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WFP Ukraine ME Quarterly Report

Fighting Hunger Worldwide

WFP Ukraine

Quarterly Monitoring and Evaluation Report

April - July 2015

1


Table of Contents

Monitoring Brief ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

Highlights........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

Demographic Profile of Households ........................................................................................................................... 4

Food Consumption................................................................................................................................................................... 5

Diet Diversity Score ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

Copying Strategy Index ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

Income and Expenditures .................................................................................................................................................. 8

Cross-cutting Indicators .................................................................................................................................................. 10

Satisfaction with assistance provided (WFP)................................................................................................... 10

Preferences of WFP beneficiaries under CV modality ............................................................................... 11

Recommendations and Action points .................................................................................................................... 11

Eastern Ukraine

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Monitoring Brief

1544 household interviews (777 baseline and 767 post distribution monitoring) were

conducted between May – July 2015. Complementary qualitative data was collected through

10 focus group discussions and 21 key informants’ interviews with both WFP beneficiaries

and non-beneficiaries. Onsite and shop monitoring as well as market and price information

was also collected respectively in areas where food in-kind and vouchers are distributed.

Data was collected through WFP’s third party monitoring, the Kiev International Institute of

Sociology (KIIS) through a combination of face-to-face and telephone interviews in both

Government Controlled Areas (GCA) and Non-Government Controlled Areas (NGCA) of

Luhansk and Donetsk Oblasts. KIIS liaised closely with WFP’s three Cooperating Partners

People in Need, Mercy Corps and Adventist Development and Relief Agency.

Map of distribution areas in both GCA and NGCA

3


Highlights

- When comparing targeted beneficiaries before and after WFP assistance food

consumption improved and beneficiaries decreased the number of negative coping

strategies adopted.

- Beneficiaries in Luhansk Oblast more often had worse food consumption than in

Donetsk, particularly amongst female heads of household where 46% were found to

have both poor or borderline food consumption before WFP assistance and 25%

borderline (0% poor) after WFP assistance.

- Women Headed Household residing in Luhansk oblast are adopting the most severe

and frequent negative copying strategies to meet their basic food needs such as

selling their productive assets and reducing health and education expenditures.

- On average, up to 20% of the population of large cities and up to 50% of the

population of small towns and rural areas now engage in growing food in the land,

the garden, or cottage. Most often they grow vegetables and fruits. Households are

however worried with the winter approaching these activities will not be possible.

Demographic Profile of Households

The following graphs represent the gender breakdown of the head of households and those

actually interviewed.

Graph 1: % gender of Head of

Household

Graph 2: % gender interviewed

15%

39%

61%

85%

Male

Female

Male

Female

In 39% (Graph 1) of the households interviewed the head of households was male. However

female represented a higher percentage of the actual respondents at the time of the interview.

85% of both Baseline and PDM interviews were conducted with females (Graph 2).

The average size of the family is 3.4 and the dependency ration 1.07. Key informants noted that

in recent years the situation has changed with more and more families living together to save

on food.

In all settlements where focus group discussions took place the composition of the population

has changed significantly over the past year and a half. In GCA all respondents reported a

dramatic increase in population due to incoming of IDPs from the nearest conflict-affected towns

in NGCA. By respondents' evaluations the population in their settlements has increased about

two times.In NGCA respondents mentioned the opposite trend. The population began to leave

en masse after the start of hostilities. Since spring months, however, residents has been

returning to their places of origin in NGCA. The current population in NGCA towns, as per

respondent’s estimates, reach 60-80% comparing to the pre-war levels.

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Food Consumption 1

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

Graph 3: Overall FCS

75%

84%

18%

13%

7% 3%

PAB

PDM

Poor Borderline Acceptable

The food consumption score (FCS) is

one of the main WFP corporate

indicators used for measuring

household food consumption and

thus progress and effectiveness of

the operations.

Graph 3 represents levels of food

consumption score before and after

WFP assistance of targeted

beneficiaries in Ukraine.

Acceptable levels of food

consumption score were found to be

at 75% before WFP assistance, which

increased after WFP assistance to

84%. Poor food consumption also

decreased by more than half to 3%

after WFP assistance.

Graph 4 represents the FCS

comparison between the

different modalities used in

WFP intervention that is food

in-kind distributed mainly in

NGCA and vouchers

distributed mainly in GCA.

