the situation rather

than on the personality and

96


character of the student. These

statements are clear, nonaccusatory

statements of how something is

affecting the observer. Ginott in

Teacher and Child (1972) offers a

cardinal principle of

communication: “Talk to the

situation, not to the personality and

character” (1972, p. 84). Instead of

making derogatory remarks about

the personalities of two boys who

have just thrown bread at each

other, Ginott suggests that a teacher

deliver an “I-message” explaining

how he or she feels. Don’t say “I

get angry when I see bread thrown

around. This room needs cleaning”.

According to Ginott, guilty students

who are told why a teacher is angry

will realize that the teacher is a real

person, and this realization will

cause them to strive to mend their

ways. Instead of diminishing a

misbehaving pupil’s self-esteem,

try to provide face-saving exits.

Thomas Gordon advocates the use

of “I-messages”, which are verbal

statements with three parts: (i) they

address behaviour rather than

personality; (ii) they describe the

effects on the sender; and (iii) they

iii.

identify the feelings generated in

the sender. He recommends that

teachers send “I” messages in order

to change problem behaviours. This

approach frees students to change

their behaviour voluntarily.

No-Lose Method: In dealing with

classroom conflicts, Thomas

Gordon encourages teachers to use

the no-lose method by which the

teacher and students talk over a

problem and resolve it in a

mutually agreeable way.

If one loses in a conflict, there is

bound to be resentment. If teacher

tell a boy who is disturbing during

the class hour that he must settle

down, he loses. If teacher make an

unsuccessful effort to control him

and then try to cover one’s failure

by ignoring him in class, teacher

loses. Thus, Gordon recommends

that the preferred procedure is to

talk over the problem and come up

with a mutually agreeable

compromise solution. He offers sixstep

procedure for coming up with

no-lose solutions. The teacher and

students come to mutual agreement

97


y following this procedure: (i)

Define the problem; (ii) Generate

possible solutions; (iii) Evaluate the

solutions; (iv) Decide which

solution is best; (v) Determine how

to implement the solution; and (vi)

Assess how well the solution solved

the problem (1974, p. 228).

Trying the No-Lose Method: In

order to put this procedure into

practice, the teacher might engage

in a dialogue with a boy who is

disrupting the class as follows:

Teacher: You’re fooling others in

the class. It looks as if you are

having trouble in settling

down. Any ideas about how

we can both do what we need

to do?

Student: I think this workbook is

useless. I already know how to

do these problems. I’d rather

work on my science project.

Teacher: Well, suppose we shall try

this. You do one page of

problems. If you get them all

correct, we’ll both know you

can do them and you should be

free to work on your science

project. If you make some

mistakes, though, that means

you need more practice.

iv.

Suppose you do a page and

then ask me to check it. Then

we can take it from there. How

does that sound?

In order to put the no-lose method

into effect when the entire class is

upset about something, it is

preferable to follow all six steps

recommended by Gordon. He

suggested that teachers should help

students to determine who owns a

particular problem, listen actively

to student concerns, and adopt the

no-lose method. The no-lose

method calls for the teacher and

misbehaving student to discuss the

situation and formulate a mutually

agreeable compromise solution.

Problem Ownership: A different

analysis of many of the same points

Ginott stresses under I-message is

presented by Thomas Gordon in

Teacher Effectiveness Training

(TET). In TET (1974) teachers are

urged to use I-messages, and to

resort to authority and punishment

only when absolutely necessary.

One procedure recommended by

Gordon is for teachers to try to

determine who owns a problem

before they decide how to handle

98


that problem. If a student

misbehaves by carving on a desk

top, for example, the teacher owns

the problem and must respond by

doing something to stop the

destructive behaviour. But if a

student expresses anger or

disappointment about some

classroom incident (getting a low

grade on an exam), that student

owns the problem. Gordon suggests

that failure to identify problem

ownership may cause teachers to

intensify difficulties unknowingly.

If a student is finding it difficult to

concentrate on schoolwork because

his needs are not satisfied, the

situation will not be improved if the

teacher orders, advices, or

criticizes. Such responses act as

roadblocks to finding solutions to

student-owned problems because

they tend to make the student feel

resentful and misunderstood. The

preferred way to deal with a student

who owns a problem is to use what

Gordon calls active listening. The

listener is active in the sense that

interest is shown and the talker is

encouraged to continue to express

feelings. The listener does not

actively participate by interpreting,

explaining, or directing. The

listener does respond, though, by

recognizing and acknowledging

what the student says.

For teacher-owned problems (those

that involve misbehaviour that is

destructive or in violation of

school regulations) Gordon agrees

with Ginott that I-messages are

appropriate. Instead of ordering,

threatening, moralizing, using

logic, offering solutions, or

commenting on personal

characteristics, Gordon urges

teachers to explain why they are

upset.

Proof of the effectiveness of I-

messages takes the form of

anecdotes reported in TET

provided by teachers who used

them successfully. A principal of a

school for dropouts, for example,

reported that a group of tough boys

responded very favourably when

he told them how upset he became

when he saw them break some

bottles against the school wall.

Almost invariably the anecdotes,

reported in TET refer to the success

of a teachers first try at delivering

99


an I-message.

v. Invitational Learning: In a book

Self-concept and School

Achievement (1970) William W.

Purkey noticed the relationship

between a student’s self-concept

and school achievement and later

stressed the importance of

students’ positive self-perceptions

in Inviting School Success (1984).

Purkey suggests that four student

self-concept factors are likely to

lead to school success: relating (to

others), asserting (or experiencing

a sense of self-control), investing

encouraging students to get

involved with learning and with

classmates), and coping (how well

students meet school expectations).

Thus, Purkey suggests that

teachers try to establish an

atmosphere of warmth and a

cooperative spirit, and that they

convey positive expectations.

Purkey mentions several incidents

in his book Inviting School Success

revealing how a single instance of

personal interest, encouragement,

or trust on the part of a teacher was

reported to have changed a

student’s entire attitude toward

‘self’ and toward ‘school’.

Purkey was bothered by what he

called the factory school

atmosphere engendered by too

much stress on technological

approaches to teaching. He

concluded that the way students

respond in school depends to a

significant extent on how they

perceive themselves and that the

way teachers react influences

student self-perceptions. Students

should experience a sense of

industry rather than inferiority. In

order to encourage students to

experience feelings of positive

self-worth, Purkey recommended

that instructors develop and use

skills of invitational learning.

Purkey (1970) defines an invitation

as “a summary description of

messages – verbal and nonverbal,

formal and informal – continuously

transmitted to students with the

intention of informing them that

they are responsible, able, and

valuable” (p. 3). He outlines

seven skills of invitational

teachers:

100


i. Reaching each student

(for e.g., learning names

and having one-to-one

contact);

ii. Listening with care (for

e.g., picking up subtle

cues);

iii. Being real with students

(for e.g., providing only

realistic praise);

iv. Being real with oneself

(for e.g., honestly

appraising your own

feelings

and

disappointments);

v. Inviting good discipline

(for e.g., showing

students you respect

them);

vi. Handling rejection (for

e.g., not taking lack of

student response in

personal ways); and

vii. Inviting oneself (for

e.g., thinking positively

about oneself).

Conclusion

Maslow, Rogers, and Combs were

prominent leaders of the humanistic

movement. Maslow based his conception

on the study of motivation. Rogers based

his views on his experiences as a

psychotherapist. Combs used the cognitive

view for his speculations. He assumed that

“all behaviour of a person is the direct

result of his field of perceptions at the

moment of his behaving (1965, p. 12).

Thus, a teacher should try to understand

any learning situation from the students’

point of view. It leads to the conclusion

that to help students to learn it is necessary

to influence on their beliefs and

perceptions. Combs placed less emphasis

on cognitive aspects of learning and more

on personal perceptions of the learner.

Combs believed that the way a

person perceives oneself is of paramount

importance and that a basic purpose of

teaching is to help each student to develop

a positive self-concept. He observed, “the

task of the teacher is not one of

prescribing, making, molding, forcing,

coercing, coaxing, or cajoling; it is one of

ministering to a process already in being.

The role required of the teacher is that of

facilitator, encourager, helper, assister,

colleague, and friend of his students”

(1965, p. 16).

Combs (1974) reaffirmed his belief

in a humanistic approach to teaching and

also offered evidence (pp. 175-181) to

support the conclusion that teachers can be

101


helped to increase their sensitivity to

students’ needs, develop self-confidence,

and establish a positive classroom

atmosphere.

The observations of Maslow,

Rogers, Combs, Brown, Gordon, and

Purkey lead to a conception of education

stressing that teachers should trust students

enough to permit them to make many

choices about their own learning. They

should be sensitive to the social and

emotional needs of students, empathize

with them, and respond positively to them.

Although humanistic approaches to

teaching are less popular, nevertheless,

research findings suggest that humanistic

techniques lead to improvement in

achievement, classroom behaviour, selfesteem,

attitudes toward school, and

interpersonal relationships.

Gordon (1974) noted that “the

relationship between a teacher and a

student is good when it has: (i) Openness

or Transparency, so each is able to risk

directness and honesty with the other; (ii)

Caring, when each knows that he is valued

by the other; (iii) Interdependence as

opposed to dependency of one on the

other; (iv) Separateness, to allow each to

grow and to develop his uniqueness,

creativity, and individuality; (v) Mutual

Needs Meeting, so that neither’s needs are

met at the expense of the other’s needs (p.

24).

Finally, teachers should be sincere,

willing to show that they too have needs,

and experience positive feelings about

themselves and what they are doing.

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Sadker, D. (1990). Interpersonal

Communication Skills. In J. Cooper

(Ed.), Classroom Teaching Skills

(pp. 185-228). Lexington, MA:

Heath.

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Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Paper recieved June 10, 2012

Revision received June 25, 2012

Paper accepted June 26, 2012

104


Qualitative Reform in Learning: Issues and Problems

Dr. Anjali Khirwadkar

Lecturer, Dept. of Education (CASE),

FEP, The M S. Uni. of Baroda, Vadodara, INDIA

Praful Mogera

NCERT Doctoral Fellow, Dept. of Education (CASE),

FEP, The M.S.Uni. of Baroda, Vadodara, INDIA

Abstract

The present paper talks about the qualitative reform in learning briefly with more focus on

the concept of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) in Indian system. It

focuses on the challenges posed while implementing CCE in Indian context and provides

possible solutions. It also deals with some of the issues that demands attention of

educational policy makers, teacher-educators, researchers, and teachers who are supposed

to practise CCE in real situation. The issues and problems such as gradation of the efforts

of the students, rating attitude and values the students possess, the reliability and validity of

the CCE, cost-effectiveness and practicability, development of assessment criteria

including gradation of scholastic achievements have been addressed.

Keywords. Qualitative reform, learning

Introduction

In education we have talked a lot about

quantitative improvements in terms of

number of enrollment, retention and drop

out, number of school going children and

out of school children. The educational

programmes in the post-independent India

clearly indicate that the major focus of the

educational policies is the quantitative

expansion of education. The Government

of India designed the educational policy to

boost the literacy rate from 1947 to till

date. The National Literacy Mission

(NLM) was set up in 1988 to make 80

million persons literate by 1995, which

was later enhanced to 100 million by 1997

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and the revised target was to achieve a

threshold level of 75% literacy by 2007.

The Sarva Shikha Abhiyan (SSA) is the

broader framework of Ministry of Human

Resource Development (MHRD),

Government of India (GoI) to launch

various educational programmes to

achieve 100% literacy rate. The Mahila

Samkhya Scheme, (MS), Kasturba Gandhi

Balika Vadhu Scheme, (KGBV), National

Programme for Education of Girls at

Elementary Level, (NPEGEL) are the

examples to promote Girls Education in

India. Other programmes such as

Anganwadi, Mid-day Meal Scheme

(MDMS) are also practised today. There

were specific attempts made by states also

to raise the literacy rate. The minority,

disadvantage sections of the society also

remained in focus to achieve the literacy.

Operation Blackboard was launched in

1987 under the National Policy of

Education (NPE) 1986 to provide

minimum essential infrastructure in the

primary schools. With the passage of time,

the wave of globalization has hit almost

every country of the world. The world has

become a global village, the conditions

such as open market, competition to raise

the output and its quality has pressurized

the system of education to take into

account the qualitative aspects in

education to ensure the quality learning.

The values such as patriotism,

brotherhood, co-operation, tolerance,

equity, protection of environment and

national properties are also the demand of

hour in today’s time in addition to

cognitive achievement to ensure the

quality in education. The need of

concerned individuals who thinks of the

wellbeing of the whole world in relation to

them is foremost required to build humane

society full of peace and prosperity.

Therefore, education should focus on

holistic development of a learner. The

holistic development is closely related

with the quality of education and quality of

education requires the development of

learner in affective and psychomotor

domains apart from cognitive domain. A

few measures to bring qualitative

improvement in education have also been

taken from time to time. National

Curriculumn Framework NCF (2005)

focuses on whole child development by

bringing constructivist approach in

education where learner uses his three H’s

(head, heart, and hand) in the learning

process. In order to bring this aforesaid

change, the reform in evaluating learner’s

performance is must.

