Deterrence in the Twenty-first Century

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Deterrence in the twenty-first century - Air University Press

DETERRENCE AND SADDAM HUSSEIN

maker in Iraq. It could be said that “Saddam was Iraq and Iraq

was Saddam” from the standpoint of policy decisions. As Charles

Duelfer later concluded in a 2004 report to the director of the

Central Intelligence Agency, “Saddam Hussein so dominated the

Iraqi regime that its strategic intent was his alone.” 11

It is instructive to realize how little knowledge Saddam Hussein

had of the United States or its leaders. While President

Bush was no Middle East expert, he was far better informed

than Saddam about the other side’s capabilities. However, both

leaders lacked a clear knowledge of the other. FBI interrogator

George Piro, assigned the task of interrogating Saddam after

his capture in 2003, concluded from months of interviews that

“one striking theme that emerged was just how little we knew

about Saddam and how little he knew about us.” 12

These two leaders came from opposite ends of the earth. One

is reminded of the Kipling verse when considering these two

when he said “East is East, and West is West, and never the

twain should meet.” Their cultures were as different as were

their life experiences. Saddam was a thug and mafia-like Iraqi

leader, born in poverty, who maneuvered and eventually killed

his way into power in Iraq. In 1991 two of his biographers concluded

that “in the permanently beleaguered mind of Saddam

Hussein, politics is a ceaseless struggle for survival. The ultimate

goal of staying alive and in power justifies all means. Plots

lurk around every corner. Nobody is trustworthy. Everyone is

an actual or potential enemy.” 13

Bush was an American blue blood who started from a favored

position and then achieved his way to the top of the US political

system. When he and Hussein confronted each other over Kuwait,

President Bush was leader of the richest country in the

world and the head of the most powerful military force ever deployed.

Confronting him was Pres. Saddam Hussein, with his

million man army, the fourth largest in the world, now sitting

astride 19 percent of the world’s oil supplies after his occupation

of Kuwait.

The Invasion of Kuwait

After the Iran-Iraq war, badly needing funds to rebuild and

protect his regime, Saddam Hussein ordered his forces to seize

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