Balancing The Watt?

Balancing The Watt? - SPARC - International Lighting Event 2013

Balancing The


Steve Brown

Design Director

Aust / NZ

Balancing The Watt?

James Watt

Born Scotland 1736

Died Birmingham 1819

WATT was adopted as the term

for electrical power at the 2 nd

Congress of the British

Association for the Advancement

of Science in 1889, to honour

James Watt for his contribution

to the development of the steam


Balancing The Watt?

Gas Lighting

Though others made a similar

innovation elsewhere, the large

scale introduction of this was

the work of William Murdoch,

an employee of Boulton &


The first gas lighting utilities

were established in London

between 1812 and 1820.

Balancing The Watt?

The Steam Engine

The Industrial Revolution

Boulton & Watt – first steam

engine 1794

17% of population in Britain

urban in 1750

25% urban by 1800

50% urban by 1850

77% urban by 1900

Balancing The Watt?

Work Indoors

The Industrial Revolution

created new types of buildings

Scale meant that candles were

not a practical lighting solution

Accelerated the need for an

‘artificial’ light source and

daylight design

Balancing The Watt?

Present Day


James’ great-great-great-greatgreat-great-great-grandson.

A project manager for a major

CBD office building.

Balancing The Watt?

Lenny’s Project


Built late 1980’s

Office lighting 2x36W prismatic

No centralised controls

No light switches – switched on

at circuit breakers

Mercury lamps in foyers

Balancing The Watt?

Lenny’s Project



Built late 1980’s

Must comply with BCA

6 Star Green Star

5 Star NABERS Rating

ESD Consultant

Balancing The Watt?

Lenny’s Project


Could attain lowest W/sqm by

only lighting the task, not ceiling

or walls

BCA only recognises installed

load, not energy consumed

ESD Consultant pushing for ‘20%

improvement on BCA’ without

any real understanding what this


No mention of reference to

lighting quality – only WATTS

Balancing The Watt?

Lenny’s Project


Built several mockups and test

areas – results unsatisfactory

User group acceptance changed

completely once ceilings and

walls illuminated

‘Accepted’ designs failed to meet

W/sqm criteria, but with smart

controls, could score very well

against LENI criteria

Balancing The Watt?

Lenny’s LENI


EN 15193

LENI = Lighting Efficiency Numeric


LENI = kWhr per annum


Therefore –

Based on cumulative (energy) not

installed load (power)

Balancing The Watt?

Lenny’s Project

EN 12464-1


Reintroduces the concept of

‘cylindrical illuminance’ – Ecyl at

1200 AFFL must be 30-60% of


Has minimum requirements for

lighting of ‘major surfaces’ –

walls and ceilings

Balancing The Watt?

Lenny’s Project


Consideration of the ‘major

surfaces’ - the largest things the

eye sees – the ceiling and the


Luminaires as luminous

elements – not trying to be



Localised user control

Balancing The Watt?

Lenny’s Project


People NEED daylight – and a

glimpse of the sky.

"The life of every created being is

the more perfect the more it

enjoys the influence of light. Let a

plant or an animal be deprived of

light, notwithstanding every

nourishment, care, and

cultivation, it will first lose its

colour, then its strength, and at

last utterly decay."

- Dr Charles de Lacey Evans

Balancing The Watt?

Lenny’s Project


Realised that his ‘skinny tower’

was going to give many more

occupants access to and benefit

from daylight than if they had

moved into a campus-style


New challenge was how to

control the daylight, and allow

occupants some degree of

personal control without ‘Blind


Balancing The Watt?

Lenny’s Project



Speculative building = cheapest

conforming solution

Integrated fitout = tenant

prepared to do more

But tenants at the top end of the

market are more discerning!

Many base building developers

are doing more to lure tenants –

enhanced offerings

The bar is being raised!!!

Balancing The Watt?

Balancing The Watt?


Balancing The Watt?

