Deterrence in the Twenty-first Century

Deterrence in the twenty-first century - Air University Press


9. Indira A. R. Lakshmanan, “Iran Might Be Deterred by US Nuclear Umbrella,

Gulf Ally Says,”, 9 April 2009.

10. US Senate, “Chain Reaction: Avoiding a Nuclear Arms Race in the Middle

East,” Report to the Committee on Foreign Relations, February 2008, 12–17.

11. Interview by National Institute for Public Policy (NIPP) consultant in

Brussels, 22 April 2008.

12. Meeting between President Bush and bipartisan senators on Iranian

nuclear activities, 18 June 2003.

13. Statement by Pres. George W. Bush during a meeting with German

chancellor Angela Merkel, 13 January 2006.

14. Shirley A. Kan, China: Ballistic and Cruise Missiles, Report No. 97-391F

(Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 10 August 2000), 8–9.

15. Mark Schneider, The Nuclear Doctrine and Forces of the People’s Republic

of China (Fairfax, VA: National Institute Press, November 2007).

16. “Iran Tests New More Accurate Missile,” Global Security Newswire, 12

November 2008; and “Iran Launches Homegrown Satellite,” British Broadcasting

Company, 3 February 2009.

17. Donald M. Kerr, Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence,

remarks to the Washington Institute for Near East Policy 2008 Soref Symposium,

The Ritz Carlton, Washington, DC, 29 May 2008,


18. Quoted in Barton Gellman, “Reappraisal Led to New China Policy,”

Washington Post, 22 June 1998, A1, A16. When he issued this warning in

late 1995, Xiong was deputy chief of general staff of the People’s Liberation

Army and its chief of military intelligence.

19. Makhmut Gareev, “New Conditions—New Military Doctrine,” Nezavisimoe

Voennoe Obozrenie, 2 February 2007 (in Russian).

20. Interview with Al Jazeera television, 16 October 2003, www.kremlin


21. “Opening Remarks at Meeting with Heads of the Russian Nuclear Weapons

and Nuclear Energy Complexes,” Novo-Ogaryovo, 9 June 2006, www


22. Judy Dempsey, “Poland Wants US to Be 3rd Leg of Its Security Plan,”

International Herald Tribune, 22 April 2008.

23. Ibid.

24. Interview by NIPP consultant in Brussels, 23 April 2008.

25. Ibid., 21 April 2008.

26. Michael Rühle, “US Extended Deterrence and NATO,” paper presented

at the US Nuclear Strategy Forum, 9 June 2008, 5.


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