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National Council for Educational Research

and Training NCERT (2006) in its position

paper on Examination Reforms mentioned

that the external examinations ‘are largely

inappropriate for the ‘knowledge society’

of the 21 st century and its’ need for

innovative problem solvers’, Questions if

not framed well, “call for rote

memorization and fail to test higher-order

skills like reasoning and analysis, lateral

thinking, creativity and judgment. External

exams make no allowance for different

types of learners and learning

environments and induce an in-ordinate

level of anxiety and stress”.

In present evaluation in school education

neither learner nor teacher knows about

development in other mental faculties

during learning because everything cannot

be quantified in terms of marks. With this

view, CCE (Continuous and

Comprehensive Evaluation) was

introduced in school system in order to

know the holistic development of a child

with due focus on bringing quality in

education.

Concept of Quality in Education

The concept of quality has been

conceptualized differently by different

people. From the economist perspective,

quality in education means quantitative

measurable outputs as a measure of

quality, for example enrolment ratios and

retention rates, rates of return on

investment in education in terms of

earnings and cognitive achievement as

measured in national or international tests.

As per Hawes & Stephens (1990) quality

can be interpreted as having three strands:

• Efficiency in meeting set goals

• Relevance to human and environmental

needs and conditions

• Something more in relation to the pursuit

of excellence and human betterment.

Here, Efficiency is interpreted as making

the most of inputs, or the tools that are

available, in order to reach and improve

different kinds of standards like attainment

in knowledge and learning skills; creativity

and critical thinking. Relevance includes

relevance to context, relevance to the

present and future needs of learners and

relevance to humanity. Hawes and

Stephens (1990) further added extra

quality of inventiveness, stimulation,

excitement, concern for others or

happiness in schools and teachers.

Quality is a relative concept and not

something that is absolute. While there is

no consensus among educationists

regarding the definition of the quality in

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education but there are several ways of

measuring quality in education. In the

context of school effectiveness, the

concept of quality is linked to the

efficiency of teaching-learning processes.

One of the ways could be to select a range

of indicators that are explicit and

measurable representing various facets of

quality. It is possible to develop indicators

to measure learning along important

dimensions, closely related to the

curriculum, both in standardized

assessment instruments and in alternative

forms of assessment. The traditional forms

of assessment used by teachers on regular

basis are through classroom interaction,

questions, assignment of homework and

other such techniques. At the international

level, the International Evaluation Agency

(IEA) has developed achievement tests

which are administered across the

participating countries and used for

establishment and comparison of learning

outcome of children of specified age

groups in developed and developing

countries. The Organisation for European

Economic Co-operation and Development

(OECD) has a long tradition of assessing

achievement level in various countries and

providing comparative statistics. The

achievement of learner gives a guideline

about the quality standard of educational

inputs. Student’s achievement in various

dimensions is one of the indicators of

improvement in education and its quality.

Ways to Bring Qualitative

Improvement in Education

‘World Declaration on Education for All

(1990), clearly focuses on learning in

article IV and mentioned that whether or

not expanded educational opportunities

will translate into meaningful development

- for an individual or for society - depends

ultimately on whether people actually

learn as a result of those opportunities, i.e.,

whether they incorporate useful

knowledge, reasoning ability, skills, and

values. The focus of basic education must,

therefore, be on actual learning acquisition

and outcome, rather than exclusively upon

enrolment, continued participation in

organized programs and completion of

certification requirements. Active and

participatory approaches are particularly

valuable in assuring learning acquisition

and allowing learners to reach their fullest

potential.

The Dakar Framework (Dakar, 2000),

placed greater emphasis on quality than

any other internationally ratified text had

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in the past by calling for equity and

inclusion both in terms of access and

achievement. The Dakar Framework has

highlighted learning outcomes as key

indicators of education quality and calling

for the inclusion of life skills in basic

education curricula, which covers the

pillars: the learning to live together and

learning to be pillars as defined in the

Delors report (1996).

For bringing qualitative improvement in

school education it is essential to bring

change in the facilities and infrastructure;

teachers’ motivation; and a change in the

methods of teaching to make it attractive

for the students. However, in actual

practice, there has always been a swapping

between quality and quantity, in favor of

the latter. This has not only affected the

internal efficiency of the educational

system but also resulted in a situation

where only a few students of the school

and higher education system could attain

the expected skills and competencies.

Measuring both cognitive and noncognitive

competencies are necessary for a

student’s overall development.

It is evident that qualitative improvement

is dependent on how teachers transact, and

makes use of evaluation to provide

feedback. Apart from this, the

infrastructure and congenial working

condition are also factors that cause the

quality. The CCE is focused on evaluation

of learning, therefore, it is here argued that

life skills, values, scientific attitude and

co-curricular activities should find due

place in curriculum transaction in addition

to the transaction of cognitive oriented

content. The quality of education can be

improved by making students capable to

demonstrate the use of life skills, scientific

attitude, love for nation and co-operation

values in functioning. The development in

such domains should be checked with the

sound system of evaluation so that teacher

and policy makers can judge the

effectiveness of instruction and

accordingly modify the modalities of overt

and covert curriculum transaction.

Concept of Continuous and

Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)

Evaluation is now considered as an

integral part of teaching learning process.

It cannot be separated from teaching as

teaching includes evaluation. As child

development is a continuous process,

evaluation should be continuous and

comprehensive to ensure the quality of

education. The progress of the learner will

be evaluated quite often in continuous

evaluation. Student is subjected to

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schooling for scholastic and co-scholastic

development. CCE should cover all the

aspects of schooling so that teacher should

be able to assess the all round development

of the child. The comprehensive evaluation

will cover the whole range of student’s

experiences in the context of totality of

school activities. The holistic development

includes development of physical,

intellectual, emotional and social

capacities comprising of social, personal

qualities, interest, attitude and values.

Hence, varieties of techniques need to be

adopted to carry out the continuous and

comprehensive evaluation.

The characteristic features of CCE are as

under as per the Position paper on

examination reforms by NCERT (2006).

• Continuous and comprehensive

evaluation (CCE) is a system of

school-based evaluation of students

that covers all aspects of learner’s

development.

• It takes care for ‘continual’ and

‘periodicity’ of evaluation.

• Continual means assessment of

students in the beginning of

instructions and assessment during

the instructional process (formative

evaluation) done informally using

multiple techniques of evaluation.

• Periodicity means assessment of

performance done frequently at the

end of unit/term (summative) using

criterion-referenced tests and

employing multiple techniques of

evaluation.

• The ‘comprehensive’ component of

CCE takes care of assessment of all

round development of the learner’s

personality. It includes assessment

in scholastic as well as coscholastic

aspects of the learner’s

growth. The co-scholastic aspects

include co-curricular and personal

social qualities, interests, attitudes,

and values.

• Assessment in scholastic areas is

done informally and formally using

multiple techniques of evaluation

continually and periodically.

• Assessment in co-scholastic areas

is done using multiple techniques

on the basis of identified criteria,

while assessment in social personal

qualities is done using behavior

indicators for various interests,

values, attitudes, etc.

Following assessment alternatives given

by Herman, Aschbacher, and Winters

(1992) should be used by teachers while

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applying CCE.

Table 1 Assessment Alternatives (Herman, Aschbacher, and Winters (1992)

Assessing Products

• Clinical interviews

• Documented observations

• Student learning logs and journals

• Student self-evaluation (oral and

written)

• Debriefing interviews about student

projects, products, and

demonstrations (student explains

what, why, and how, and reflects on

possible changes)

• Essays with prompt and scoring

criteria

• Projects with rating criteria

• Student portfolios with rating criteria

• Student demonstrations/

investigations (expository or using the

arts)

• Painting, drama, dances, and stories

with rating criteria

• Behavioural Check-lists

• Attitude inventories, and surveys

• Student think-alouds in conjunction

with standardized and multiple-choice

tests

• Standardized and multiple-choice

tests, perhaps with section for

“explanations”

It is clear that CCE comprises the

formative and summative evaluation and

shifts the focus from traditional way of

testing to scholastic and co-scholastic

aspects also. It means that values, skills,

attitudes and performance in co-curricular

activities should also find place in

evaluation and such evaluation should be

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periodical, continuous and comprehensive

in nature. Besides, the CCE should move

away from simple testing to assessing the

performance as mentioned in table 1.

Qualitative Changes Expected in

Student as a result of CCE

National Curriculum Framework NCF

(2005) attempted to address the future

requirements of school education. Several

interrelated dimensions were kept in mind

such as the aim of education at different

stages of schooling, the social

surroundings of children, the nature of

knowledge and information in its broader

sense, the nature of human development

and the process of human learning. NCF

(2005) proposes five guiding principles for

curriculum development: i) Connecting

knowledge to life outside the school ii)

Ensuring that learning shifts away from

rote methods iii) Enriching the curriculum

so that it goes beyond textbooks iv)

Making examinations more flexible and

integrating them with classroom life v)

Nurturing an overriding identity informed

by caring concerns within the democratic

policy of the country.

Teaching without learning is of no use.

The introduction of CCE will help in

increase in use of practical and innovative

methods of teaching by teachers instead of

insisting upon the completion of syllabus

in a given time. Use of open sources,

information technology in teaching will

make the learning interesting and relevant

for the students. The various group

activities like discussion, projects will

develop understanding among students and

facilitate learning.

The use of various methods and techniques

of teaching will make teachers to know

latest development in the field of teaching

instead of depending upon textbook only.

Students will get opportunity to discuss

with each other and share their views and

understanding this will help in developing

communication skill, decision power,

ability to analyze and organize among

students.

Challenges in Implementing CCE

and Possible Solutions

Following points discusses certain

problems and issues that demands earnest

efforts to resolve while implementing

CCE.

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1. Internal Quality Cell at School

Level

As per NCERT (2006), the school should

issue CCE certificate and Board mark

sheet should have 20% internal weightage

for Board’s standard X - mark sheet.

NCERT (2006) suggested that teachers

should randomly select internally assessed

work of learners in each subjects for

Board’s approval to ensure the honesty and

quality in internal assessment. This

demands pressure to set up quality control

unit for CCE / internal assessment. It

requires training on the part of evaluators

to remove the prejudices of teacher while

assessing.

To ensure the honesty on the part of

teachers while grading, it is required to

establish the ‘internal quality cell for CCE’

in each school. The principal can be its

president and supervisor be its vice

president with the 5 senior teachers as its

members.

2. CCE may render students into

two major groups: achievers

and non-achievers.

Stiggins (2007) mentioned that major role

of assessment has been to detect and

highlight differences in student learning in

order to rank students according to their

achievement. Such assessment experiences

have produced achievers and nonachievers.

Some students succeed early

and build on winning streaks to learn more

as they grow; others fail early and often,

falling farther and farther behind.

To counteract the dangers of assessment,

Stiggins (2007) suggested ‘assessment for

learning’ should be practiced. Assessment

for learning refers to the process in which

teachers share the achievement targets

with the students, presenting those

expectations in student-friendly language

accompanied by examples of exemplary

student work. It also includes the selfassessment

so that the learners will

become effective learners. The students'

role is to attempt to understand what

success looks like, to use feedback from

each assessment to discover where they are

now in relation to where they want to be,

and to determine how to do better the next

time. Such a process will help students to

become increasingly proficient to generate

their own descriptive feedback and set

goals. In other words, teachers and

students become partners in the assessment

for learning process.

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Black and William (1998) indicated (based

on extensive researches) that by

consistently applying the principles of

assessment for learning, we can produce

impressive gains in student achievement,

especially for struggling learners.

3. Involving learners as part of

assessment need

According to Heritage (2007), teachers

must create a classroom culture which is

conducive to self- and peer assessment.

Second, teachers must have the skills to

build a community of learners,

characterized by a recognition and

appreciation of individual differences.

Heritage (2007) suggested teachers should

teach students to assess their own learning

and the learning of others. This involves

helping students to set goals and criteria

for success, to reflect on their own and

others' understanding, and to evaluate

learning according to the criteria. The

questions as "Do you think that your

response demonstrated understanding? If

so, why do you think this? If not, why do

you think you did not demonstrate

understanding?" should be asked as per

Heritage (2007). Such conversation among

teacher and students will help to make

CCE more transparent. Students' self- and

peer assessments provide important

opportunities for establishing their current

learning status. It indicates that the need of

peer evaluation is required to provide

feedback to the students. To ensure the

healthy practices, the learners’ names can

be hidden and the learners’ tasks can be

assessed by the learners of other divisions

too.

4. Developing Assessment

Criteria

Herman, Aschbacher, and Winters (1992)

expressed the need for constructing

criteria. They further indicated that criteria

help judging the complex human

performance in a reliable, fair and in a

valid manner. Herman, Aschbacher, and

Winters (1992) further mentioned that

scoring criteria must be well-conceived,

explicitly defined, and consistently applied

because well-specified criteria help to

ensure that everyone understands what is

expected. They further summarized that

scoring criteria must

• Help teachers define excellence

and plan to how to help students

achieve it.

• Communicate students what

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constitutes excellence and how to

evaluate their own work.

• Help teachers or other raters be

accurate, unbiased, and consistent

in scoring.