Now to 2036.....

Now to 2036.....



Balancing The Watt?

Organic Light

Emitting Diodes

In 2036 Jimmy has ultra flat, very

bright and power-saving OLED

televisions, windows that are

used as light sources at night,

and large-scale organic solar


In contrast to regular LEDs, the

emissive electroluminescent

layer of an OLED consists of a

thin-film of organic compounds.

What makes OLEDs so attractive

is that they do not require a

backlight to function and

therefore require less power to

operate; also, since they are

thinner than comparable LEDs,

they can be printed onto almost

any substrate.

Balancing The Watt?

Light Emitting Paint

Any surface can illuminate light

in dark. The coating absorbs light

incident on it. This absorbed

energy is released in the dark.

The surface coated with light

emitting paint retains its original

finish in daylight. The coating is

almost invisible in the day.

One of the typical applications is

for roads in rural areas where

streetlight is not available.

Balancing The Watt?

Light Emitting


These plastics, which can be

made in layers that are less than

the thickness of a strand of

human hair, are coated with a

layer of electrodes.

The voltage from the electrodes

cause the polymers to emit

different colours of light,

depending on how much voltage

is passed over the plastic.

One common application is a

wallpaper-like coating for walls

that can change colours at the

flip of a switch.

Balancing The Watt?

Colour Therapy

The colour of light engenders a physical and

emotional physiological response in us.

These responses can be encouraged or

discouraged through the careful use of


Light can be literally used as a medical


Red: Stimulating and exciting. Activates

circulation and wakes up the senses.

Orange: Soothing and pain-relieving.

Stimulates the respiratory system and

soothes muscular pain.

Yellow: Digestive and creative. Promotes

digestion and increases brain activity.

Green: Calming and stabilizing. Relaxes the

entire body and stabilizes emotions.

Blue: Relaxing and soothing. Reduces blood

pressure and stress and soothes the soul.

Violet: Immunizing and appeasing.

Stimulates the immune system, detoxifies

the body, and reduces anxiety

Balancing The Watt?

Circadian Rhythms

There is far more to light than the

ability to see.

Visible light is just a fraction of the

spectrum of radiation and has more

impact upon our lives than X-Ray and

sun burn.

The human eye registers not only the

visual elements of light (or lack of light)

but also regulates our lives. The

circadian rhythm is effectively the

human body clock regulating our mood,

our alertness, our fatigue, our life.

The level of brightness as well as the

ambient colour experience of light has

an affect on this rhythm and therefore

variation of these elements

manipulates our experience.

Balancing The Watt?

The Office of 2036

Ultra-flat, ultra-thin planar light

sources have blurred the

boundaries between screens,

projections and light sources.

Light sources can be as easily

integrated into walls or partitions

as the ceiling.

Balancing The Watt?

The Office of 2036

Previously offices were bound by

the physical reality of the

surrounding space and the

geometry of the equipment


A concept design for an OLED


The screens contain workers PC

screens, can change colour, can

contain personal photos and pinup

documents. All of which can

be moved around by hand.

The perimeter walls have a very

dull outlook, so they are used

instead to display scenic


Balancing The Watt?

Back to 2011!


….found that the right answer lay

in balancing the fundamental

aims of cutting watts (energy

saving) with maintaining

brightness of major surfaces – a

compromise position - sure there

were some compromises along

the way…

…but the final solution went way

beyond proof of compliance by

the mere tallying of watts – but a

combination of lighting major

surfaces, smarter controls,

daylight usage, and LENI

Balancing The Watt?

Lenny’s 5 Rules

Ambient surfaces – lighting of

surrounding walls and ceilings

Balance between energy and

other factors

Controls – smart and localised

wherever possible

Daylight as a part of the overall


Energy as only one of many

considerations to be

balanced in the lighting

design, not the MAIN one

Balancing The Watt?

Thank You

Balancing The Watt?

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