# B.Sc. Physics - Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar ...

B.Sc. Physics - Gurukula Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar ...

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SCHEME OF EXAMINATION<br />

AND<br />

COURSE OF STUDY<br />

IN<br />

PHYSICS<br />

B.<strong>Sc</strong>. I, II, III YEAR<br />

(w. e. f. 2012-2013)<br />

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS<br />

GURUKULA KANGRI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, HARIDWAR<br />

APRIL 2012

Revised Syllabus w. e. f. 2012-2013<br />

<strong>Gurukula</strong> <strong>Kangri</strong> Vishwavidyalya, <strong>Haridwar</strong><br />

B.<strong>Sc</strong>. I, II, III Year<br />

PHYSICS<br />

S. Subject<br />

Subject Title<br />

Period Per Evaluation <strong>Sc</strong>heme Subject<br />

N. Code<br />

Week Sessional ESE Total<br />

L T P CT TA Total<br />

B.<strong>Sc</strong>. I Year<br />

Semester – I<br />

1 BPH-101 MECHANICS 3 1 - 10 5 15 35 50<br />

2 BPH -102 THERMAL PHYSICS 3 1 - 10 5 15 35 50<br />

3 BPH -151 LAB COURSE - I - - 4 - - - 50 50<br />

Semester – II<br />

1 BPH -201 MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS 3 1 - 10 5 15 35 50<br />

2 BPH -202 WAVES & OSCILLATIONS 3 1 - 10 5 15 35 50<br />

3 BPH -251 LAB COURSE - II - - 4 - - - 50 50<br />

Total 300<br />

B.<strong>Sc</strong>. II Year<br />

Semester – III<br />

1 BPH -301 ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM 3 1 - 10 5 15 35 50<br />

2 BPH -302 OPTICS 3 1 - 10 5 15 35 50<br />

3 BPH -351 LAB COURSE - III - - 4 - - - 50 50<br />

Semester - IV<br />

1 BPH -401 ATOMIC AND QUANTUM PHYSICS 3 1 - 10 5 15 35 50<br />

2 BPH -402 NUCLEAR PHYSICS 3 1 - 10 5 15 35 50<br />

3 BPH -451 LAB COURSE - IV - - 4 - - - 50 50<br />

Total 300<br />

B.<strong>Sc</strong>. III Year<br />

Semester – V<br />

1 BPH -501 THEORY OF RELATIVITY & TENSORS 3 1 - 10 5 15 35 50<br />

2 BPH -502 SOLID STATE PHYSICS 3 1 - 10 5 15 35 50<br />

3 BPH -551 LAB COURSE -V - - 4 - - - 50 50<br />

Semester – VI<br />

1 BPH -601 ELECTRONICS 3 1 - 10 5 15 35 50<br />

2 BPH -602 STATISTICAL PHYSICS 3 1 - 10 5 15 35 50<br />

3 BPH -651 LAB COURSE - VI - - 4 - - - 50 50<br />

Total 300<br />

G Total 900<br />

L = Lecture T = Tutorial P = Practical<br />

CT = Cumulative Test<br />

TA = Teacher Assessment<br />

ESE = End Semester Examination<br />

Note: Each student shall have to perform TWO experiments. Experiments shall carry 25 .marks. 10 marks shall be<br />

assigned for viva-voce examination and 15 marks shall be reserved for practical record.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. I Year Semester-I<br />

BPH-101<br />

MECHANICS<br />

MM : 50 Sessional : 15<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 35<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

3 1 0<br />

NOTE: Ten questions are to be set taking two questions from each unit. The student has to attempt FIVE questions in all<br />

selecting one question from each unit. The previous year paper/model paper can be used as a guideline and the following<br />

syllabus should be strictly followed while setting the question paper.<br />

UNIT – I<br />

CENTRE OF MASS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION<br />

Center of mass of a system of particles, Motion of center of mass, C.M. frame of reference, Linear momentum<br />

in C.M. frame, Conservation of linear momentum and Newton’s III law, Work- energy theorem, Conservative<br />

and non-conservative forces, Potential energy, Conservative force as negative gradient of potential energy,<br />

General law of conservation of energy.<br />

UNIT – II<br />

MOTION UNDER CENTRAL FORCES<br />

Concept of central force, Gravitational field and potential due to spherical shell and solid sphere, Gravitational<br />

potential energy, Two particle central force problem and reduced mass, Kepler’s laws.<br />

Compound pendulum and equivalent simple pendulum, Inter-changeability of centre of suspension and centre<br />

of oscillation, Bar pendulum, Kater’s pendulum, Bessel’s theory of computed time.<br />

UNIT – III<br />

ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS<br />

Torque and angular momentum, Conservation of angular momentum, Moment of inertia and its physical<br />

significance, Radius of gyration, Theorem of parallel and perpendicular axis , Calculation of moment of<br />

inertia of a rod, disc, solid cylinder, spherical shell and solid sphere, Moment of inertia of flywheel, Moment<br />

of inertia. of an irregular body, Body rolling down on inclined plane, Motion of a top.<br />