• Document the procedures used in

making important judgments about

students.

Popham (2010) also suggested that rubrics

should be skill-focused rather than

hypergeneral and task-specific rubrics. He

provided the reason that a hypergeneral

rubric’s criteria are inexact, often vague,

and simply too general for rubric users to

really apply those criteria with any sort of

judgmental rigour when scoring students’

responses. Popham (2010) cautioned that

task-specific rubrics encompass taskparticularized

evaluative criteria which are

of little value in promoting students’

achievement of genuinely generalizable

cognitive skills. Andrade (2005)

mentioned that issues of validity,

reliability, and fairness apply to rubrics,

too. According to Andrade (2005), an

instructional rubric must be aligned with

reasonable and respectable standards and

with the curriculum being taught in order

to be valid. A rubric must pass a test of

reliability by resulting in similar ratings

when used by different people. Andrade

(2005) further adds that issues of equity

must be addressed by checking to see

whether rubric is exempted from the

influence of gender, race, ethnicity, or

socioeconomic status. Above concerns of

Andrade (2005) are equally applicable to

tools and techniques used in CCE.

The above discussion clearly leads us to

have a close, intelligent and microobservation

of criteria thus developed.

Moreover, it also pressurizes us to develop

criteria which are in consonance with the

instruction. The poor relationship between

instruction and the criteria will lead to

assess which is not expected and will

create confusion among teacher’s

expectation to evaluate and what students

perceive about how the task should be

carried out.

Some Issues in CCE

1. Grading Efforts of the Students:

Where should we move?

Nunnally (1972) advised that teachers

should take notice of how hard the student

is working and try to communicate this

information to others but added that it

should not be compound with grading.

Nunnally (1972) opined that there should

be provision to make a separate rating of

effort which should be included in over-all

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evaluations of students. The issue which

baffles is how teacher should be guided to

grade the student’s efforts. If such grading

is incorporated, the question lies is: how to

interpret student’s efforts with relation to

achievement and other non-scholastic

performances?

2. Rating Attitude of the Learner:

Capturing reality or pseudo

reality?

One of the major functions of the

education is to develop desirable attitude

in students about teachers, principals,

elders and freedom fighters. It is also

expected that the students will demonstrate

socially acceptable actions in social world

wherein student requires thinking with

regard to moral and social domains and

s/he makes use of scientific thinking. The

need of development and nurturance of

scientific attitude is the long awaiting

demand. Therefore, teachers should be

more cautious to conceptualize what to be

rated in ‘attitude’ and how attitude should

be rated. Nunnally (1972) mentioned that

the teachers frequently do not know

students nearly as well as they think they

do, and ratings of attitudes often are quite

unreliable. As often use of checklists,

rating scales to be filled by the students are

cumbersome and time-consuming and not

proper, the use of observation is suggested.

Nonetheless, the question persists the same

as how one will abandon one’s prejudices

and biases while rating attitude. Moreover,

whether attitude should be measured

periodically or it should be summative is

also question. The rating of attitude does

not resemble the hard knowledge that the

learner possesses but rather it refers the

rating of something more than the hard and

easily predictable reality. It means that

judging one’s attitude should provide

consistent result if measured by other

teachers at the same time. If the rating of

attitude is carried out by a teacher or if it is

done by a teacher though it is assigned to

group of teachers, there will be the higher

chances of capturing and praising the

pseudo-reality.

3. Self-reporting: Where and

Why?

Self-reporting can be used to gain

information what learners thinks about

one’s own performances, engagement in

learning and behavior. It can be used to

maximize the learning. The hurdle in selfreporting

is personal interview is too much

time-consuming. Gronlund and Linn

(1990) indicated that responses can usually

be easily faked if individuals want to

present a distorted picture of them and

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their recollections of past events may be

inaccurate and their self-perceptions may

be biased even when they want to be

truthful. The inclusion of self-reporting

techniques in CCE also stirs question that

why self-reporting should be included with

its limitation and perhaps difficult to reach

a consensus about the use of self-reporting.

If at all, one wants to use self-reporting, it

should be used cautiously and the values

such as honesty, truthfulness can be

assessed while assessing the value-system

of the learners.

4. Grading of Values

School must strive hard to develop ‘good

value system’ in students and it is better to

check the development of value-system.

Many times, the corporal punishment

observed in Indian setting though banned,

is due to the lack of proper values. The

corporate view to evaluate the

effectiveness of end-product is must and

undeniable but the same approach creates

many problems and issues in educational

setting. The grading of value-system

should be based on sound evidences and

authentic. The use of anecdotal records,

self-reporting technique, informal

observation (in playground, science

laboratories, morning assembly, cultural

events) should be used together to increase

the authenticity of the grading of value

system. Moreover, values to be observed

should be conceptualized well with the

descriptors used in rating. The issue here is

how to move away from biases while

judging one’s value-system so that reliable

results can be produced.

5. Grading Scholastic Areas

CBSE (2010) has given the grading of 9

point scale for scholastic areas for IX to X

class students mentioned as under.

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Table 2: Grading Scholastic Areas as per CBSE (2010)

Grade Marks Range Grade Point

A1 91-100 10.0

A2 81-90 9.0

B1 71-80 8.0

B2 61-70 7.0

C1 51-60 6.0

C2 41-50 5.0

D 33-40 4.0

E1 21-32 3.0

E2 00-20 2.0

interview, face-to-face interaction and

As per CBSE (2010), the scholastic

achievement should be evaluated in terms

of marks and then, it should be converted

into grade range. The issue here is: should

the learner evaluated directly into grade

range or marks first, while assessing

students’ answer sheets, and then marks

should be converted into grade? Moreover,

it is also required to think whether grade

feedback mechanism are largely difficult

and almost impossible. The frequent

testing, maintaining students’ anecdotal

and assignments’ records, portfolios, selfand

peer-evaluation demand rethinking

and sincere attempts from teachers and

policy makers. The purpose of CCE is

commendable, and we do not have cynical

attitude towards CCE but we here, want to

should be based on percentile or emphasize to put stress on team-efforts to

percentage for scholastic achievement. evaluate students and development of

proper mechanism for implementation of

6. Practicability and Costeffectiveness

The techniques and tools used in CCE

should be easily practiced in school set up.

The Indian classrooms are typically loaded

with the 60 students. In such case, frequent

CCE.

7. Designing Report Cards

Designing report cards is not easy task but

rather it is problematic. The task of CCE is

to communicate the parents and society

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about students’ performance in scholastic

and non-scholastic achievement. Hence,

the nature of report card should be

intelligible to parents and it should contain

the precise information required to

compare the students’ performance in all

areas in which CCE claims to evaluate.

The relative weightage given to skills,

attitude, and values among non-scholastic

areas needs contemplation.

8. Reliability and Validity

The teacher attempts to evaluate the

student’s performance in variety of

activities pertaining to cognitive, conative

and psychomotor domains. The CCE

therefore, demands the use of tests, selfreporting

techniques, portfolio assessment,

observation and use of rubrics to assess

assignments, and project works. The

teacher needs to be cautious when s/he

adopts particular tool / technique to

evaluate the student’s performance. The

descriptors used in rating and rubric in

various non-scholastic performance should

be clear, precise and well defined to meet

the teacher’s expectation to evaluate

performance in particular value or skill.

The items used in rating student’s attitude

towards school, principals, teachers,

elders, and national properties should not

be ambiguous and convey single thought.

Moreover, the scale should have adequate

weightage to sub-components to be

evaluated in a particular skill or value. The

reliability is also baffling issue as when

measured by other evaluator, it should

produce consistent result which is very

difficult to gain though standardized tools

are used due to the differences in opinion,

prejudices and observer’s judgmental

capacities. To avoid the leniency and strict

attitude of evaluator while evaluating,

evaluation by pair of teacher can be used.

Thus, qualitative improvement in

education cannot be assured by the endproducts’

evaluation. It necessitates the

process approach in evaluation and the

process approach should not be rendered

into unit or periodical testing only, rather it

should assess the students’ overall

development including the conative and

psychomotor domains. This refers the

appropriate conceptualization about what

to be assessed, why and how. What, why,

and how questions in CCE will help to

answer very purpose of CCE. The

dedication, sincerity on the part of teachers

and accountability on the part of students

in learning are pre-requisites to fulfill the

objective of CCE. Properly implemented

CCE will help to guide policy makers to

bring changes if required and will also

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help parents and society about the allround

progress of the students. The way to

CCE is not easy, but careful planning and

judicious organization of resources will

speed up the implementation of CCE. The

issues need the immediate attention to

resolve it for the betterment of the society,

at large.

References

Andrade, H G. (2005) Teaching with

Rubrics: The Good, the Bad, and the

Ugly. College Teaching. 53, 1, 27-

30. Retrieved from.

http://www.jstor.org/stable/2755921

3 .Accessed: 18/02/2012 03:53

Black , P & Wiliam D. (1998) In R.

Stiggins. Assessment through the

student’s eyes. Educational

Leadership. 64, 8, 22-26.

CBSE (2010) Continuous and

comprehensive evaluation. Manual

for teachers. Classes IX and X.

Revised Ed. New Delhi: CBSE.

Delors, J. (1996) Learning: The Treasure

Within Report to UNESCO of the

Internatioanl Commission on

Education for the Twenty-first

Century

Gronlund, N E & Linn, R L (1990)

Measurement and evaluation in

teaching. (6th ed.)

New York:

Macmillan Publishing Company.

Hawes, H. and D. Stephens. (1990).

Questions of quality: primary

education and development.

Harlow: Longman. In A M Battettl

et al (2006) The concept of quality

in education: A review of the

international literature on the

concept of quality in education.

EdQual Working Paper No. 3.

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www.edqual.org

Heritage, M. (2007) Formative

Assessment: What Do Teachers

Need to Know and Do? The Phi

Delta Kappan. 89, 2, 140-145

Retrieved

from

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Herman, Aschbacher, and Winters (1992)

A practical guide to alternative

assessment. Alexandria, VA:

ASCD.

NCF (2005) National curriculum

framework 2005. New Delhi:

NCERT

NCERT (2006) Position paper. National

focus group on examination

reforms. New Delhi: NCERT

Nunnally, J C (1972) Educational

measurement and evaluation. New

York: McGraw-Hill Book

120


Company.

Popham, W J (2010) Everything school

leaders need to know about

assessment. Thousand Oaks, CA:

Corwin Press.

Stiggins, R (2007) Assessment through the

student’s eyes. Educational

Leadership. 64, 8, 22-26

World Conference on EFA, Jomtien, 1990

| EDUCATION - | UNESCO."

United Nations Educational,

Scientific and Cultural Organization.

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Paper recieved June 10, 2012

Revision received June 22, 2012

Paper accepted June 28, 2012

121


Mid-Day Meals Scheme: Achieving Right to Education and

Right to Food Simultaneously

Nisha Rani

Research Scholar, Department of Education and Community Service,

Punjabi University, Patiala.

Abstract

This study was undertaken to analyse the perceptions of teachers,

parents and VEC members regarding the effectiveness of Mid-Day

Meals Scheme in achieving Right to Education and Right to food.

This study was conducted in Government primary schools of

Bathinda, Barnala and Mansa districts of Punjab. The results

revealed that through Mid-Day Meals Scheme schools not only

provided children their right to education but right to food

simultaneously.

Keywords. Right to Education, Right to food, Mid- Day Meal Scheme

Introduction

The Right to Education Act in India

implemented on April 1, 2010 is

meant to introduce the provision of

elementary education of equitable

quality to all children aged 6-14

years. RTE had been a part of the

directive principles of the State

Policy under Article 45 of the

Constitution, which is part of

Chapter 4 of the Constitution. And

rights in Chapter 4 are not

enforceable. For the first time in

the history of India this right has

been made enforceable by putting it

in Chapter 3 of the Constitution as

Article 21. This entitles children to

have the right to education

enforced as a fundamental right.

Wider acknowledgement of

elementary education as a

fundamental right (expressed in the

86th constitutional amendment) has

contributed to the rapid expansion

of school education. Despite efforts

at universalizing access through

various programmes in the last

decade, almost half the children do

not complete this stage of

schooling. In India the primary

school children (6-14) form about

20% of the total population. Free

and compulsory education up to the

age group of 14 years is the

constitutional commitment. It is

estimated that about 40% of

122


children dropout of primary school.

A survey conducted by the National

Nutrition Monitoring Bureau

(NNMB-2000) indicated that about

70% of the children were

undernourished and there was about

30% deficit in energy consumption

and over 75% of the children had

dietary micronutrient deficit of

about 50%. Poor enrollment and

high school dropout were attributed

to the poor nutritional status of the

children compounded by poor

socio-economic conditions, child

labour and lack of motivation etc.

The constitution of India has an

obligation for the (Central and

State) governments to fulfill the

right to food of India’s people, and

despite the existence of a number

of programmes focusing on issues

related to food and malnutrition,

there remained many constraints in

achieving food security (Panda,

2008).