100%

90%

80%

70%

Levels of poor and borderline 60%

FCS prior to WFP assistance

were found significantly

50%

higher in NGCA (38%) 40%

compared to GCA (14%).

Both food and voucher 30%

assistance were able to

reduce these levels

respectively to 27% and

3%.Comparisons between

the two regarding

20%

10%

0%

effectiveness is difficult

given the amount of external

variables

impacting

beneficiaries’ well-being

including those residing in

conflict zones, access to

other humanitarian assistance etc.

In Graph 5 below the FCS is further broken down by gender and Oblast.

62%

26%

12%

Graph 4: FCS by modality

11%

5% 3%

Beneficiaries in Luhansk Oblast more often had worse food consumption than in Donetsk,

particularly amongst female heads of household where 46% were found to have both poor or

borderline food consumption before WFP assistance and 25% borderline (0% poor) after WFP

assistance.

73%

22%

86%

97%

PAB PDM PAB PDM

Food / NGCA

Voucher / GCA

Poor Borderline Acceptable

3%

1

For more information of Food Security Consumption indicator please visit

http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/manual_guide_proced/wfp271745.pdf

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Even though the FCS significantly reduced after WFP assistance women in Luhansk Oblast

continue to be the most vulnerable group (Graph 5).

100%

90%

Graph 5: FCS by gender Head of Household/Oblast

80%

70%

54%

60%

50%

90%

76% 75%

90%

85%

90%

75%

40%

30%

33%

20%

10%

0%

18% 16%

25%

11%

6%

13%

6%

8%

4% 6% 8%

4% 5% 3%

Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female

Donetsk Luhansk Donetsk Luhansk

PAB

PDM

Poor Borderline Acceptable

Diet Diversity Score 2

Albeit slight, positive outcomes were reported regarding the DDS before and after WFP

assistance (Graph 9).

Graph 9: DDS by gender of Head of Household

PDM

PAB

4.6 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8

Female Male

Respondents in focus group

discussions stated that compared

with the regular diet prior to the

conflict all have practically stopped

eating meat, fish, fruits, dairy

products and sweets.

Also, most have switched to

cheaper brands of products. Many

have cut the number of meals to

two a day. Many have only one dish

over dinner.

The basis of the diet are soups and

porridge.

In NGCA potato consumption has

decreased greatly whereas

consumption of cereals, pasta and

bread has increased.

2

For more information on the DDS and its calculation please visit http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/wa_workshop/docs/FAOguidelines-dietary-diversity2011.pdf

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Copying Strategy Index 3

Strong improvement has been reported also with regard to the (food) copying strategies index

(CSI), which measures the short-term strategies households use to meet their basic food needs.

The average CSI decreased from 20.3 before WFP assistance to 9.9 after WFP assistance was

provided meaning once households received food assistance they less often adopted negative

coping strategies to meet their basic food needs.

Graph 10 represents a further breakdown of the CSI among male and female in both Donetsk

and Luhansk Oblast.

Graph 10: Food CSI by gender Head of Houselhold/Oblast

30.0

25.0

24.1

21.3

20.0

15.0

13.3

16.7

11.3

14.4

10.0

7.4 7.7

5.0

0.0

Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female

Donetsk Luhansk Donetsk Luhansk

PAB

Significant progress across the board for both males and females and the two Oblasts. Very

positive improvements were observed in GCA areas where vouchers have been distributed.

The livelihood CSI, which measures the depletion of assets over the longer term, also saw

positive improvements after WFP assistance. Table 1 below represents the main livelihood

copying strategies adopted by households in both GCA and NGCA. The breakdown represents a

comparison of the main livelihood copying strategies adopted before and after WFP assistance.

The analysis takes in consideration separately male and female.

PDM

Livelihood CSI by gender before and after WFP assitance

Reduce health (including drugs) and education

expenditures

Sold productive assets

Borrowed money

Purchased food on credit or borrowed food

Spent savings

Sold household assets/goods

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Female PDM Female PAB Male PDM Male PAB

In both Food and Livelihood CSI women in Luhansk remain among those who adopt more

negative copying strategies such as selling productive assets, reducing health and education

expenditures or even begging.

