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70% in energy savings by installing LED technology

All hail the

lighting agent p.20

Why your design could

be red-fl agged p.24

Tunnel lighting

never sleeps p.48

Dream projects are

all in the mind p.53

The magazine of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America

Burst of


The Christopher S. Bond Bridge, Kansas City

June 2012


Parking garages may be the forgotten

infrastructure, but the benefi ts of

quality lighting in these facilities are

too obvious to ignore


Photo courtesy of LSI Industries

Photo: Photographix/ Clark Blomquist

42 June 2012 | LD+A


Photo: Photographix/ Clark Blomquist

They’re not the most glamorous

piece of infrastructure, unlike the

bridges, airports and schools that

get most of the public and political

attention. But their 24/7 operation and

sheer volume make parking garages lowhanging

fruit for huge energy savings.

While there is no official number of parking

garages in the U.S., the International

Parking Institute pegs the number of parking

spaces at anywhere from 100 million to

750 million. That’s a lot of parking housed

in a lot of garages with a lot of lighting—

much of which is inefficient or poorly

controlled. As a result, there’s plenty of

opportunity for technology upgrades, and

sweetening the pot for owners are government

grants or utility rebates that can

accelerate the ROI on these projects.

“We’re noticing a couple of things in

the parking garage market,” says Chris

Bailey, SSL technology strategist for Hubbell

Lighting. “First, we’re starting to see

a lot more controls integration, which

makes a lot of sense when you think about

how often those fixtures are on. Most of

those fixtures are on 24 hours a day, and

there’s a great opportunity for energy

savings through simple daylight controls

and even occupancy sensors. When you

add an LED fixture to the mix, you compound

the savings: you have the energy

reduction directly related to the lamp

source plus the added controls capability.

It’s a doubling effect of sorts. ”

The financial benefits can triple the

savings effect. “Rebate programs from

utility companies enable customers to

add controls to the fixture at very little

cost by negating a portion of the initial

cost. When you add controls, you not

only maximize total energy savings but

you also reduce the stress levels of fixtures

operating over time, which in turn

extends the operating life of the product

and allows you to increase cumulative

cash flow,” says Bailey. Take the example

of a system with a design life of 70,000

hours, which would last approximately

eight years if operating 24 hours per day.

“A similar system with integrated sensors

that turn off luminaires when sufficient

daylight is available and lower light levels

during periods of vacancy may operate

for nearly half the time and at much lower

sustained levels. For the above example,

this could translate into an additional four

years of product lifetime. From a financial

perspective, if the product is paid off in

three years, you now have nine years that

you’re accumulating cash flow.”

Three projects demonstrate the allure

of the upgrade—financially, qualitatively

and aesthetically.

Photo courtesy of LSI Industries

Photo courtesy of Cooper LD+A | June 2012 43


The LED system allowed designers to stretch the space between fixtures to 30 ft by 35 ft. Roof deck LPD is a mere. 01 watts per sq ft, 93

luminaires limit light pollution, helping the

Photos: Photographix/ Clark Blomquist


New Technology: LED luminaires

Rebates: Two, from We Energies (the

local utility) and the Wisconsin Focus on

Energy (FOE) program

The abandoned site of the former

Pabst Brewery in Milwaukee was as

stale as a three-day-old open can of

beer, but the development of a mixed-used

facility by the late Joseph Zilber—aptly

named The Brewery—has rejuvenated

the western edge of the city. The Brewery

houses major university centers, offices,

apartments, a hotel and restaurants. Parking

is available in a 900-space, 227,000-sq

ft garage, with lighting design by Harwood

Engineering Consultants, Ltd., Milwaukee.

An inquisitive and willing owner steered

the project toward LEDs. “Originally, the design

was for pulse-start metal halide lighting,

but after the bids came in the owner

came back and asked ‘can we use LED?’

And we said, ‘of course.’ The owner hadn’t

just heard of LED but was curious to know

more about it,” says Harwood Engineering

lighting designer Holly Blomquist, who

earned a 2011 IES Illumination Award of

Merit for the LEED Gold Core & Shell project.

“We analyzed lighting output for LED,

fluorescent, and induction vs. PSMH in the

designed layout. The contractor provided

cost information for each technology (LED

cost approximately $131,000 more than

PSMH) and projected out a 10-year total

cost including maintenance. Based on this

calculation and the excitement surrounding

LED technology, the developer was most interested

in further exploration of LED.”

An energy and financial analysis (factoring

in the two rebates) was then conducted

to compare LED to PSMH. Ultimately, Harwood

Engineering elected to pursue the

LED system. Two luminaire types from

local manufacturer Ruud BetaLED were

specified: (211) 55-W fixtures and (12)

78-W fixtures throughout the seven interior

levels provide ambient light at an average

2.9 footcandles. The lighting power

density in the garage is a microscopic .06

watts per sq ft, a whopping 72 percent below

the code allowance.

