Watt?

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Steve Brown Design Director Aust / NZ NDYLIGHT - SPARC

Design Director

Aust / NZ

Watt?

Steve Brown

NDYLIGHT


Born Scotland 1736

Died Birmingham 1819

WATT was adopted as the

for electrical power at the

Congress of the British

Association for the Advanc

of Science in 1889, to hono

James Watt for his contribu

to the development of the

engine.


The Industrial Revolution

Boulton & Watt – first stea

engine 1794

17% of population in Britai

urban in 1750

25% urban by 1800

50% urban by 1850

77% urban by 1900


The Industrial Revolution

created new types of build

Scale meant that candles w

not a practical lighting solu

Accelerated the need for an

Accelerated the need for an

‘artificial’ light source and

daylight design


Though others made a simi

innovation elsewhere, the

scale introduction of this w

the work of William Murdo

an employee of Boulton &

Watt.

The first gas lighting utilitie

were established in London

between 1812 and 1820.


LENNY ‘KILLER’ WATT

James’ great-great-great-gr

great-great-great-grandson

A facility manager at a maj

A facility manager at a maj

office building.


CURRENT OFFICE BUILDING

Office lighting 2x36W prism

Built late 1980’s

No centralised controls

No light switches – switche

at circuit breakers

Mercury lamps in foyers


OFFICE BUILDING

REFURBISHMENT

Built late 1980’s

Must comply with BCA

6 Star Green Star

5 Star NABERS Rating

ESD Consultant


LENNY’S DILEMMA

Could attain lowest W/sqm

only lighting the task, not c

or walls

BCA only recognises install

load, not energy consumed

ESD Consultant pushing for

improvement on BCA’ with

any real understanding wh

means

No mention of reference to

No mention of reference to

lighting quality – only WAT


LENNY’S DILEMMA

‘Accepted’ designs failed to

W/sqm criteria, but with sm

controls, could score very w

against LENI criteria

Built several mockups and

areas – results unsatisfacto

User group acceptance cha

completely once ceilings an

walls illuminated


THUS LENNY DISCOVERED

EN 15193

LENI = Lighting Efficiency N

Indicator

LENI = kWhr per a

sqm

Therefore –

Based on cumulative (ener

installed load (power)


EN 12464-1

LIGHTING OF WORKPLACES

Reintroduces the concept o

‘cylindrical illuminance’ – E

1200 AFFL must be 30-60%

Ehor

Has minimum requirement

lighting of ‘major surfaces’

walls and ceilings


BALANCED LIGHTING SCHE

Consideration of the ‘majo

surfaces’ - the largest thin

eye sees – the ceiling and t

walls!

Luminaires as luminous

elements – not trying to be

invisible

Variety

Localised user control


DAYLIGHT

Realised that his ‘skinny to

was going to give many mo

occupants access to and be

from daylight than if they h

moved into a campus-style

building


PSYCHOLOGY OF DAYLIGHT

People NEED daylight – and

glimpse of the sky.

"The life of every created b

the more perfect the more

enjoys the influence of ligh

plant or an animal be depr

light, notwithstanding ever

nourishment, care, and

cultivation, it will first lose

colour, then its strength, an

last utterly decay."

- Dr Charles de Lacey Evans


TENANT APPEAL

Traditionally:

Speculative building = chea

conforming solution

Integrated fitout = tenant

prepared to do more

But tenants at the top end

market are more discernin

Many base building develo

are doing more to lure tena

enhanced offerings

The bar is being raised


PRODUCTIVITY

Difficult to measure in term

work output. But easy to

measure in terms of attitu

effort!

Improvements not solely d

lighting, but lighting in har

with the interiors and the

surrounding environment

Personalised control gener

considered to be a contribu

factor


LENNY’S SOLUTION

….found that the right answ

in balancing the fundamen

aims of cutting watts (ener

saving) with maintaining

brightness of major surface

compromise position - sure

were some compromises a

the way…

…but the final solution wen

beyond proof of complianc

the mere tallying of watts –

combination of lighting ma

surfaces, smarter controls,

daylight usage, and LENI


LENI’S GRANDSON –

JIMMY ‘MILLY’ WATT


Emitting Diodes

In 2036 Jimmy has ultra fla

bright and power-saving O

televisions, windows that a

used as light sources at nig

and large-scale organic sol

cells.

In contrast to regular LEDs

emissive electroluminesce

layer of an OLED consists o

thin-film of organic compo

What makes OLEDs so attr

is that they do not require

backlight to function and

therefore require less pow

operate; also, since they ar

thinner than comparable L

they can be printed onto a

any substrate.


Any surface can illuminate

in dark. The coating absorb

incident on it. This absorbe

energy is released in the d

The surface coated with lig

emitting paint retains its o

finish in daylight. The coat

almost invisible in the day.

One of the typical applicat

for roads in rural areas wh

streetlight is not available.


Plastics

These plastics, which can b

made in layers that are les

the thickness of a strand o

human hair, are coated wit

layer of electrodes.

The voltage from the elect

cause the polymers to emi

different colours of light,

depending on how much v

is passed over the plastic.

One common application i

wallpaper-like coating for w

that can change colours at

flip of a switch.


The colour of light engenders a phy

emotional physiological response i

These responses can be encouraged

discouraged through the careful use

light.

Light can be literally used as a medi

treatment.

Red: Stimulating and exciting. Activ

circulation and wakes up the senses

Orange: Soothing and pain-relieving

Stimulates the respiratory system a

soothes muscular pain.

Yellow: Digestive and creative. Prom

digestion and increases brain activit

Green: Calming and stabilizing. Rela

entire body and stabilizes emotions

Blue: Relaxing and soothing. Reduc

pressure and stress and soothes the

Violet: Immunizing and appeasing.

Stimulates the immune system, det

the body, and reduces anxiety


There is far more to light than th

ability to see.

Visible light is just a fraction of t

spectrum of radiation and has m

impact upon our lives than X-Ra

sun burn.

The human eye registers not on

visual elements of light (or lack

but also regulates our lives. The

circadian rhythm is effectively th

human body clock regulating ou

our alertness, our fatigue, our l

The level of brightness as well a

ambient colour experience of lig

an affect on this rhythm and the

variation of these elements

manipulates our experience.


Ultra-flat, ultra-thin planar

sources have blurred the

boundaries between scree

projections and light sourc

Light sources can be as eas

integrated into walls or pa

as the ceiling.


Previously offices were bo

the physical reality of the

surrounding space and the

geometry of the equipmen

required

A concept design for an OL

office.

The screens contain worke

screens, can change colour

contain personal photos an

up documents. All of which

be moved around by hand

The perimeter walls have a

The perimeter walls have a

dull outlook, so they are us

instead to display scenic

montages.


2011....

LENNY’S FIVE RULES:

1. Think in terms of ENERG

power – include time in the

equation

2. Energy is only ONE of ma

considerations to be balan

the lighting design, not the

one

3. Light major surfaces

4. Have as many localised

controls as possible

5. Daylight as a psychologic

factor cannot be ignored


Thank You

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