3

For more information and details on the Copying Strategy Index please visit

http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/manual_guide_proced/wfp271450.pdf

http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/manual_guide_proced/wfp271449.pdf

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Other more positive copying strategies recently

adopted by households, reported through key

informants interviews and focus group

discussions, are small scale agriculture activities.

On average, up to 20% of the population of large

cities and up to 50% of the population of small

towns and rural areas now engage in growing

food in the land, the garden, or cottage. Most

often they grow vegetables and fruits.

Interviewees noted that in some cases, the

inhabitants began to use such places where

previously planted flowers in their gardens.

Approximately half of the fresh fruit and

vegetables are consumed fresh, and the other

half is mainly preserved or sold.

Nevertheless, effectiveness of large-scale

cultivation has recently decreased as fertilizer

have become deficit (price and availability), and

are thus applied less often. In addition, many

Picture 1: Kitchen garden in Severodonetsk

fields are inside combat zones or mined areas,

and must be left fallow. A common problem faced by households cultivating fruits and vegetables

is the difficulty purchase of seeds and shortages of water especially in the Luhansk oblast. Higher

water prices make it difficult to get a good harvest.

After the increase of food prices it has also become popular to keep livestock. More households

are involved in the cultivation of poultry (chickens, ducks, and turkeys). In small towns, where

the private sector takes up to 30% of the production (Kremennaia, Kirovsk), the population bred

animals not only to feed their family and make canned meat for the winter, but also for sale.

However, now there are fewer buyers of animal products (meat, dairy products) because

incomes have dropped considerably. Also, many respondents noted higher prices of forage as

another challenge which seems particularly difficult to import in NGCA.

Income and Expenditures

Key informants interviewed in focus group

discussions identified lack of employment

and increase of prices as one of the main

factors that has significantly affected the

household’s ability to access food.

Prior to the beginning of the armed conflict

the main livelihood groups in all settlements

were miners, factory workers and public

sector employees. Salaries varied greatly

depending on the livelihood group. An

average salary of a miner reached 7.000 –

10.000 UAH and in public sector 2.000 –

2.500 UAH.

The main change that took place during the

last year and a half was a sharp drop in

income for the majority of the population.

Most of the mines on both GCA and NGCA Picture 2: WFP registration for cash assistance

have been closed, destroyed completely or

have greatly reduced their staff (30% - 40% of the number of employees before the conflict).

Those who stayed to work at the mines, earn greatly reduced salaries (3.000 – 5.000 UAH).

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Mar-14

Apr-14

May-14

Jun-14

Jul-14

Aug-14

Sep-14

Oct-14

Nov-14

Dec-14

Jan-15

Feb-15

Mar-15

Apr-15

May-15

Jun-15

Jul-15

Respondents working in mines (especially those in NGCA) complained that even these reduced

wages are not paid and workers are sometimes forced to work seven days a week under the

threat of dismissal. Employees in the public sector in NGCA are also facing the problem of

delayed wages. For some such delays are as long as several months.

In GCA, IDPs are those who face the biggest problems. The majority of respondents in this

category cannot find a permanent job and are often engaged in underpaid part time jobs such

as painting fences, distribution of advertising, agricultural work in small towns.

One of the most important sources of income, and often the only stable one, for IDPs and the

general population living in NGCA is humanitarian assistance. Food-for-work activities are

implemented in NGCA such city beautification, where after working a certain time (20 hours) a

person is given a food ration. A significant part of the day of the respondents in NGCA and IDPs

in GCA is spent searching for food (search of humanitarian assistance, search for products, price

comparison, shopping and cooking). Respondents in NGCA said they had never before “worried

so much about food”.

The structure of expenditure has also changed dramatically. For respondents in both GCA and

NGCA the main category of expenditure has become food. If, before the start of the conflict

people were spending on food about one-third of their income, now they spend up to 80%.

Graph 8: Comparison of Food Basket (full) cost (NGCA - National Average)

1200.0

1052.3

1000.0

1015.4

800.0

600.0

400.0

200.0

427.8

451.5

470.9

461.9

437.7

429.6

444.2

461.4

461.8

474.0

778.7

601.8

518.2

580.1

495.0

624.3

637.1

620.1

0.0

NGCA

Ukraine (National)

Residents in GCA also spend a significant portion of their income on utilities, as the prices have

increased significantly. Utility prices in NGCA have remained the same with some residents

stating they currently prefer not to pay for utilities. For IDPs in GCA expenditures are even higher

as in the majority of the cases they pay for rent as well 2.000 - 3.500 UAH. Humanitarian aid

becomes has become vital for their survival.