It is proved by many studies that as

children grow up, poor nutrition

and ill health affects their learning

abilities and preparedness for

schooling. Even the World

Declaration on Education for all

also reflected that, poor health and

malnutrition are critical underlying

factors for low school enrolment,

absenteeism, poor classroom

performance and early school

dropouts. The Convention on the

Right of the Child and The World

Declaration on Education for all

jointly proposed a new

understanding about how education

should be provided, and how it

should be related to peoples’ life.

The Child Friendly School

Initiative also stresses children’s

well being, their access to healthy

environment and good nutrition,

their freedom from infection and

disease, as essential condition for

Education for All.

This situation of hunger and

malnutrition among the school

going children has made the Mid-

Day Meal Scheme an effective

mean to achieve Right to Education

and Right to Food simultaneously.

“To attack illiteracy without

simultaneously

attacking

malnutrition, which reduce learning

capacity seems hopeless, to put it

mildly. The role of education in

development and role of nutrition

in education have not hitherto been

adequately understood by the

policy makers of the world

community in general.” (C.

Gopalan, 1980)There are clear

indications through studies that

there is a correlation between the

Mid-Day Meal Scheme and

enrollment and retention of

children, especially that of girls in

schools. It is also felt that it is only

when all children are in schools

that their freedom from hunger is

possible, and all policy endeavour

for their care and protection and a

realization of their fullest potential

can be achieved.

On 28 November 2001, the

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Supreme Court directed state

governments to introduce cooked

mid-day meals in all government

and government-assisted primary

schools within six months. This

landmark order was one of the first

achievements of the right to food

campaign. The order was followed

by organised public pressure for

the introduction of cooked mid-day

meals in primary schools, e.g. in

the form of a country-wide "day of

action on mid-day meals" in April

2002.

In January 2004, only half of

India’s 31 states were

implementing the scheme so far

despite the Supreme Court order. In

response to the growing Right to

Food movement of recent years, the

Supreme Court, acting on a public

interest petition filed by the

People's Union for Civil Liberties

(PUCL), the court again directed on

November 17, 2004 that "every

child eligible for cooked meal

under the mid-day meal scheme, in

all States and Union territories,

shall be provided with the said

meal immediately, and in any case,

not later than January,

2005."Supreme Court’s this order

on the right to food has forced the

government to take major

initiatives in this field, such as the

provision of cooked midday meals

in primary schools.Today, with

more than 100 million children are

covered, India’s Mid-Day Meals

Programme is by far the largest

nutrition programme in the world.

Objectives of Mid-Day Meals

Scheme:

(i)Improving the nutritional status

of children in classes I – V in

Government, Local Body and

Government aided schools, and

EGS and AIE centres.

(ii)Encouraging poor children,

belonging to disadvantaged

sections, to attend school more

regularly and help them concentrate

on classroom activities.

(iii) Providing nutritional support

to children of primary stage in

drought-affected areas during

summer vacation.

Not only in India in several

developing

countries

supplementary feeding programs

have been used as a tool to not only

directly improve nutrition but also

influence a variety of other non

health outcomes of the target

population. Improvement in

nutrition levels of school age

children potentially increases

enrollment, reduces absenteeism,

improves test scores and lowers

drop-out rates.

Objectives of the study

1. To study the perception of parents,

teachers and VEC members

regarding the effectiveness of

Mid-Day Meals Scheme in

achieving the Right to Education.

2. To study the perception of parents,

teachers and VEC members

124


egarding the effectiveness of

Mid-Day Meals Scheme in

achieving the Right to Food.

The major research questions under

consideration for the study are:

(i) What are the perceptions of

parents, teachers and VEC

members regarding the

effectiveness of MDMS for

achieving physical and mental

health of pupils as these are the

aims of right to food?

(ii)What are the perceptions of parents,

teachers and VEC members

regarding the effectiveness of

MDMS for achieving

universalization of elementary

education which is the main aim of

right to education?

Mehodology

In the present study survey technique

under descriptive method of research was

used.

Sample

In the present study the investigator

confined her study to 30 schools selected

from Bathinda, Barnala and Mansa

districts of Punjab. 250 subjects were

randomly selected from these schools (100

teachers, 100 parents and 50 VEC

members).

Tool

Questionnaires developed by the

researcher for the purpose of obtaining

responses from teachers, parents and VEC

members were used.

Statistical Techniques

The content of the responses given to the

questions by the respondents were

analysed with the help of Percentage

Analysis after tabulating the data in the

form of concrete themes of the views &

perceptions given by the respondents.

Analysis and Interpretation

This section provides an analysis of the

impact of MDMS on health and education

of children through the questionnaires:

Impact of MDMS on Physical Health

• In the opinion of 96% Parents,

100% Teachers and 100% VEC

member mid-day meals had

positive effects on the physical

health of the pupils. As 47%

parents, 26% teachers and 34%

VEC member viewed that usually

hot cooked meals were provided to

the pupils which is good for health

and 53% parents, 19% teachers and

28% VEC members opinioned that

meals provided to pupils were

hygienically prepared which had no

ill effects on the health of the

pupils. 24% parents, 33% teachers

and 42% VEC members viewed

that consumption of sufficient

amount of meal during working

hours in school had definitely

improves the physical health of

pupils. Only 6% of teachers were

of the view that daliya, which had

been served almost daily in

Bathinda district was easy to digest

and good for health of pupils. 27%

of the teachers and 7% of the VEC

members viewed that food served

to pupils was nutritious. 12% of

teachers reported that, to add

125


proteins in meals they added

groundnuts in rice or halwa.

Impact of MDMS on Mental Health

• In the opinion of 100% teachers,

93% parents and 100% VEC

members Mid-Day Meals Scheme

had a positive effect on mental

health of pupils. Whereas 89%

teachers, 61% parents and 24%

VEC members were of the view

that eating meals in time made the

pupils relax. 92% teachers, 77%

parents and 88% VEC members

viewed that filled belly had good

effects on mental health of pupils.

32% teachers, 29% parents and

26% of VEC members were of the

view that pupils felt pleasure while

eating with friends. 17% teachers,

8% parents and 78% of VEC

members viewed that nutritious

meals had good effects on memory

of pupils. 23% teachers, 7%

parents and 15% VEC of members

viewed that while sitting & sharing

meal with others pupils learned the

lesson of discipline, cooperation

and manners. 58% teachers, 47%

parents and 51% of VEC members

were of the view that good habits

of health and hygiene developed

among pupil as they washed their

hands after and before taking

meals.

Impact of MDMS on academic

environment of the school

• In the opinion of 75% teachers,

78% VEC member MDMS had

increased the daily attendance and

78% parents also accepted the fact

that their children were more

desirous to attend the school and

thus their regularity had positive

effects on the academic

achievement of their wards.

• 55% teachers and 51% VEC

members viewed that hunger

distracted their attention from

studies but MDMS helped to

maintain pupils’ interest and

concentration in studies and 43%

of teachers accepted that after

taking meals pupils became more

ready to learn. 53% teachers, 34%

parents and 71% of VEC members

reported that as a result of MDMS

rate of truancy had decreased,

therefore pupils could learn for

longer period in the school, which

had a positive effect on academic

achievement of pupils.

• At the same time in the opinion of

78% teachers they had to work for

preparation and distribution of

meals therefore they had to ignore

their primary responsibility of

teaching. Teachers also reported

that even teachers had to maintain

the records of funds and

expenditures incurred. Therefore

teachers had to pay more attention

towards meals, which had negative

effects on academic achievements

of pupils.1% teachers reported that

it took more than 30 minutes to

distribute and eat the meals so over

all process wasted a lot of time.

• 13% of teachers reported that right

126


from the morning pupils usually

started asking about the meals and

the whole day they made the noise

of utensils which had destroyed the

whole teaching learning

environment of the school. 1%

teachers reported that sometimes

contractors came after the lunch

break that lead to double wastage

of time for lunch. 4% of teachers

reported that MDMS had no effect

on truancy among pupils as after

taking meals pupils ran away from

school.

Effectiveness of MDMS in achieving

UEE

• In the opinion of 87% teachers,

58% parents and 83% VEC of

members MDMS had positive

effects on Universalization of

Elementary Education. 76%

teachers, 23% parents and 69%

VEC of members reported that

enrolment had increased as a result

of Mid-Day Meals Scheme. 64%

teachers, 31% parents and 44% of

VEC members were of the view

that due to Mid-Day Meals Scheme

the dropout rate had reduced. 59%

teachers, 24% parents and 48% of

VEC members viewed that as a

result of MDMS parents became

less interested to stop the studies of

their children. 76% teachers, 43%

parents and 77% of VEC members

expressed the views that due to this

scheme, love for school had

developed therefore pupils

themselves were not interested to

drop their studies.

• In the opinion of 13% teachers,

42% parents and 17% of VEC

members MDMS had no effect on

UEE i.e. Universalization of

Elementary Education. In the

opinion of 8% teachers, 10%

parents and 16% of VEC members

some BPL families of their area at

that time were ignorant about the

MDMS and were not taking benefit

of scheme. 4% teachers, 8%

parents and 11% of VEC members

opined that only poverty was not

the reason for non-enrolment of

children in schools but other family

problems like death of one of the

parents and gender difference etc.

were also responsible. 11%

teachers, 38% parents and 14% of

VEC members opined that only

meal could not achieve the UEE,

meals could attract only BPL

pupils.

Effectiveness of MDMS in achieving

right to food and right to education

• In the opinion of 43% parents, 28%

teachers and 43% VEC members

right to food had more importance

than right to education and reported

that Mid-Day Meal Scheme by

providing meal to hungry pupils

had helped children to enjoy their

right to food.

• In the opinion of 27% parents, 21%

teachers and 30% VEC members

Right to Education had more

importance than Right to Food and

reported that Mid-Day Meal

Scheme had helped in achieving

the Right to Education by

127


increasing the rate of enrolment in

government schools. 8% parents,

7% teachers and 13% VEC

members viewed that due to

MDMS rate of retention had

increased which helped them in

getting their Right to Education.

1% parents, 4% teachers and 7%

VEC members opined that MDMS

had increased the interest of pupils

in education.

• In the opinion of 29% parents, 51%

teachers and 27% VEC members

both the rights were equally

important Mid-Day Meal Scheme

had provided food to hungry pupils

and filled their belly which helped

them in getting education.

Findings

• Out of the sample of parents,

teachers and VEC members taken

for the present study all the

teachers as well as VEC members

and almost all the parents agreed

with the opinion that MDMS had

good effect on physical health as

usually hygienically prepared

nutritious cooked food was

consumed in sufficient amount by

pupils.

• All the teachers as well as VEC

members and almost all the parents

agree with the opinion that MDMS

had good effect on mental health as

eating nutritious meal with friends

at the time of hunger gave pleasure

and relaxed the pupils and taught

the lesson of health and hygiene,

discipline and cooperation adding

to their filled belly which also had

a positive effect on their memory.

• Out of the sample of parents,

teachers and VEC members taken

for the study an overwhelming

majority of teachers and VEC

members perceived a positive

effect of MDMS on

Universalization of Elementary

Education as enrolment had

increased and dropout rate had

decreased after the introduction of

MDMS as love for studies had

been developed among pupils

adding to this parents as well as

pupils themselves had become less

interested in stopping the

education. Less than half of parents

but considerable number of

teachers and VEC members opined

that because of the ignorance of

parents about the MDMS and

because of family problems they

are not taking benefit of the

scheme.

• Three fourth teachers but more

than 3/4 th parents and VEC

members were of the view that

MDMS had positive effect on

academic environment of school

either by increasing regular

attendance and decreasing rate of

truancy among pupils or by

enhancing the interest and

concentration of pupils in studies.

At the same time some teachers

found it as wastage of academic

time as teachers had to work to

maintain record and pupils paid

more attention to meal than study

128


and made noise of utensils.

• Out of the sample of parents,

teachers and VEC members taken

for the present study majority of

them were of the opinion that Mid-

Day Meals Scheme had proved

effective in achieving both the

Rights i.e Right to Education and

Right to food, whichever they had

found more important by providing

meal to hungry pupils and filling

their belly which had increased

their interest in education and this

had increased the rate of enrolment

and retention in government

schools too.

Suggestions

In accordance with the findings of

the study strong suggestions can be

made that:

• There is need to campaign to

make parents aware of the

MDMS and campaign should

be as such it would not

reflect as a scheme for BPL

people but as such that every

parent look upon it as a

scheme for their wards

welfare.

• Teachers should be free from

the all type of

responsibilities

of

implementation of MDMS

these should be handed over

to some other agency.

• There should be proper

control on the

implementation agency so

that distribution of meal

could be on time and

academic environment of the

school should not be

disturbed.

• Government should introduce

such laws, schemes and

programmes after framing a

poverty reduction policy

aimed to decrease the

inequality between haves and

have not’s.

Conclusion

There is no doubt that school

feeding programme is crucial for

children who are attending schools

in general and the hungry and

malnourished children in particular.