The pursuit of the LEED rating was one

motive for the severely pared down LPD, but

the bigger reason was that the LED technology

allowed us “to really stretch the spacing”

between fixtures to 30 ft by 35 ft. The

design team asked: “How low can we get

[the LPD] and achieve appropriate lighting

levels, and safety and security for the occu-

44 June 2012 | LD+A


percent below code allowance. Post-top LED

garage earn LEED points.

pants?” notes Blomquist. “The feeling was

if we could do it using LEDs, then let’s do it.”

The energy-efficient design continues

on the roof parking deck. LEED accreditation

required attention to light pollution

reduction techniques; four post-top Type

V 78-W LED luminaires running down the

center of the deck provide illumination of

.7 fc average maintained, with virtually

zero light spill beyond the perimeter. The

LPD on the roof deck is just 0.01 watts per

sq ft, 93 percent below code allowance.

Completing the design are two types of

controls: daylight sensors mounted on the

building and occupancy sensors integrated

into the luminaires. During daylight hours,

multi-level switching (low-high-off) of luminaires

reduces light output of perimeter fixtures

with sufficient daylight contribution via

automatic daylight controls. After dark, the

occupancy sensor controls continue trimming

energy use while maintaining occupant

safety. When no occupants are detected,

fixtures automatically switch to “low” mode

leaving no area in total darkness. “Low” output

reduces wattage by 50 percent. ROI on

the project is estimated at 2.74 years.

LED luminaires (bottom right) replaced HPS fixtures in the bus garage, while metal halide was

swapped out for an LED system in two parking garages.


Old Technology: Metal halide and high-pressure sodium

New Technology: LED luminaires

Funding: ARRA grant


federal grant program funded by the

American Recovery & Reinvestment

Act (ARRA) of 2009 has brought 700

LED fixtures to three parking garages operated

by the Chattanooga Area Regional

Transportation Authority (CARTA) in Tennessee.

A Transit Investments for Greenhouse

Gas and Energy Reduction (TIG-

GER) grant of $650,000 helped the city roll

out a major LED luminaire installation after

some initial exploration of the technology.

“CARTA had been looking at the possibility

of relamping our garages for a while. We

were testing some larger [LED] fixtures on

some of our surface parking lots in town and

were pleased with the amount of light and

the brightness they were putting out,” says

CARTA director of parking Brent Matthews.

With the TIGGER funding, CARTA replaced

high-pressure sodium luminaires in

a bus storage garage and metal halide fixtures

in two parking garages. LSI Industries

supplied three different luminaires for the

one-for-one installations. The new systems

now deliver a clean, white light with uniform

coverage of the spaces, as well as an

improved sense of security for employees

and customers. “We have had a lot of comments

from our drivers and our mechanics

about how much brighter the area is now,”

says Matthews. “In the bus storage area it

was always dark, unless there was sunlight

coming in. Now it is bright in there all day

long. Those parking in our garages have also

noted the difference in the way the garage

looks since we did the relamping.”

According to LSI, the LED luminaires will

yield 57 percent annual energy savings over

both the HPS and metal halide systems. Factoring

in the funding from the TIGGER grant,

ROI is projected at less than two years.

Photos courtesy of LSI Industries LD+A | June 2012 45


Photos courtesy of Cooper

More than 400 LED fixtures (above, bottom right) should slash the energy used by metal halide luminaires (top right) by 74 percent.


Old Technology: Metal halide

New Technology: LED luminaires

Funding: ARRA grant

At the City Hall building in Austin,

TX, parking garage lights are a

24-hour per day proposition. But

just because the lights must be on doesn’t

mean the energy bill must be high, so the

city has swapped out more than 400 metal

halide fixtures for LED fixtures in a onefor-one

replacement. The result is a projected

74 percent decrease in energy consumption

and a $46,000 annual decrease

in electricity costs. Cooper Lighting supplied

the new 53-W luminaires which replace

175-W metal halide fixtures.

The project was funded as part of a $7.5

million grant provided through the American

Recovery and Reinvestment Act of

2009 (ARRA), which was awarded to

Austin Energy to increase the efficiency

of municipal facilities in the City of Austin.

Austin Energy researched several manufacturers’

products and performed a test

installation of five fixtures before selecting

the Cooper product (the McGraw-Edison

Concise luminaire). Performance was a

key criteria. The fixture delivers uniform illumination

to improve vehicular movement

and pedestrian safety, with reliable operation

expected at ambient temperatures

from -30 to 40 deg C.

“The response by the citizens of Austin

has been enthusiastic and positive,”

says James Parker, project manager, City

of Austin. ■

46 June 2012 | LD+A

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