Price increases have been highlighted in numerous WFP Market Updates 4 . Analysis of the

available data indicates that the cost of the food basket in Ukraine has doubled in 2015 compared

to the same basket in 2014. Prices for the same basket are 50% - 70 % higher in NGCA

compared to national average (Graph 8).

Respondents also expect further rise in prices in the future, stating the current economic crisis

and the continuation of the armed conflict as the two main factors influencing price hikes. None

of the respondents had enough savings to live on them for more than a month. The majority of

the respondents said that they have enough money for no longer than a week or two.

Health care is another important item of expenditure for all respondents. According to their own

estimates respondents are spending on health on average 4 times more than before the conflict.

4

http://vam.wfp.org/CountryPage_overview.aspx?iso3=UKR

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Cross-cutting Indicators

Two corporate cross-cutting indicators were measured during the PDM exercise, Protection and

Gender. The following graphs represent the results from interviewed beneficiaries.

Graph 3: Protection

On protection almost all respondents answered

that they had not experienced any safety problems

going to or coming back from WFP sites of

registration or distribution points (Graph 3).

100%

99%

There is generally a good coverage of complaints

through cooperating partner’s Hotlines.

Informative leaflets on targeting criteria and

rations sizes are now an integral part of the

assistance provided.

Male

Female

At registration and distribution points beneficiaries

are also informed about their entitlements. These

activities will continue to increase in an effort to

increase beneficiaries’ knowledge about their

entitlements, selection processes, programs and

donors.

More females (63%) were found to be

responsible for taking decisions over the

use of vouchers/food (Graph 4). Women,

as before the conflict, are still more often

responsible for the household. However

after the start of conflict we see a certain

redistribution of responsibilities depending

on who goes to work.

33%

Graph 4: Gender

Key informants noted that unemployment

among men has significantly increased.

Women continue to work in the public

sector and trade (markets, shops) as well

as being responsible for buying food and

cooking, welfare and health of children,

and other members of the household.

4%

Women Men Both

63%

Generally key informants note that the impact of women on the decision-making in the family

has increased after the start conflict. The majority of respondents indicated that their regions

are characterized by more active women especially in the public life. Respondents explain active

women are organizing charity events, support relief and resettlement processes, initiate

collection and sharing of supplies between mothers as a response to high prices.

Satisfaction with assistance provided (WFP)

The degree of satisfaction with the assistance provided by WFP was monitored through PDM.

The below tables represent a very high degree of satisfaction with both quantity and quality of

food and vouchers.

Only a limited number of male in GCA receiving vouchers stated that the voucher value was not

enough to provide for the whole household.

Satisfaction with quantity of assistance

provided by assistance type and sex

Satisfaction with quality of assistance provided by

assistance type and sex

Food Voucher Food Voucher

Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female

98% 99% 82% 93% 94% 94% 100% 97%

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Food Preferences of WFP Cash – Voucher beneficiaries

Graph 11: Brusnichka Supermarket Chain

Report

Graph 10 represents the most

preferred food items purchased by

beneficiaries under WFP Voucher

program supporting food insecure,

vulnerable people in the Government

Controlled Areas (GCA) of Donetsk

and Luhansk oblasts.

Meat

Vegetables and fruits

Oil and Fats

Cereal and pasta

Milk products

Meat, vegetables and cereals are

among the most preferred food items

by WFP beneficiaries.

Regular price and market monitoring

will provide feedback and help

updating the cash/voucher values.

Recommendations and Action points

- Strengthen the capacity of local partners at the field level in the area of data management

and reporting.

- Closely monitor the preferences of beneficiaries in receiving food in-kind, cash or vouchers.

- Closely monitor and report on price developments in both GCA and NGCA.

- Explore ways how to support household that engage in agriculture and livestock activities.

- Take into consideration piloting Food or Cash for Work activities especially for able bodied

and young men in both GCA and NGCA areas.

For further information please contact:

Gerd Buta, WFP Ukraine:

gerd.buta@wfp.org

WFP Ukraine twitter account:

@WFP_Ukraine

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