In contemporary India Mid-day

Meal Scheme is one of the several

best strategies that address some of

the nutrition and health problems

of school-age children. These kinds

of programmes have been

introduced because of very poor

financial position of majority of

Indian families. In the given

situation these kinds of

programmes motivate not only

parents but also the children to take

part in the schooling activities on a

regular basis. However for the poor

people education is not the first

priority of the family but survival

is their topmost priority. The main

reason for dropping out is also to

supplement the family income. In

such conditions this programme is

considered to be the most potential

programme in achieving both the

Rights i.e Right to Education and

Right to Food. As physical and

129


mental health as well as enrolment

and retention has been increased.

References

Bhattacharyya, B.K. (2006). Mid-Day

Meal Programme with Particular

Reference to Nalbari and Golpara

districts of Assam. New Delhi:

National Institution of Educational

Planninig and Aministration.

Dreze, J., & Goyal, A. (2003). Future of

Mid-Day Meals. Economic and

Political Weekly, Nov.1, 4673-83.

Dreze, J. & Vivek, S. (2003). Hunger in

the Classroom. Retrieved June 7,

2009, from

http://www.righttofoodindia.org/.

Gopalan,C. (1980). Nutritional Problems

in Developing Countries. In H. M.

Sincair, & G. R. Howat (Eds.),

World Nutrition and Nutrition

Education. New York: Oxford

University Press.

Panda, B.K. (2008). International

Perspective of School Feeding

Programme and Mid Day Meals

Programme Followed in the Stats of

Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.

New Delhi: National University of

Educational Planning and

Administration.

Pratichi Research Team. (2005). Cooked

Mid-Day Meal Progamme in West

Bengal: A Study in Birbhum District.

Delhi: Pratichi (India) Trust.

Rana, K., Santra, S., Benerjee, T.,

Mukherjee, A. and Kundu, M.

(2005). Cooked Mid-Day Meal

Programme in West Bengal: A Study

in Birbhum District. Delhi: Pratichi

(India) Trust.

Sinha, S. (2004). Mid-Day Meal Scheme

and schools- A Need for Universal

Coverage. Securing Children’s Right

to Food. M.V.foundation,

Secunderabad: Azad Reading Room.

Swaminathan, P., Jeyaranjan, J.,

Sreenivasan, R., & Jayashree, K.

(2004). Tamil Nadu’s Mid-day Meal

Scheme: Where Assumed Benefits

Score over Hard Data. Economic and

Political weekly, 4811 – 4822.

Paper recieved June 13, 2012

Revision received June 20, 2012

Paper accepted June 24, 2012

130


Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning on M.Ed.

Students

Dr J R Sonwane

Associate Professor,

Department of Education, Maharaja krishnakumarsinhaji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar

(Gujarat) INDIA 364002

Abstract

This is a qualitative study on problem based learning (PBL). Investigator selected a

problem to construct a model of instructional design for M.Ed. course students. Study

held on ten M.Ed. Students of Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhaji Bhavnagar University

(Guj). This study shows the effect of PBL on students, learning pattern and activities

done by students during PBL. Students completed their task and found very

comfortable with this activity. This paper shows the potential of PBL.

Key Words: Problem based learning, active learning, peer group

Introduction

Problem-based learning (PBL) is an

approach to education that stresses the use

of real - life problems as a stimulus for

learning. Problem-based learning (PBL)

represents a major development in

education practice that continues to have a

large impact across subjects and

disciplines around the world. As indicated

by many authors (Engel, 1997; Gagne,

Yekovich, & Yekovich, 1993; Poikela &

Poikela, 1997; Segers, 1997), today’s

society requires that graduates be able to

solve complex problems efficiently. The

claims made for PBL promise an

important improvement in outcomes for

education. The results of studies

examining the effects of PBL are

131


conclusive regarding the problem-solving

ability of students.

In the literature, PBL has been

defined and described in various ways.

PBL is used to refer to many related

approaches to instruction that attach much

of learning and teaching in concrete

problems (Evenson & Hmelo, 2000). This

focus on concrete problems as initiating

the learning process is central in most

definitions of PBL. For example, Barrows

and Tamblyn (1980, p. 18) defined the

concept of PBL as “the learning that

results from the process of working toward

the understanding or resolution of a

problem.

The problem is encountered first in

the learning process and serves as a focus

or stimulus for the application of problem

solving or reasoning skills, as well as for

the search for or study of information or

knowledge needed to understand the

mechanisms responsible for the problem

and how it might be resolved.” Boud

(1987, p. 13) states that “the starting point

for learning should be a problem, a query

or a puzzle that the learner wishes to

solve.” A much-quoted definition is the

one given by Albanese and Mitchell (1993,

p. 53): “Problem-based learning at its most

fundamental level is an instructional

method characterized by the use of patient

problems as a context for students to learn

problem-solving skills and acquire

knowledge about the basic and clinical

sciences.” Vernon and Blake (1993, p.

550) defined PBL by its instructional

design components, students’ cognitive

processes, and teachers’ role: “a method of

learning (or teaching) that emphasizes (1)

the study of clinical cases, either real or

hypothetical, (2) small discussion groups,

(3) collaborative independent study, (4)

hypothetico-deductive reasoning, and (5) a

style of faculty direction that concentrates

on group progress rather than imparting

information.”

Other authors, such as Boud and

Feletti (1997, p. 15), have related PBL to a

way of approaching a curriculum:

“Problem based learning is an approach to

structuring the curriculum which involves

confronting students with problems from

practice which provide a stimulus for

learning.” This range of definitions

illustrates how difficult it is to come to one

universal definition (Chen, Cowdroy,

Kingsland, & Ostwald, 1995).

PBL can adopt various forms,

depending on the nature of the domain and

the specific goals of the programs it is part

of (Barrows, 1986; Boud, 1987). Savin-

Baden (2000) argues that there simply are

no narrowly defined characteristics of

132


PBL, only people working in various

contexts using various PBL-approaches.

However, despite the many

variations of PBL that aim to match it with

specific educational or disciplinary

contexts, for comparative research a core

model or basic definition is needed to

serve as a basis of comparison with other

education methods. Barrows (1996)

developed a core model based on the

original method from McMaster

University that describes six core

characteristics of PBL:

• Learning is student-centered.

• Learning occurs in small student

groups.

• A tutor is present as a facilitator or

guide.

• Authentic problems are presented

at the beginning of the learning

sequence,

before any preparation or study has

occurred.

• The problems encountered are used

as tools to achieve the required

knowledge

and the problem-solving skills

necessary to eventually solve the

problems.

• New information is acquired

through self-directed learning.

Although new in some aspects, PBL is

based on ideas that have a long history and

have been nurtured by many researchers

(e.g., Ausubel, Novak, & Hanesian, 1978;

Bruner, 1959, 1961; Dewey, 1910, 1944;

Piaget, 1954; Rogers, 1969). The idea that

learning is fostered when students have the

opportunity to formulate and achieve their

own learning goals is mentioned clearly in

the work of Dewey (1910, 1944) and can

also be found in Piaget and in Bruner

(1959, 1961). Other aspects go back much

further.

PBL, as it is known today, originated in

Canada in the 1950s and 1960s in response

to dissatisfaction with common practices

in medical education (Barrows, 1996).

Although originally developed for medical

training at McMaster, the McMaster

version of PBL has been applied globally

in many disciplines not necessarily related

to the study of medicine (Gijselaers, 1995).

For instance, it has been applied to the

study of architecture (Donaldson, 1989;

Maitland, 1991); business administration

(Merchant, 1995); economics (Garland,

1995); engineering studies (Cawley,

1989); geology (Smith & Hoersch, 1995);

law (Kurtz, Wylie & Gold, 1990;

Pletinckx & Segers, 2001); nursing

(Higgings, 1994); social work (Heycox &

133


Bolzan, 1991); psychology (Reynolds,

1997); and other domains of postsecondary

education (Boud, 1987).

The literature on problem solving

is characterized by a wide variety of

theoretical frameworks (e.g., De Corte,

1996; Glaser, Raghavan, & Baxter, 1992;

O’Neil & Schacter, 1997; Schoenfeld,

1985; Smith, 1991). There was much work

conducted in the field of PBL at

international level but so far India is

concern there is a deep need. To know the

effect of PBL on Indian students is

important that is why this study was

conducted on the students of M.Ed. level.

Research Questions

Many Meta analyses have thrown light o

PBL. Many prior reviews have given an

overview of the effect of the

implementation of PBL as compared with

traditional education methods. In this

study investigator wanted to go further and

investigate the learning pattern of PBL and

its impact on the students. The research

questions formulated as follows:

1. What are the effects of PBL

on the students?

2. What are the activities

during PBL?

3. How does student learn

with PBL?

Methodology

Many studies have been conducted in the

field of PBL as a form of theory work,

experimental research or meta analysis.

This study was on the base of activity,

discussion and observation, thus the nature

of the data was qualitative that’s why

whole study conducted as a qualitative

work.

Sample. Ten students of

Educational Technology group of M.Ed.

course of year 2010-11 of Bhavnagar

University, Gujarat, India were selected as

a sample.

Procedure

This work was planned for five days and

the students distributed in small groups of

three, three and four students. A topic of

model of instruction design was selected as

content. This content was distributed in

three parts. First part was the concept of

model and instructional design. In second

part, student had to study different models

of instruction design and in the last part

they had to construct their own model of

instruction design with its justification.

Students met for an hour everyday

for five days. Investigator provided them

literature like, books, journal and internet

facility. Investigator guided the tutorial

group in purposeful cooperation in the set

134


problems, than Students tackled the

problem, using prior knowledge in an

initial attempt to understand it. The

purpose of this first attempt was to activate

prior knowledge and elaborate on what is

known to build a tentative model or

"theory" of the phenomena described in

the problem

Based on this analysis, students formulated

learning goals for self directed learning

activities and engage, usually for two days,

in individual study. Subsequently, they

met again and share knowledge gained,

exchange points of view, and clarified

issues that may be unclear to some. When

the problem was sufficiently understood,

the groups proceeded to the next point, and

so on. At the end of the activity, they

prepared their own model of instructional

design and justification was given by

them. Procedure can be seen in figure 1.1.

Objectives

Level of student Problem Prior Knowledge

Group Function

Discussion at group level

Individual Attampt

Group Presentation

Achievment

Figure: 1.1 Procedure of PBL activity

Data collection

Data was collected qualitatively as said

above. To collect the information

observation was used as a main tool and an

open ended opinionnaire used to collect

the opinion of the subject. Data was

collected as suggested by Bogdan and

Biklen(1998). Investigator kept contact

135


with the subjects and gave necessary

guidance for proper use of PBL. All the

students prepared their own model of

instructional design in the end of the study.

Observation

• There was a positive effect of

Problem-based learning on

students' learning. First, the topic

was very complex which was given

to them as a problem. They had to

use their prior knowledge and

current need to complete their task.

• They were busy with reading and

discussion with other students to

solve their problem. They searched

on internet, took help of tutor etc.

In short, investigator found

students much involvement in the

activity. Students compared

different model of instructional

design and found out positive

points of those models. They

organized a discussion session

themselves to clarify their concept,

it was a new dimension of the

activity.

• Learning was cooperative. Students

helped each other and were

rewarded for doing so. In addition,

it is known that asking for

explanations and providing them to

peers enhances learning. There

were some indications that students

actually learnt to solve problems in

a better way as a result of problembased

learning. Problem-based

learning appeared to have a strong

motivating effect. The students felt

that they were involved with reality

and not that they just have to learn

"dry" theory. The students learnt

social and communicative skills in

verbal interaction with others. in

addition, regular group meetings

provided better opportunities for

engaging in social interaction than

attending lectures.

Discussion

There are many studies in the field of

active learning. Educationalist and

Psychologist have been saying that we

should go from monologue to self study.

Completely self study is not suggested at

every level of education but we can think

for dialogue and learning by doing. This

type of technique can show a proper way

to construct knowledge. A somewhat

different approach has been taken by

Gijselaers and Schmidt (1989) and

Schmidt and Gijselaers (1990). These

authors have tried to model PBL, applying

136


structural equations modeling techniques

(Bentler 1989). Their theory is also based

around input, process and output variables.

In it, they distinguish between such input

variables to the problem-based learning

process as the student's prior knowledge,

the quality of the problems used, and the

effectiveness of the tutor. This study

shows that proper problem given to

student and if nurture is there it gives

better understanding. This kind of activity

develops social and communication skills

and responsibility for their work.

Conclusion

This study gives the voice to use of PBL in

education. Problem-based instruction helps

students develop the deep, applicable

knowledge and analysis skills that may

cultivate lifelong literacy and to solve

multiple problems. There are many options

and practices that can be used with

individuals and groups in problem-based

learning. Perhaps the hidden variables

throughout this account are quality of

problem and the role of the facilitator. The

model requires the coordination and

skilled practice of a competent facilitator if

it is to be actualized. However, the

directness and substance of any

intervention can vary on the basis of the

needs of the group as well as the

facilitator's preferences, skills, and comfort

level.

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Paper recieved June 10, 2012

Revision received June 15, 2012

Paper accepted June 22, 2012

139


Adjusted And Non-Adjusted Decision-Making Styles Among

Adolescents

Vidhi Bhalla

Assistant Professor

M.M.College of Education

Mullana (Ambala) INDIA

Abstract

The Present study examined the adjusted and non-adjusted decision-making styles

among adolescents. The sample consisted of 200 students from three government senior

secondary schools of Chandigarh (U.T.) were administered on the students. Keeping in

view the nature of the study, the descriptive method was chosen and the data were

collected through survey method by using tool of Adolescent Decision-making

Questionnaire. The results of the study revealed significant difference in humanities and

science group in decision-making style. Boys scored significantly higher in adjusted

styles and lower in non-adjusted styles than girls.

