Deterrence in the Twenty-first Century

Deterrence in the twenty-first century - Air University Press


Egypt for three years. His later climb to the presidency of Iraq is akin to Lee

Harvey Oswald becoming president of the United States 19 years after assassinating

John F. Kennedy.

61. Some estimate the total dead from the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War to

have been in the neighborhood of 500,000 Iranians and Iraqis slain.

62. Karsh and Rautsi, Saddam Hussein, 2.

63. Author’s interview with an Iraqi general who was under contract with

the CIA after leaving Iraq.

64. Clancy and Horner, Every Man a Tiger, 374–75.

65. See “Gulf War,” 6. Unfortunately, 183,000 US veterans of the Gulf War,

more than a quarter of all who participated in the war, have been declared

permanently disabled by the US Department of Veteran’s Affairs as a result of

Gulf War syndrome. “About 30 percent of the 700,000 men and women who

served in US forces during the Gulf War still suffered an array of serious

symptoms whose causes are not fully understood.” See “Gulf War,” 40.

66. Jervis, Lebow, and Stein, Psychology & Deterrence, 216.

67. Ibid.

68. “Gulf War.”

69. This chart is an adaptation of one found in Clancy and Horner, Every

Man a Tiger, xii.

70. See Bush, Public Papers of George Bush. See also Gordon and Trainor,

The General’s War, chapter 9, “The Mailed Fist,” fn 17.

71. Freedman and Karsh, The Gulf Conflict, 332.

72. Ibid., 331–41.

73. Wikipedia, “Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm.”


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