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Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and ... - clinicalevidence

Clinical Pharmacology and

  • Page 2 and 3: A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology
  • Page 4 and 5: A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology
  • Page 6 and 7: This fifth edition is dedicated to
  • Page 8 and 9: CONTENTS FOREWORD PREFACE ACKNOWLED
  • Page 10 and 11: PREFACE Clinical pharmacology is th
  • Page 12 and 13: PART I GENERAL PRINCIPLES
  • Page 14 and 15: CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THERAPEUT
  • Page 16 and 17: SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF USE OF DRUGS IN
  • Page 18 and 19: AGONISTS 7 100 100 Effect (%) Effec
  • Page 20 and 21: SLOW PROCESSES 9 100 2 Dose ratio -
  • Page 22 and 23: CHAPTER 3 PHARMACOKINETICS ● Intr
  • Page 24 and 25: REPEATED (MULTIPLE) DOSING 13 In re
  • Page 26 and 27: NON-LINEAR (‘DOSE-DEPENDENT’) P
  • Page 28 and 29: CHAPTER 4 DRUG ABSORPTION AND ROUTE
  • Page 30 and 31: ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION 19 ROUTES
  • Page 32 and 33: ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION 21 Transde
  • Page 34 and 35: ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION 23 FURTHER
  • Page 36 and 37: PHASE II METABOLISM (TRANSFERASE RE
  • Page 38 and 39: ENZYME INDUCTION 27 and lorazepam.
  • Page 40 and 41: METABOLISM OF DRUGS BY INTESTINAL O
  • Page 42 and 43: CHAPTER 6 RENAL EXCRETION OF DRUGS
  • Page 44 and 45: ACTIVE TUBULAR REABSORPTION 33 ACTI
  • Page 46 and 47: RENAL DISEASE 35 DISTRIBUTION Drug
  • Page 48 and 49: LIVER DISEASE 37 Detailed recommend
  • Page 50 and 51: THYROID DISEASE 39 DIGOXIN Myxoedem
  • Page 52 and 53:

    CHAPTER 8 THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORI

  • Page 54 and 55:

    DRUGS FOR WHICH THERAPEUTIC DRUG MO

  • Page 56 and 57:

    CHAPTER 9 DRUGS IN PREGNANCY ● In

  • Page 58 and 59:

    PHARMACOKINETICS IN PREGNANCY 47 va

  • Page 60 and 61:

    PRESCRIBING IN PREGNANCY 49 an anti

  • Page 62 and 63:

    PRESCRIBING IN PREGRANCY 51 Case hi

  • Page 64 and 65:

    BREAST-FEEDING 53 METABOLISM At bir

  • Page 66 and 67:

    RESEARCH 55 lifelong effects as a r

  • Page 68 and 69:

    PHARMACODYNAMIC CHANGES 57 DISTRIBU

  • Page 70 and 71:

    EFFECT OF DRUGS ON SOME MAJOR ORGAN

  • Page 72 and 73:

    RESEARCH 61 FURTHER READING Dhesi J

  • Page 74 and 75:

    ADVERSE DRUG REACTION MONITORING/SU

  • Page 76 and 77:

    ADVERSE DRUG REACTION MONITORING/SU

  • Page 78 and 79:

    PREVENTION OF ALLERGIC DRUG REACTIO

  • Page 80 and 81:

    EXAMPLES OF ALLERGIC AND OTHER ADVE

  • Page 82 and 83:

    CHAPTER 13 DRUG INTERACTIONS ● In

  • Page 84 and 85:

    HARMFUL INTERACTIONS 73 Response Re

  • Page 86 and 87:

    HARMFUL INTERACTIONS 75 Table 13.1:

  • Page 88 and 89:

    HARMFUL INTERACTIONS 77 Table 13.5:

  • Page 90 and 91:

    CHAPTER 14 PHARMACOGENETICS ● Int

  • Page 92 and 93:

    GENETIC INFLUENCES ON DRUG METABOLI

  • Page 94 and 95:

    INHERITED DISEASES THAT PREDISPOSE

  • Page 96 and 97:

    INHERITED DISEASES THAT PREDISPOSE

  • Page 98 and 99:

    CLINICAL TRIALS 87 • Discovery

  • Page 100 and 101:

    CLINICAL DRUG DEVELOPMENT 89 Too ma

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    GLOBALIZATION 91 ETHICS COMMITTEES

  • Page 104 and 105:

    CELL-BASED AND RECOMBINANT DNA THER

  • Page 106 and 107:

    HUMAN STEM CELL THERAPY 95 duration

  • Page 108 and 109:

    CHAPTER 17 ALTERNATIVE MEDICINES: H

  • Page 110 and 111:

    SOY 99 A case report has suggested

  • Page 112 and 113:

    MISCELLANEOUS HERBS 101 including h

  • Page 114 and 115:

    PART II THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • Page 116 and 117:

    CHAPTER 18 HYPNOTICS AND ANXIOLYTIC

  • Page 118 and 119:

    ANXIETY 107 and daytime sleeping sh

  • Page 120 and 121:

    ANXIETY 109 Key points • Insomnia

  • Page 122 and 123:

    SCHIZOPHRENIA 111 Box 19.1: Dopamin

  • Page 124 and 125:

    SCHIZOPHRENIA 113 The Boston Collab

  • Page 126 and 127:

    BEHAVIOURAL EMERGENCIES 115 Oral me

  • Page 128 and 129:

    DEPRESSIVE ILLNESSES AND ANTIDEPRES

  • Page 130 and 131:

    DEPRESSIVE ILLNESSES AND ANTIDEPRES

  • Page 132 and 133:

    LITHIUM, TRYPTOPHAN AND ST JOHN’S

  • Page 134 and 135:

    SPECIAL GROUPS 123 Case history A 4

  • Page 136 and 137:

    PARKINSON’S SYNDROME AND ITS TREA

  • Page 138 and 139:

    PARKINSON’S SYNDROME AND ITS TREA

  • Page 140 and 141:

    MYASTHENIA GRAVIS 129 CHOREA The γ

  • Page 142 and 143:

    ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE 131 Cholinerg

  • Page 144 and 145:

    CHAPTER 22 ANTI-EPILEPTICS ● Intr

  • Page 146 and 147:

    GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT OF

  • Page 148 and 149:

    GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT OF

  • Page 150 and 151:

    WITHDRAWAL OF ANTI-EPILEPTIC DRUGS

  • Page 152 and 153:

    FEBRILE CONVULSIONS 141 Case histor

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    DRUGS USED FOR MIGRAINE PROPHYLAXIS

  • Page 156 and 157:

    CHAPTER 24 ANAESTHETICS AND MUSCLE

  • Page 158 and 159:

    INHALATIONAL ANAESTHETICS 147 is th

  • Page 160 and 161:

    SUPPLEMENTARY DRUGS 149 • Respira

  • Page 162 and 163:

    MUSCLE RELAXANTS 151 NON-DEPOLARIZI

  • Page 164 and 165:

    LOCAL ANAESTHETICS 153 have also pr

  • Page 166 and 167:

    CHAPTER 25 ANALGESICS AND THE CONTR

  • Page 168 and 169:

    DRUGS USED TO TREAT MILD OR MODERAT

  • Page 170 and 171:

    OPIOIDS 159 Key points Drugs for mi

  • Page 172 and 173:

    OPIOIDS 161 increases, correlating

  • Page 174 and 175:

    MANAGEMENT OF POST-OPERATIVE PAIN 1

  • Page 176 and 177:

    PART III THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

  • Page 178 and 179:

    CHAPTER 26 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS

  • Page 180 and 181:

    DISEASE-MODIFYING ANTIRHEUMATIC DRU

  • Page 182 and 183:

    HYPERURICAEMIA AND GOUT 171 • Sto

  • Page 184 and 185:

    HYPERURICAEMIA AND GOUT 173 Pharmac

  • Page 186 and 187:

    PART IV THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

  • Page 188 and 189:

    CHAPTER 27 PREVENTION OF ATHEROMA:

  • Page 190 and 191:

    PREVENTION OF ATHEROMA 179 responsi

  • Page 192 and 193:

    DRUGS USED TO TREAT DYSLIPIDAEMIA 1

  • Page 194 and 195:

    DRUGS USED TO TREAT DYSLIPIDAEMIA 1

  • Page 196 and 197:

    CHAPTER 28 HYPERTENSION ● Introdu

  • Page 198 and 199:

    DRUGS USED TO TREAT HYPERTENSION 18

  • Page 200 and 201:

    DRUGS USED TO TREAT HYPERTENSION 18

  • Page 202 and 203:

    DRUGS USED TO TREAT HYPERTENSION 19

  • Page 204 and 205:

    OTHER ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS 193 Ke

  • Page 206 and 207:

    OTHER ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS 195 Ca

  • Page 208 and 209:

    MANAGEMENT OF STABLE ANGINA 197 Ass

  • Page 210 and 211:

    MANAGEMENT OF UNSTABLE CORONARY DIS

  • Page 212 and 213:

    DRUGS USED IN ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEA

  • Page 214 and 215:

    DRUGS USED IN ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEA

  • Page 216 and 217:

    ANTICOAGULANTS 205 Intrinsic pathwa

  • Page 218 and 219:

    ANTICOAGULANTS 207 that the pharmac

  • Page 220 and 221:

    ANTICOAGULANTS IN PREGNANCY AND PUE

  • Page 222 and 223:

    CHAPTER 31 HEART FAILURE ● Introd

  • Page 224 and 225:

    DRUGS FOR HEART FAILURE 213 The dru

  • Page 226 and 227:

    DRUGS FOR HEART FAILURE 215 therape

  • Page 228 and 229:

    CHAPTER 32 CARDIAC DYSRHYTHMIAS ●

  • Page 230 and 231:

    CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION AND C

  • Page 232 and 233:

    TREATMENT OF OTHER SPECIFIC DYSRHYT

  • Page 234 and 235:

    SELECTED ANTI-DYSRHYTHMIC DRUGS 223

  • Page 236 and 237:

    SELECTED ANTI-DYSRHYTHMIC DRUGS 225

  • Page 238 and 239:

    SELECTED ANTI-DYSRHYTHMIC DRUGS 227

  • Page 240 and 241:

    SELECTED ANTI-DYSRHYTHMIC DRUGS 229

  • Page 242 and 243:

    PART V THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

  • Page 244 and 245:

    CHAPTER 33 THERAPY OF ASTHMA, CHRON

  • Page 246 and 247:

    CHRONIC BRONCHITIS AND EMPHYSEMA 23

  • Page 248 and 249:

    DRUGS USED TO TREAT ASTHMA AND CHRO

  • Page 250 and 251:

    DRUGS USED TO TREAT ASTHMA AND CHRO

  • Page 252 and 253:

    RESPIRATORY FAILURE 241 use in asth

  • Page 254 and 255:

    DRUG-INDUCED PULMONARY DISEASE 243

  • Page 256 and 257:

    PART VI THE ALIMENTARY SYSTEM

  • Page 258 and 259:

    CHAPTER 34 ALIMENTARY SYSTEM AND LI

  • Page 260 and 261:

    PEPTIC ULCERATION 249 • With rega

  • Page 262 and 263:

    PEPTIC ULCERATION 251 Ranitidine ha

  • Page 264 and 265:

    ANTI-EMETICS 253 Vestibular stimula

  • Page 266 and 267:

    INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE 255 cort

  • Page 268 and 269:

    CONSTIPATION 257 • in hepatocellu

  • Page 270 and 271:

    PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY 259 Ciprof

  • Page 272 and 273:

    LIVER DISEASE 261 withdrawal), smal

  • Page 274 and 275:

    DRUGS THAT MODIFY APPETITE 263 Tabl

  • Page 276 and 277:

    CHAPTER 35 VITAMINS AND TRACE ELEME

  • Page 278 and 279:

    VITAMIN C(ASCORBIC ACID) 267 dinucl

  • Page 280 and 281:

    TRACE ELEMENTS 269 Table 35.1: Comm

  • Page 282 and 283:

    PART VII FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES

  • Page 284 and 285:

    CHAPTER 36 NEPHROLOGICAL AND RELATE

  • Page 286 and 287:

    DIURETICS 275 Key points Diuretics

  • Page 288 and 289:

    VOLUME DEPLETION 277 is sometimes c

  • Page 290 and 291:

    DRUGS THAT AFFECT THE BLADDER AND G

  • Page 292 and 293:

    DRUGS THAT AFFECT THE BLADDER AND G

  • Page 294 and 295:

    PART VIII THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

  • Page 296 and 297:

    CHAPTER 37 DIABETES MELLITUS ● In

  • Page 298 and 299:

    DRUGS USED TO TREAT DIABETES MELLIT

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    DRUGS USED TO TREAT DIABETES MELLIT

  • Page 302 and 303:

    DRUGS USED TO TREAT DIABETES MELLIT

  • Page 304 and 305:

    ANTITHYROID DRUGS 293 deficiency. P

  • Page 306 and 307:

    SPECIAL SITUATIONS 295 fertility. I

  • Page 308 and 309:

    CHAPTER 39 CALCIUM METABOLISM ● I

  • Page 310 and 311:

    BISPHOSPHONATES 299 effective in li

  • Page 312 and 313:

    CINACALCET 301 Further reading Bloc

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    ADRENAL CORTEX 303 Table 40.1: Acti

  • Page 316 and 317:

    ADRENAL MEDULLA 305 injection may b

  • Page 318 and 319:

    CHAPTER 41 REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLO

  • Page 320 and 321:

    FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY 3

  • Page 322 and 323:

    FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY 3

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    MALE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY 313

  • Page 326 and 327:

    MALE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY 315

  • Page 328 and 329:

    ANTERIOR PITUITARY HARMONES AND REL

  • Page 330 and 331:

    POSTERIOR PITUITARY HARMONES 319 FU

  • Page 332 and 333:

    PART IX SELECTIVE TOXICITY

  • Page 334 and 335:

    CHAPTER 43 ANTIBACTERIAL DRUGS ●

  • Page 336 and 337:

    COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ANTIBACTERIAL D

  • Page 338 and 339:

    COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ANTIBACTERIAL D

  • Page 340 and 341:

    COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ANTIBACTERIAL D

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    COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ANTIBACTERIAL D

  • Page 344 and 345:

    COMMONLY PRESCRIBED ANTIBACTERIAL D

  • Page 346 and 347:

    PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF MYCOBAC

  • Page 348 and 349:

    FIRST-LINE DRUGS IN TUBERCULOSIS TH

  • Page 350 and 351:

    MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE INFECTION 339

  • Page 352 and 353:

    ANTIFUNGAL DRUG THERAPY 341 POLYENE

  • Page 354 and 355:

    ANTIFUNGAL DRUG THERAPY 343 therapy

  • Page 356 and 357:

    ANTIVIRAL DRUG THERAPY (EXCLUDING A

  • Page 358 and 359:

    ANTIVIRAL DRUG THERAPY (EXCLUDING A

  • Page 360 and 361:

    INTERFERONS AND ANTIVIRAL HEPATITIS

  • Page 362 and 363:

    CHAPTER 46 HIV AND AIDS ● Introdu

  • Page 364 and 365:

    ANTI-HIV DRUGS 353 Table 46.1: Exam

  • Page 366 and 367:

    ANTI-HIV DRUGS 355 NON-NUCLEOSIDE A

  • Page 368 and 369:

    OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV-1-S

  • Page 370 and 371:

    ANTI-HERPES VIRUS THERAPY 359 salva

  • Page 372 and 373:

    CHAPTER 47 MALARIA AND OTHER PARASI

  • Page 374 and 375:

    MALARIA 363 Pharmacokinetics Chloro

  • Page 376 and 377:

    HELMINTHIC INFECTION 365 Table 47.2

  • Page 378 and 379:

    CHAPTER 48 CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY ●

  • Page 380 and 381:

    COMMON COMPLICATIONS OF CANCER CHEM

  • Page 382 and 383:

    DRUGS USED IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY 3

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    DRUGS USED IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY 3

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    DRUGS USED IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY 3

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    DRUGS USED IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY 3

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    DRUGS USED IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY 3

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    DRUGS USED IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY 3

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    DRUGS USED IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY 3

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    DRUGS USED IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY 3

  • Page 398 and 399:

    PART X HAEMATOLOGY

  • Page 400 and 401:

    CHAPTER 49 ANAEMIA AND OTHER HAEMAT

  • Page 402 and 403:

    HAEMATINICS - IRON, VITAMIN B 12 AN

  • Page 404 and 405:

    HAEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTORS 393 S

  • Page 406 and 407:

    IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA

  • Page 408 and 409:

    PART XI IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY

  • Page 410 and 411:

    CHAPTER 50 CLINICAL IMMUNOPHARMACOL

  • Page 412 and 413:

    IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS 401 Ag Ant

  • Page 414 and 415:

    IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS 403 Table

  • Page 416 and 417:

    CHEMICAL MEDIATORS OF THE IMMUNE RE

  • Page 418 and 419:

    IMMUNOGLOBULINS AS THERAPY 407 DRUG

  • Page 420 and 421:

    PART XII THE SKIN

  • Page 422 and 423:

    CHAPTER 51 DRUGS AND THE SKIN ● I

  • Page 424 and 425:

    DERMATITIS (ECZEMA) 413 Avoid preci

  • Page 426 and 427:

    PSORIASIS 415 Emollients Improving?

  • Page 428 and 429:

    ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS INVOLVING TH

  • Page 430 and 431:

    ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS INVOLVING TH

  • Page 432 and 433:

    PART XIII THE EYE

  • Page 434 and 435:

    CHAPTER 52 DRUGS AND THE EYE ● In

  • Page 436 and 437:

    DRUGS USED TO CONSTRICT THE PUPIL A

  • Page 438 and 439:

    DRUGS USED TO TREAT INFLAMMATORY DI

  • Page 440 and 441:

    CONTACT LENS WEARERS 429 Table 52.6

  • Page 442 and 443:

    PART XIV CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

  • Page 444 and 445:

    CHAPTER 53 DRUGS AND ALCOHOL ABUSE

  • Page 446 and 447:

    OPIOID/NARCOTIC ANALGESICS 435 Tabl

  • Page 448 and 449:

    DRUGS THAT ALTER PERCEPTION 437 whi

  • Page 450 and 451:

    CENTRAL DEPRESSANTS 439 Peak plasma

  • Page 452 and 453:

    CENTRAL DEPRESSANTS 441 Key points

  • Page 454 and 455:

    MISCELLANEOUS 443 FURTHER READING G

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    INTENTIONAL SELF-POISONING 445 Tabl

  • Page 458 and 459:

    INTENTIONAL SELF-POISONING 447 Tabl

  • Page 460 and 461:

    CRIMINAL POISONING 449 Commission o

  • Page 462 and 463:

    INDEX Note: Page numbers in italics

  • Page 464 and 465:

    INDEX 453 atrial fibrillation 217,

  • Page 466 and 467:

    INDEX 455 Cushing’s syndrome 302

  • Page 468 and 469:

    INDEX 457 5-fluorouracil 375-6 fluo

  • Page 470 and 471:

    INDEX 459 children 54 diazepam 108

  • Page 472 and 473:

    INDEX 461 non-steroidal anti-inflam

  • Page 474 and 475:

    INDEX 463 puberty (male), delay 314

  • Page 476:

    INDEX 465 tolerance 9, 433 benzodia

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