Introduction

Adolescence is a crucial stage in the reliable level of competence in decision

development of decision making making (Mann, Harmoni & Power, 1989).

competence. Where children and most

young adolescents are incapable of creating

options that foresee the consequences of

Adolescents have, despite this general

competence, many different patterns of

decision making. These patterns range,

alternatives, evidence suggests that by the comparably with coping styles, from

age of 15 years many adolescents show a effective, functional, or competent to

140


ineffective, dysfunctional, or incompetent

(Olah, 1995; Plancherel & Bolognini, 1995;

Schonpflug & Jansen, 1995; Hanninen &

Aro, 1996).

Decision-making style has been

defined as a habitual pattern individuals use

in decision making (Driver, 1979) or

individuals’ characteristic model of

perceiving and responding to decisionmaking

tasks (Harren, 1979). Decisionmaking

style has been considered a crucial

factor that affects an individual’s career

development (Harren, 1979; Jepsen &

Prediger, 1981; Super, 1980). It refers to the

characteristic ways in which different people

behave in decision-making situations. The

earliest efforts to identify these differences

trait-like categories of deciders who

appeared to be planners, agonizers, delayers,

impulsives, intuitives, fatalists, or compliant.

From this perspective, it is expected that a

decider who showed, for instance,

impulsivity in choosing the first available

alternative would display that same

decisional behavior across all decisionmaking

situations. The most widely used

taxonomy in this tradition is that of Harren

(2000), who argued that decision making

varies in the extent to which the individual

assumes personal responsibility (versus

assigning responsibility to fate, peers, and

authorities) as well as in the extent to which

the decider is logical (versus emotional) in

the decision-making process.

The decision making process is

directly linked with the need for problem

solving and or decision making. The right

choices we make in solving problems and

making decisions depends on how correctly

we follow the steps through in the decision

making process.

Historically, decision-making

research has focused on general processes

underlying deviations from normative theory

(Lopes, 1987). More recently, attention has

turned to individual differences in decision

making (e.g., Stanovich & West, 1998,

2000), asking whether, through preference

or ability,individuals make decisions in

consistent ways, across tasks and situations

(Bromiley & Curley, 1992). Individual

differences that have been examined include

risk aversion and risk judgments (Slovic,

1962; Weber, Blais, & Betz, 2002);

preference for dependent, avoidant, or

spontaneous decision-making styles (Scott

& Bruce, 1985); and decision-making

competence (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007;

141


Finucane et al., 2002, 2005; Parker &

Fischhoff, 2005).

Several theorists have postulated that

persons who differ in decision-making style

(or psychological type) would respond

differently to counseling interventions

(Harren, 1979; Johnson, 1978; Myers &

McCaulley, 1985), but virtually no research

has examined the effects of cognitive style

on the counseling process. York and Tinsley

(1986) did report on one investigation that

suggests that Harren’s theory (1979) has

particular relevance to the career counseling

process. Harren theorized that individuals

differ in the combination of strategies (i.e.,

decision-making styles) they use to make

career decisions.

An individuals who make panicky

decision and without reflection are panic

decision-makers, those who make decisions

impulsively without reflection or prudence

are impulsive decision makers or those who

make their decision with regard to what

other people suggest (avoidance) generally

make a decision which is not optimal vis-àvis

their goals, interests or abilities. Thus, an

individual’s decision-making style

influences the way he makes his decision.

This means that the individual’s preferred

decision-making style affects his/her career

decision.

Johnson (1978) and Myers and

McCaulley (1985) also have postulated the

existence of psychological types (i.e.,

individual differences in cognitive style) that

they argue will respond differently to career

counseling interventions. According to

Myers and McCaulley, extraverts are aware

of and rely on the environment for

stimulation and guidance. They are action

oriented and sometimes impulsive, enjoy

frank and easy communication, and are

more likely to reach decisions by talking

them out and getting feedback. Johnson

proposed a theory of decision-making styles

in which he distinguished two informationgathering

styles and two information

processing styles that seem related to these

psychological types.

Operationally, decision-making style

in the present study has been defined as how

adolescents influenced the way they make

decision and behave in decision-making

situations as measured by Decision-making

questionnaire by Tuinstra (2000)

Several studies (Harren, 1979;

Jepsen & Prediger, 1981; Moreland, Harren,

Krimsky-Montague, & Tinsley, 1979; Vice,

142


1977) have examined the relation between

Harren’s (1979) decision-making styles and

sex-role attitudes and college major choice.

Based on the theoretical writings of Harren

(1979), Johnson (1978), and Myers and

McCaulley (1985), we expected to find that

the rational decision-making style correlated

negatively with the intuitive decision

making style, positively with the

introversion psychological type, and

negatively with the perceiving/judging

psychological type. It anticipated that the

intuitive decision-making style would

correlate positively with the perceiving

psychological type and that the dependent

decision-making style would correlate

negatively with the introversion/extraversion

and positively with the external

psychological types.

The relation between an individual’s

predominant decision-making style and

his/her efficiency in the career decisionmaking

process are also frequently

examined in empirical studies. Namely, a

decision-making style indicates the learned,

usual pattern of an individual’s reactions in

coping with a situation where he/she has to

make a decision (Scott and Bruce, 1995, in

Sager and Gastil, 1999) or the way he/she

approaches cognitive tasks (Galotti, Ciner,

Altenbaumer, Geerts, Rupp, and Woulfe,

2006). Unadjusted decision making styles

are negatively related to progress in a career

decision-making process (Franken and

Muris, 2005; Phillips, Pazienza, & Walsh,

1984, in Blustein and Phillips, 1990).

Most theorists who study career

development endorse a systematic decisionmaking

style (Phillips, 1994). Studies have

revealed significant and positive

relationships between the systematic

decision-making style and career maturity

(Leong & Morris, 1989), career decidedness

(Lunneborg, 1978), career implementation

(Hesketh, 1982). Moreover, some career

decision-making theorists have emphasized

the importance of spontaneous and

dependent styles of decision-making

(Einhorn & Hogarth, 1981; Phillips,

Strohmer, Berthaume, & O'Leary, 1983).

These equivocal research findings and

decision-making theory statements led

Holland, Magoon, and Spokane (1981) to

state that "the rational assumption

underlying many [career treatment plans

may be unwarranted for a large proportion

of clients" (p. 291). Accordingly, Phillips,

Pazienza, and Ferrin (1984) called for the

143


examination of behavioral correlates of the

various decision-making styles.

Objectives

The present study is based on the following

objectives:

• To study the adjusted and nonadjusted

decision-making style

among adolescents

• To compare the adjusted and nonadjusted

decision-making style

among Humanities and Science

adolescents

• To compare the adjusted and nonadjusted

decision-making style

among boys and girls adolescents

Hypotheses

Keeping in view the objective, the following

hypotheses were formulated to carry out the

study:

• There exists no significant

relationship between adjusted and

non-adjusted decision-making style

among humanities and science

adolescents

• There exists no significant

relationship between adjusted and

non-adjusted decision-making style

among boys and girls adolescents.

Method

Participants

The total sample size comprised of

200 students of XII class studying in three

Government Senior Secondary Schools

under the C.B.S.E. system of Chandigarh

(U.T.)

Instruments

Decision-making Questionnarie

(Tuinstra et.al., 2000)

The decision-making questionnaire

includes 22 items that refer to the ways

people usually make decisions. It measures

four decision making styles: one adjusted

style – self confidence, and three unadjusted

styles (avoidance, panic and impulsive

decision making). Avoidance and selfconfidence

styles consist of six items,

whereas panic and impulsive styles have

five items. Students were asked to complete

items on a four-point rating scale, where 1 =

never true for me, 2 = sometimes true for

me, 3 = often true for me and 4 = always

true for me.

Results and Discussion

Mean, S.D and‘t’ values were

worked out to find significant differences on

dimensions of adjusted and non-adjusted

144


decision-making style on humanities and

science groups and on boys and girls

adolescents. The mean scores for decisionmaking

style of total sample are presented in

Table 1; humanities and Science groups are

presented in Table 2; boys and girls

adolescent are presented in Table 3.

Discussion based on Table 1

Table 1 shows the Mean scores on

the variables of decision-making style

reveals that the high score was found on the

adjusted style of decision-making among

adolescents. It shows that the adolescent

having more self-confidence in making

decisions. It signifies that adolescents in the

higher educational levels are more

competent in decision making. On

unadjusted styles, adolescent are more

impulsive and take decisions more panicky

and impulsive than avoiding decisions.

Panic decision-making style is one in which

individuals make panicky decisions without

reflection and Avoidance decision making

style is one who makes their decision with

regard to what other people suggest

(avoidance) generally make a decision

which is not optimal vis-a-vis their career

goals, interests or abilities while impulsive

decision makers are those who make

decisions impulsively without reflection or

prudence.

Table I: Means scores for the Total Sample (N=200) on the Decision-making style.

Var. No. Variable Mean

20 Self- Confidence (SC) 2.79

21 Panic (P) 2.19

22 Avoidance (A) 1.90

23 Impulsive (I) 2.18

145


3

2.5

2

1.5

1

Series1

0.5

0

Discussion based on Table 2

Table 2 shows the decision-making

humanities and science groups on adjusted

style i.e. self-confidence were 2.76 and 2.57

style in case of Humanities and Science respectively. The‘t’ ratio (4.38) was

groups along with their level of significance.

On decision-making style, Mean scores of

significant at 0.01 level favoring the science

group whereas in case of humanities.

Table II: Comparison between Humanities and Science on the Variables of Decision-

Making style.

Variables Mean S.D.

Level of Significance

‘t’ratio

Science Humanities Science Humanities

Self

2.76 2.57 0.44 0.34 4.38 Significant at .01 level

Confidence

Panic 2.28 2.36 0.40 0.28 2.25 Significant at .01 level

Avoidance 2.07 2.27 0.46 0.44 3.87 Significant at .01 level

Impulsive 2.14 2.22 0.40 0.29 2.30 Significant at .01 level

Self-

Confidence

Panic Avoidance Impulsive

Fig 1: Distribution of Mean Scores on Decision-Making Style of Adolescents

146


It reveals that adjusted style i.e. self

confidence is most prevalent among the

science adolescents than humanities group.

This might be due to the reason that science

students have more trust in their decisionmaking

abilities and are satisfied with their

past decisions than humanities students.

They will have decided about their further

career/education before the deadline for the

decision and have faith in their abilities. The

pictorial representation in Fig 2 supports this

observation in a form of bar diagram given

below:

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

Science

Humanities

0.5

0

Self

Confidence

Panic Avoidance Impulsive

Fig 2: Distribution of Mean Scores of Humanities and Science Adolescents on Decision-

Making Style.

Discussion based on Table III

Table III shows decision-making

style scores in case of boys and girls along

with their level of significance. The Mean

scores of boys and girls on adjusted style

were 2.73 and 2.57 respectively. The‘t’ ratio

(3.13) was significant at 0.01 level favoring

the boys whereas in case of unadjusted style

the‘t’ ratio 3.36 on panic; 5.36 on avoidance

and 2.24 on impulsive were all found to be

significant at .01 level favoring boys. This

shows that the girls in the adolescent age

attained more unadjusted style i.e. high

scores on panic, impulsive and avoidance

decision-making style than boys. The same

can be interpreted from figure 3.

147


Table III: Comparison between Boys and Girls on the Variables of Decision-making style.

Variables Mean S.D.

Level of Significance

‘t’ratio

Boys Girls Boys Girls

Self

2.73 2.57 0.46 0.35 3.13 Significant at .01 level

Confidence

Panic 2.23 2.36 0.30 0.28 3.36 Significant at .01 level

Avoidance 1.95 2.27 0.38 0.44 5.36 Significant at .01 level

Impulsive 2.13 2.22 0.29 0.20 2.24 Significant at .01 level

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

Boys

Girls

0.5

0

Self Confidence Panic Avoidance Impulsive

Fig 3: Distribution of Mean Scores of Boys and Girls on Decision-Making Style

On the measures of decisionmaking

style, the boys were perhaps even take decisions impulsively without

other people suggests (peer group) and

more self confident and hence made reflection; but boys were found to be

decisions very confidently. The girls more responsible and think before they

were found to make more panicky make decision. The Earlier research

decisions and stresses more upon what studies on decision-making style i.e.

148


Mau (1999); Ormond et al., (1991);

Friedman & Mann (1993) concluded that

male adolescents outscored females on

self-confidence and males scored lower

than females on panic.

