Deterrence in the Twenty-first Century

Deterrence in the twenty-first century - Air University Press


58. See, for example, The Commission on Integrated Long-Term Strategy

(chaired by Fred lklé and Albert Wohlstetter), Discriminate Deterrence (Washington,

DC: GPO, 1988), 2.

59. Sidney Drell et al., “A Strategic Choice: New Bunker Busters Versus

Nonproliferation,” Arms Control Today 33, no. 2 (March 2003): 9.

60. See, for example, George Shultz, William J. Perry, Henry A. Kissinger,

and Sam Nunn, “A World Free of Nuclear Weapons,” Wall Street Journal, 4

January 2007, 15.

61. Future of the United Kingdom’s Nuclear Deterrent, 5.

62. See the testimony of Walter B. Slocombe, undersecretary of defense for

policy, The Future of Nuclear Deterrence, Hearing before the Subcommittee on International

Security, Proliferation, and Federal Services of the Committee on Governmental

Affairs, United States Senate, 12 February 1997, 6 (prepared text).

63. Ibid.

64. The limitations on the international system created by the inherent

lack of trust within the system are an overarching theme in Kenneth N. Waltz,

Man, the State and War (New York: Columbia University Press, 1954).

65. See, for example, Walter Cronkite, “Cronkite Champions World Government,”

Washington Times, 3 December 1999, A-2; and The United Methodist

Church, Council of Bishops, A Pastoral Letter to All United Methodists In Defense

of Creation: The Nuclear Crisis and a Just Peace (1986), 71.

66. Winston Churchill, quoted in a speech by Prime Minister Margaret

Thatcher to a joint meeting of the US Congress, 20 February 1985, http://

67. See, for example, Shultz et al., “World Free of Nuclear Weapons”;

George Shultz, William J. Perry, Henry A. Kissinger, and Sam Nunn, “Toward

a Nuclear-Free World,” Wall Street Journal, 15 January 2008, 13; and Amb.

Max Kampelman, “A Serious Look at Our World,” Comparative Strategy 25,

no. 2 (April–June 2006): 153–55.

68. For an aged but still useful examination of the question of deep nuclear

reductions, see Francis Hoeber, How Little Is Enough? SALT and Security

in the Long Run (New York: Crane, Russak & Company, 1981), 20–39.

69. See, for example, US Department of Defense, Statement on Nuclear Posture

Review, no. 113-02, 9 March 2002,


70. Statement of the Hon. Douglas Feith, undersecretary of defense for

policy, Senate Armed Services Committee, Hearing on the Nuclear Posture

Review, 14 February 2002, 7 (prepared text).

71. Ibid.

72. These points are elaborated in Kurt Guthe, A Different Path to Nuclear

Arms Reduction, Discussion Paper (Fairfax, VA: National Institute for Public

Policy, 27 December 2007), 1–4.

73. See Keith B. Payne, ‘‘The Nuclear Posture Review and Deterrence for a

New Age,” Comparative Strategy 23, no. 4/5 (October–December 2004): 411–

20; and Payne, “The Nuclear Posture Review: Setting the Record Straight,”

Washington Quarterly 28, no. 3 (Summer 2005): 135–51.


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