Deterrence in the Twenty-first Century

Deterrence in the twenty-first century - Air University Press


terror acts against India; it has also alleged official Pakistani

links to the Mumbai attack of November 2008, which Islamabad

denies. India urges Pakistan to act against the LeT/JuD

in the same tough manner that it is currently doing against the

Pakistan Taliban in the Swat valley and the Malakand division

of the NWFP, which Islamabad appears unable or unwilling to

do perhaps due to concern over provoking an LeT terror backlash

in Pakistan itself.

For its part, Pakistan continues to seek additional evidence

from India on the Mumbai attack that it describes as insufficient

for its own investigations into the attack, even as it has

made several arrests. Pakistan alleges that India is involved in

the insurgency in Balochistan, which New Delhi denies, and

claims that India’s diplomatic and economic activities in Afghanistan

are aimed at decreasing its own influence in the region.

The key issue remains the ability of both countries to

cooperate to deter nonstate actors from carrying out terrorist

spectaculars like Mumbai. Both India and Pakistan have signed

the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation framework

on the suppression of terrorism, as well as its additional

protocol. It is therefore in the interests of both countries to ensure

that terror organisations aiming to disrupt their peaceful

bilateral relations are effectively prevented from doing so.


1. Rahul Roy-Chaudhury, “The Security Council and the India-Pakistan

Wars,” in Vaughan Lowe, Adam Roberts et al. (eds.), The United Nations Security

Council and War: The Evolution of Thought and Practice since 1945 (Oxford:

Oxford University Press, 2008), 326.

2. Ibid., 327–28.

3. Ibid., 337.

4. Rahul Roy-Chaudhury, “India’s Nuclear Doctrine: A Critical Analysis,”

Strategic Analysis, May 2009, 405.

5. Government of India, The Kargil Review Committee Report: From Surprise

to Reckoning (New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1999), 16.

6. Ibid., 23, 97–98.

7. The International Institute for Strategic Studies, “India and Pakistan:

Towards Greater Bilateral Stability,” Strategic Survey 2003/4 (London: Oxford

University Press, 2004), 232.

8. The Siachen glacier, located in the Karakoram range of the Himalayan

mountains, has never been bilaterally demarcated on a map; the 1949 Karachi


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