Conclusion

The analysis of decision-making style of

adolescents reflected that the higher

adjusted style decision-making and

lower unadjusted decision-making style

contributed adolescents to make

decisions very confidently, less panic

stricken, with reflection and responsible

way of decision-making. The

comparative less confident girls

indicated that they have less exposure

and fewer chances to make decisions in

the family. The more confident they are,

the better they can perform in a variety

of situation where independent decisionmaking

is required. The applications of

finding of this study are directed towards

the possibilities of enhancing confidence

among girls by participating them in

different activities during teachinglearning

process. The styles of decisionmaking

are an important factor in

deciding the career success and to attain

goals in life. Hence a proper diagnosis of

decision-making styles may provide an

insight into adolescent problems and

parents, teachers and all those keenly

involved in nurturing adolescents need

to help them in way of making decisions

properly.

References

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Relation between Ego Identity

Statues and Decision-Making

Styles. Journal of Counseling

Psychology, 37, 160–168.

Bromiley, P., & Curley, S. P. (1992).

Individual Differences in Risk

Taking. In J. F. Yates (Ed.), Risktaking

behavior (pp. 87–132). New

York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Bruine de Bruin, W., Parker, A. M., &

Fischhoff, B. (2007). Individual

differences in Adult Decision-

Making Competence. Journal of

Personality and Social

Psychology, 92, 938–956.

Driver, M. J. (1979). Individual

Decision-Making and Creativity.

In S. Kerr (Ed.),

Organizationalbehavior.

Columbus, OH: Grid.

Finucane, M. L., Slovic, P., Hibbard, J.

H., Peters, E., Mertz, C. K., &

Macgregor, D. G. (2002). Aging

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and

Decision-Making

Competence: An Analysis of

Comprehension and Consistency

Skills in Older versus Younger

Adults. Journal of Behavioral

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Harren, V. A. (1979). A Model of Career

Decision-Making for College

Students. Journal of Vocational

Behavior, 14, 119-133.

Jepsen, D.A. & Prediger, D.J. (1981):

Dimensions of Adolescent

Career Development: A Multi-

Instrument Analysis. Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 19, 350-368.

Johnson, R. H. (1978). Individual Styles

of Decision Making: A Theoretical

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536.

Leong, S. L., Leong, F. T. L., &

Hoffman, M. A. (1987).

Counseling Expectations of

Rational, Intuitive, and Dependent

Decision-Makers. Journal of

Counseling Psychology, 34, 261–

265.

Lopes, L. L. (1987). Between Hope and

Fear: The Psychology of Risk.

Advances in Experimental Social

Psychology, 20, 255–295.

Myers, I. B., & McCaulley, M. H.

(1985). A Guide to the

Development and Use of the

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Palo

Alto, CA: Consulting

Psychologists Press.

Parker, A. M., & Fischhoff, B. (2005).

Decision-Making Competence:

External Validation through an

Individual Differences Approach.

Journal of Behavioral Decision

Making, 18, 1–27.

Phillips, S. D., & Strohmer, D. C.

(1982). Decision-Making Style

and Vocational Maturity. Journal

of Vocational Behavior, 20, 215–

222.

Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. A. (1995).

Decision Making Style:

Development and Assessment of a

New Measure. Educational and

Psychological Measurement, 55,

818–831.

Slovic, P. (1962). Convergent Validation

of Risk-Taking Measures. Journal

of Abnormal and Social

Psychology, 65, 68–71.

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Stanovich, K. E., & West, R. F. (1998).

Individual differences in Rational

Thought. Journal of Experimental

Psychology: General, 127, 161–

188.

Super, D. E. (1980). A life-span, lifespace

approach to career

development. Journal of

Vocational Behavior, 16, 282–298.

Tinsley, H.E.A., Benton, B. L., &

Rollins, J. A. (1984). The Effects

of Values Clarification Exercises

on the Clarity of the Value

Structure of Junior High School

Students. Vocational Guidance

Quarterly, 32, 160-167.

Vice, J. A. (1977). Career Development

of Women in Engineering: Factors

Influencing a Non-Traditional

Career (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State

University, 1977). Dissertation

Abstracts International, 38, 38618.

Weber, E. U., Blais, A. -R., & Betz, N.

E. (2002). A Domain-Specific

Risk-Attitude Scale: Measuring

Risk Perceptions and Risk

Behaviors. Journal of Behavioral

Decision Making, 15, 263–290.

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The Relationship between

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Personality Types. Journal of

College Student Personnel, 27,

535-541.

Paper recieved June 02, 2012

Revision received June 12, 2012

Paper accepted June 18, 2012

151


Investment in Education: A Panacea for National

Economic Vibrancy

Ezekiel O. Akpan

Department of Vocational Education

University of Uyo

Uyo-Nigeria

and

Allen Anthony Ozuruoke

School of Business Education

Federal College of Education(Technical)

Omoku-Nigeria

Abstract

This paper introduces the issue at stake here by highlighting on the meaning of

investment in Education using dictionary definition. It expresses the bodies that

ought to be involved and be responsible in investing and financing Education in

Nigeria to give it the right boost. The paper further talk about the funding

administration and planning of investment in education sectors presented in a table

and how this will culminate to economic vibrancy when all the areas that need to

be taken care of through such investments are considered appropriately and

recommended fore herein. This work is concluded by reiterating that the right fund

should be invested through the right process on the right programme level area

such as for equipment, facilities, and personnel as to achieve the desired national

economic vibrancy.

Keywords. Education, National Economic Vibrancy

152


Introduction

The Longman Dictionary of

Contemporary English has investment as

“The money that people or organization

has put into a accompany or business or

bank in order to get a profit or to make a

business activity successful.

It has been generally accepted

that education is a veritable instrument

for socio-economic development of

nations Amahua (2010). To Okafor

(1981) Education is a process of the

development of potentialities of the

individual and their maximum activation

when necessary according to right

reason and to achieve thereby his perfect

self fulfillment.

Investment in education therefore

is putting money into the development of

potentialities of the individual and their

maximum activation to get profit or

make them successful.

The National Policy on

Education in ‘The Road Map to Nigerian

Education System 2009’, has it that

‘education in Nigeria is no more a

private enterprises, but a huge

Government venture that has witnessed a

progressive evolution of Government’s

complete and dynamic intervention and

active participation’. This document

further has it that ‘the Federal

Government of Nigeria has adopted

education as an instrument par

excellence for effecting national

development. It is only natural then that

government should clarify the

philosophy and objectives that underlie

its current massive investment in

education, and spell out in clear

unequivocal terms the policies that guide

government’s educational efforts’.

It further stated that it is

Government’s wish that any existing

contradictions, ambiguities, and lack of

uniformity in educational practices in the

different parts of the Federation should

be removed to ensure an even and

orderly development of the country.

Government has also stated that

for the benefit of all citizens the

country’s educational goal in terms of its

relevance to the need of the individual as

well as in terms of the kind of society

desired in relation to the environment

and the realities of the modern world and

rapid social changes should be clearly

set out. In vies of these facts it become

imperative that investment in education

in Nigeria should be paramount no

matter how expensive it might seem.

It is government’s intention that

the far-reaching recommendations set

out in twelve sections of this document

should start to transform all aspects of

the action’s life without delay.

Government has therefore set up a

National Education Policy

Implementation Committee which

translated the policy into a workable

blueprint that will guide the bodies

153


whose duty it is to implement

educational policy, and will also develop

a monitoring system of the progress of

the planned educational evolution to

ensure that infrastructures are prepared

and bottle-necks removed.

Since education is a dynamic instrument

of change, there is therefore the need the

processes, methods and all associated

with education to be constantly reviewed

to ensure its adequacy and continued

relevance to national needs and

objectives.

The Need for Investment

Since a National policy on

education is way of achieving part of its

national objectives that can be achieved

using education as a tool, no policy on

investment on education can be

formulated without first identifying the

overall philosophy and objectives of the

Nation. The five main national

objectives of Nigeria as stated in the

Second National Development Plan, and

endorsed as the necessary foundation for

the National policy on Education, are the

building of: A free and democratic

society; A just and egalitarian society; A

united, strong and self-reliant nation; A

great and dynamic economy; and A land

of bright and full opportunities for all

citizens

Nigeria’s philosophy of

education, therefore, is based on the

integration of the individual into a sound

and effective citizen and equal education

opportunities for all citizen of the nation

at the primary, secondary and tertiary

levels, both inside and outside the formal

school system. In consequence, the

quality of instructions at all levels have

to be oriented towards inculcating values

such as:- Respect for the worth and

dignity of the individuals; Faith in man’s

ability to make decisions; Moral and

spiritual values in inter-personal and

human relations; Shared responsibility

for the common good of society;

Promotion of the emotional, physical

and psychological health of all. For the

philosophy to be in harmony with

Nigeria’s objectives, it has to be geared

towards self-realization, better human

relationship, individual and a national

efficiency, effective citizenship, national

consciousness, national unity, as well as

towards social, cultural, economic,

political, scientific and technological

progress.

Educational investments in

Nigeria should therefore aim at:

inculcation of national consciousness

and national unity; the right type of

values and attitude for the survival of the

individual and the Nigeria society;

training of the mind in the understanding

of the word around; and acquisition of

appropriate skills, abilities and

competences both mental and physical

as equipment for the individuals to live

in and contribute to the development of

his society

Financing Investment in Nigerian

Education

154


Education is an expensive social

service and requires adequate financial

provision. Investment in education

should be taken as a matter of necessity

by tier of government; Multinational

companies; Financial institutions such as

banks and insurance companies; highly

financial blessed individuals

philanthropists; the large and prosperous

Religious bodies and other institutions

for a successful implementation of the

education programmes at all recognized

levels.

The ultimate objective should be

to make education affordable or free at

all levels. The financing of education

should be a joint responsibility of the

federal state and local government in

addition to such other bodies mentioned

above.

The importance of science,

technical and commercial education and

the need to relate all educational

programmes to industry and societal

demand is very necessary. Formulae for

collaboration and joint responsibility,

such as is already being carried out in

schemes like the industrial training fund

(ITF) should be designed for sharing

cost burden between the public and

private sectors.

Investment Funding Responsibilities

Attention should be given here to

the draft special report of the

comprehensive education sector

situation analysis carried out by the

Federal Ministry of Education in 2006 as

presented in the National Action Plan to

meet the 2015 timeline of Education For

All and Nigerian vision 20,2020

education targets. The sector analysis

was based on policy,

structure/governance, infrastructure,

deployment of ICT, academic

achievement, monitoring inspection,

quality of curriculum, teacher quality

and supply, funding and equity issues.

The Table here below explains this

better:

155


Table:1 Showing funding Situation Analysis of Nigerian Education Sector

Education Sectors

For Investment

Funding

A B C D E F

Curricu Teacher Academic Funding

lum Qulty & Achieve’t

Quality Supply

Total

Score

50

Monitor

ing/

Inspect.

1 ECCD 07 1 1 1 1 0

2 PRIMARY 22 5 1 1 1 1

3 NON FORMAL 09 1 1 1 1 1

4 SECONDARY 18 1 3 1 3 1

5 SPECIAL NEED 07 1 3 0 1 0

6 TERTIARY 20 1 3 1 3 1

Adapted from FRN (2006)

The Nigerian Federal

Government and all other bodies herein

suggested, should invest adequate fund

for basic infrastructure, deployment of

ICT, academic achievement, monitoring

inspection, quality of curriculum, teacher

quality and supply, funding and equity

issues. Aim the investment to meet all

costs relating to standard maintenance

and supervision of facilities and ensure

quality service delivery in all the

identified sectors of education; Such

investment should be to establish and

adequately fund a national specialized

resource centre to serve as a research

and information base for all the various

levels of educational system and for

manpower regular participation in all

level considering also related

conferences, workshops seminars etc.

The state government should

channel investment towards ensuring

friendly atmosphere through the

provision of related educational

infrastructures that will enhance learning

and stimulate interests and

environmental friendliness for all. The

state should also invest on recurrent

expenditures relating to operation and

maintenance of publicly owned

facilities. Considering the provision of at

least one meal for the children while in

school is also necessary

The Local government should

focus its educational investment on the

area of funding the training requirement

of Caregivers and teachers at the early

educational levels for children, considers

investments in the health sectors for

these children and provision of crèches,

Day Care-Centers as required in the

local communities.

156


Other bodies as mentioned earlier

should focus investments in education

into sources that can support crèche,

Day-Care Centers and Nursery schools

established to complement government

efforts. Other forms of investments

could be;-Donation in cash and kind by

Civil Society (NGOs CBOs), Religious

Organizations, Philanthropists, Local

Committee, Organizations, Private

Companies Grants and Loans from

Internal and International Development

Partners.

Investment projection of what

should be required at each level of

education activities based on the needs

including the personnel salaries and

allowances, infrastructural facilities,

playing equipment and materials,

training, inspection and supervision. A

financial plan specifying the detail

requirement and the sources of funds

vis-à-vis the integrated strategic

investment approach should be drawn

up.

Administration and Planning of

Investment in Education

The success of investment on any

system of education is hinged on proper

planning, efficient administration and

adequate financing. Investment planning

and administration includes organization

and structure, proprietorship and control,

inspection and supervision of the

educational system ie the schools.

School systems, and

consequently their management and dayto-day

administration should grow out of

the life and social ethos of the

community which they serve:

consequently the administrative

machinery for the national education

system should be based on some cardinal

principles such as: Intimate and direct

participation and involvement at the

level, of the administration and

management of the educational system

school. Effective lines of communication

should exist between the immediate

community and the state and national

machinery for policy formulated and

implementation. A devotion of functions

whereby the management of the

educational system should be placed in

the hands of zonal school boards

management. The co-ordination,

planning, financing, and direction of the

total educational effort within the state

should be placed in the hands of the

State Ministry, Department or

Directorate for Education. Again the

integration of educational development

and policy with national objectives and

programmes should be made the

responsibility of a Federal Ministry,

Department or Directorate of Education.

Global view also has it that conventional

wisdom has it that economics growth is

the key to a successful poverty reduction

strategy. This is well articulated in the

2000-2001 World Development report

Societal growth and poverty

reduction for economic vibrancy over

the various regions in the globe is highly

157


influenced by investment in education.

The Figure below attests to this.

Fig.3 Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction by Region 1980-2000

12

Europe and

8 Central Asia

4

0

Sub-Saharan

-4 African

-8

Latin American and the Caribbean

South Asia

East Asia and Pacific

-12 Middle East and North Africa

-5 0 5 10

Average annual growth in per capital GDP (percent)

(Source Adapted from World Bank 2001 Fig.3.3)

For these functions to be discharged

efficiently, a cadre of staff should be

provided in adequate numbers and

quality at the different operational level

in the local, state, and federal as well as

in all the private institutions. Financial

investment should be adequate to cater

for both personnel, equipment and

facilities as may be demanded by all the

educational sectors, be it science,

technical, vocational or commercial.

Funding Investment in Nigerian

Education

Education has been recognized

and adopted as a tool par excellence for

individual, communal and national

development and investment can not be

overemphasized. The subscription of

education for all, the millennium

development goals, the national

economic empowerment and

development strategy ad mist others are

cases in point that will invariably

reinstate economic vibrancy

Funds for our purpose mean the

sum of money available for educational

programmes. Educational fund therefore

means the sum of money allocated to

education sector. The financial problem

of any country affects the

implementation of any policies since the

158


implementation of policy depends on the

financial resources available for

implementing them

Evidence abound that Nigeria’s

educational sector is grossly under

funded over the years. This under

funding of education adversely affects

the status of all other critical success

factors impacting or determining the

performance of the sector in terms of the

quality of the product of education.

The issue of funding education

has been a recurrent one in the history of

Nigeria’s educational system (Amahua

2004). Records shows that Nigeria

allocates less than 10 percent of her

annual budget to education in spite of

the ram shackled state of the Nigerian

education system and the wealth of the

nation. Iganiga and Ogieriakhi (2008)

confirmed this unreasonable allocation

when they stated that “total federal

government allocation to education

sector average 8 percent from 1980 to

2008”. This trend of the share of

education in total federal expenditure

does not suggest any serious effort by

the government to shift financial

resources allocation to education to

improve its lot. The allocation is for

below the United Nation (UNO’S)

prescription that a minimum of 26

percent of annual budget of the

developing countries be allocated to

funding of education All this indicate

gross under funding of Nigerian’s

educational sector by the federal

government. Agbem (1997), also

affirms the nation’s non compliance to

the UNOs recommendation on budgetary

allocation to science and technology

education

Similarly, Maduabum (1992)

reports that science and technological

education researches are poorly funded

and laboratories are inadequate and illequipped.

Also Olorutegbe (1997) points

out cases of abandoned educational

projects and innovations due to lack of

funds. Furthermore, Ukeje (1978).

Abackwueme (1982), Nwogu (1985),

Olaitan (1980) in Amahua (2010) all

affirmed the shortfall in educational

funding. The list is inexhaustible. All

these imply that the government of the

federation pays lips service to science

and technology education and that the

nation’s commitment rarely on the

documentary/paper provisions.

Investment for Economic Vibrancy

The positive influence of

economic growth through investment in

education on poverty reduction is

supported by several studies. Ghen and

Revallion (2002) shows that economic

growth is highly correlated with

“absolute poverty” Historically too

Europe and the United States, long term

economic growth since the beginning of

the nineteenth century reduced poverty

in 180 years from levels near threeqquarters

of the population to under 15

percent in the United States and far less

in other countries (Aassanini and

Scarpetta, 2001)

159


As economics grow through

positive investment, income distribution

may change which in turn changes

poverty rate over time

Fig.3: Average Annual Poverty Reduction with percent increase per Unit of Investment

Level of Economic Vibrancy & Poverty Reduction

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0 …….. Investment Levels

0.2 0.4 0.6

(Source: Adopted from World Bank 2001 (fig.3-6)

Economists have established that the

quantity and quality of output is determined

by the quantity and quality of the input

factors. Furthermore, the availability of the

input factors depends on the financial

resources that are available to the producers.

The producer in this case, is the educational

institution producing the graduates who are

expected to be of the right quality in terms

of skills and competencies as graduates.

Low quality input is a basic factor for low

quality output hence, total quality

management (TQM) paradigm demands that

quality should be injected and allowed to

permeate the entirety of any system that is

desirous of excellence. This is particularly

with regards to what goes in (investments)

and what goes on (process/system) and what

goes out of any enterprise (output/products).

Therefore to achieve economic vibrancy,

education requires the right quantity and

quality of personnel and equipment or

facilities which attracts investment in the

following areas:-

160


Investment on Teachers and Supportive

Staffs

The academic personnel and the non

academic staff in the educational institutions

must be of the right quality and with well

trained and qualified lecturers/teachers who

are directly involved in the training process.

Currently, most educational institutions lack

the right quality of manpower for the

education pedagogy. In the spirit of total

quality management, the quality of any

institutions workforce is the most critical

success factor in addition to quality

leadership at all levels of the institutions.

Investment on Facilities/Equipment

Essentially, the aim to master

subjects teaching is to achieve mastery of

the skill which should be measured by the

trainn’s (students/pupils) ability to use the

knowledge in solving problems. The

teacher demonstrates and allows students to

do it, while care is given to the weak ones.

The current status of facilities and

equipment in educational institutions

indicate that relevant facilities, tools and

equipment are in acute shortage and in some

cases visibly exposed to practical orientation

and as a result their acquisition of the

expected knowledge and competencies will

be hampered. Such students/pupils will lack

the quality or competence expected of them

when they graduate.

The provision of the right type and

necessary equipment for business education

handled by qualified teacher will obviously

call for quality, Agomuo (1993). Uzoagulu

(2009) in Amahua (2010) observed that the

achievement off the objectives of education

has largely been frustrated by lack of

facilities and qualified personnel.

Investment on Research and Curricular

Implementation

To ensure that the output of out

educational institutions possess the

knowledge and competencies that would

enable them meet the demand and

expectations of economic vibrancy in the

modern world of work, certain elements or

methods should be injected and maintained

in the entire educational process. These

include participation in research work,

appropriate curriculum and the teaching

methods evaluated at reasonable intervals.

Along with this are teachers update,

projects, seminars, assignment, and

counseling services. The application of

better teaching methods and full

implementation of the curriculum will

reduce the number of graduates that will be

classified as failures or half baked as a result

of defectives educational process.

Investment in this are should also

provide for inspection that will ensure that

the existing educational programme should

be geared towards the need of the immediate

socio-economic environment.

It is the contention of this paper that

the issues examined above are the critical

success factors which are the essential

prerequisites that should be injected and

maintained in the entire education

investment process to ensure national

economic vibrancy as they will ensure that

the expected quality of candidates will only

161


e turned out from a well investment

educational system.

Conclusion

The ultimate goal of the education

programme is to equip the graduates with

appropriate knowledge, and competencies

that will enable them to meet the expectation

and demand of the contemporary economic

world. Achieving and maintaining

economic vibrancy and excellence involves

ensuring that only the right quality and

quantity of the befitting and necessary

factors are invested upon. In the education

sector, these include investment on the right

quality and quantity of personnel; and

related programmes. There is also as

recommended herein, the high need for

facilities, equipment and infrastructures as

well as the provision of adequate incentive

for the staff and evaluating and supervising

agents. With these, the economic vibrancy

of a nation is highly ensured

Recommendations

1. Measures that will enhance the

admission of students that are at

least of average academic ability

should be adopted. The right

caliber of students will obviously

cope with the task in education

thereby promoting quality of the

graduates of the educational

system.

2. The government and the

suggested bodies herein should

seriously improve the funding of

investments in education in its

budget as funding is the

confluence of all other factors

determining investment.

Something more than that

executed through the current

Educational Trust Fund (ETF)

because education is capital

intensive but the bedrock of

economic vibrancy.

3. Conducive teaching environment

that includes incentives and

motivational ingredients for

teachers should be ensured at all

time and at all levels of education

4. Quality teachers production for

all level should be intensified to

meet the required manpower in

the classroom and for other

administrative functions

5. Essential equipment and facilities

should be made more than

enough for all categories of

learning and teaching.

References

Amahua, S, A. (2004), Enhancing Education

Programme in Nigeria Colleges of

Education. Expectations, Status and

Improvement Strategies. Journal of

Business and General Education (3:1)

136-144

Amahua, S. A. (2010) Underfunding

Education in Nigeria. The case of

Research and Development for quality

assurance in Business Education. A

Book of Reading Vol.1 No.10 –p184-

189

162


Akuezuilo, E. O. (1993) Research

Methodology and Statistic, Awkwa,

Nuel Cent. (Nig.) Publisher.

East and North Africa 1960-2000

Washington, DC. World Bank

Iganiga, B. O. and Ogieriakhi, S. (2000)

Democratic Governance and

University Education: Nigerian

Experience. Unpublished Paper

Presented at the National Association

of Research Development Conference

(FCE(T) Asaba, Delta State.

Federal Republic of Nigeria; National Policy

on Education Roadmap for Nigerian

Education Sector; March 2009

Federal Ministry of Education; The

Development of Education National

Report of Nigeria. The Forty-Eight

Session of the International

Conference on Education (ICE)

SWITZERLAND 25-28 November

2008

United Nation Organization (UNO) World

Development Report (1995);

11(12).26

Uzoagulu, A. (2009) Skill Development in

Voc. & Tech. Edu. A Lead paper

presented at the Annual Conference on

Skill Development in Science and

Technology development Research

and Conference Unit F C E (T)

Umunze

World Bank 2002 World Development

Report 2000/2001 Attacking Poverty

New York Oxford University Press

Paper recieved June 15, 2012

Revision received June 30, 2012

Paper accepted June 30, 2012

World Bank 2005 Poverty Reduction and

Social Development in the Middle

163


Guidelines for Author

e - Reflection, An international Multidisciplinary Peer Reviewed E Journal

(ERAIMPREJ) is published bi-monthly as ONLINE by the edupublication. The

article will be published in the official web page www.edupublication.com

e - Reflection provides an opportunity for those who are involved in the study;

management, development and implementation of knowledge management

initiatives to exchange ideas. The editorial board of the journal invites submissions

of papers on both the theory and practice of all aspects of education and

knowledge management. The journal is seeking quantitative, qualitative and

experience-based papers as well as case studies.

Papers submitted will be PEER REVIEWED. On the basis of referee’s

comments, author(s) will be asked by the editor to revise the paper / answer the

queries. Papers are accepted on the understanding that the work described is

original and has not been published elsewhere and that the authors have

obtained necessary authorization for publication of the material submitted.

Subject Matter: Articles on all aspects of education, humanities and social sciences are

accepted.

Manuscript:

Contributions should be no more than 5000 words, including tables and figures and

not more than 3mb in size.

• Review articles should be about 5,000 words.

• Research papers should be about 3,500 words.

• Case reports should be about 2,500 words.

It should be in clear concise English, typewritten in double space on A4 size with

at least 2.5 cm margin. Full research paper should not exceed 15 typed pages

including tables and figures and should contain abstract, introduction, materials

and methods, results and discussion, acknowledgment and reference. Short notes,

not exceeding 6 typed pages, may also be divided into different sections with a

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pages. It should feature recent developments from the author's own field of

specialization and include results of various workers in the given field. MSWord

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(ERAIMPREJ) reserves the right to accept/reject the article. ALL ARTICLES

i


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Reference: Relevant references shall be quoted under each section and must be cited

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citation may be avoided. The following style suggested by APA should be

followed:

Dryoos, J.G. (1990). Adolescent at risk: Prevalence and prevention. New York: Oxford

University Press.

Abouserie, R. (1994). Sources and levels of stress in relation to locus of control and

self-esteem in university students. Educational Psychology, 14(3), 323-330.

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Subban, P. & Sharma, U. (2006). Teachers’ perceptions of inclusive education in

Victoria, Australia, International Journal of Special Education, 21(1), 42-52.

National Curriculum Framework (2005). Position paper on Education of Children with

Special Needs. New Delhi: NCERT

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the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an

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this manuscript is not under consideration for publication elsewhere;

when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to

automatic transfer of the copyright to the ERAIMPREJ

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Editor,

e - Reflection

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An International Multidisciplinary Peer Reviewed E Journal

Dr J R Sonwane

Department of Education

Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar ,

Gujarat (INDIA) 364 002

E-mail: edupublication@gmail.com

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