UNIT – IV<br />

ELASTICITY<br />

Elastic constants and their relationship, Torsion of cylinder, Bending of beam, Bending moment, Cantilevers,<br />

Determination of elastic constants by statical and dynamical methods.<br />

UNIT – V<br />

VISCOSITY<br />

Streamline and turbulent flow, Viscosity and coefficient of viscosity, Poisuille’s formula, Determination of<br />

viscosity of fluid by Poisuille’s method, Rotating cylinder method, Stoke’s law, Effect of temperature and<br />

pressure on viscosity.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. I Year Semester-I<br />

BPH-102<br />

THERMAL PHYSICS<br />

MM : 50 Sessional : 15<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 35<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

3 1 0<br />

NOTE: Ten questions are to be set taking two questions from each unit. The student has to attempt FIVE questions in all<br />

selecting one question from each unit. The previous year paper/model paper can be used as a guideline and the following<br />

syllabus should be strictly followed while setting the question paper.<br />

UNIT – I<br />

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES<br />

Postulates of kinetic theory of gases, Pressure of a gas, Kinetic interpretation of temperature, Principle of<br />

equipartition of energy, Specific heat of monoatomic, diatomic and triatomic gases, Statement of Maxwell's<br />

velocity distribution, Vander-Waal's equation, Critical constants, Law of corresponding states, Transport<br />

phenomena: Viscosity, Conduction and diffusion.<br />

UNIT – II<br />

THERMODYNAMICS<br />

Thermodynamic equilibrium & zeroth law, Statement of first law of thermodynamics, Internal energy,<br />

Isothermal and adiabatic processes, Adiabatic equation of a perfect gas, Work done in isothermal and adiabatic<br />

processes, Measurement of ‘ γ ’ by Clement & Desorm's method, Reversible and irreversible processes,<br />

Heat engine and its effciency, Carnot's theorem, Statements of second law of thermodynamics, The<br />

thermodynamic scale of temperature, Identity of a perfect gas scale and absolute scale of temperarure.<br />

UNIT – III<br />

ENTROPY & THERMODYAMICAL RELATIONS<br />

Entropy as a thermodynamic function, Entropy change in reversible and irreversible processes, Calculation of<br />

entropy of a perfect gas, Principle of increase of entropy, Clausius-Clapeyron's equation, Triple point,<br />

Thermodynamic potentials and their relations with thermodynamic variables, Maxwell's thermodynamic<br />

relations.<br />

UNIT – IV<br />

LIQUEFACTION OF GASES<br />

Joule's law for a perfect gas, Joule-Thomson expansion, The porous-plug experiment, Adiabtic<br />

demagnetization, Principle of regenerative cooling and its applications to liquefaction of gases, Boyle point,<br />

Temprature of inversion and critical tempertaure of gas, Liquefaction of air, H 2 and He.<br />

UNIT – V<br />

TRANSMISSION OF HEAT<br />

Coefficient of thermal conductivity, Tempertaure gradient, Continuous flow of heat through a bar, Forbes's<br />

method, Lee's method, Thermal conductivity of rubber and glass, Black-body radiation, Kirchoff's law,<br />

Pressure of radiation, Stefan-Boltzman's law, Rayleigh-Jean's law, Distribution of energy in the spectrum of<br />

black body.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. I Year Semester-I<br />

BPH-151<br />

Lab Course-I<br />

MM : 50<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 50<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

0 0 4<br />

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS<br />

LIST‘A’<br />

1. To determine moment of inertia of a flywheel<br />

2. To determine moment of inertia of an irregular body by inertia table<br />

3. To determine ‘Y’ by bending beam<br />

4. To determine ‘η’ by torsional pendulum<br />

5. To determine ‘η’ by statical method<br />

6. To determine ‘η’ by Maxwell’s needle<br />

7. To determine surface tension of water by Jager’s method<br />

LIST‘B’<br />

1. To determine ratio of sp. heat (C p /C v ) by Clement & Desorm’s method<br />

2. To determine ‘J’ by Callender & Barn’s method<br />

3. To determine thermal conductivity of copper by Searle’s method<br />

4. To determine thermal conductivity of glass<br />

5. To determine thermal conductivity of poor conductor by Lee’s method<br />

6. To determine ECE of copper by T.G.<br />

7. To determine ‘J’ by Joules calorimeter<br />

NOTE:<br />

1. Each experiment shall carry 15 Marks and 10 Marks shall be assigned for viva-voce examination. 15 Marks<br />

shall be reserved for practical record.<br />

2. In practical examination the student shall be required to perform Two experiments one each from list ‘A’ and<br />

list ‘B’.<br />

3. A teacher shall be assigned 20 students for daily practical work in laboratory.<br />

4. No batch for practical class shall consist of more than 20 students.<br />

5. The number of students in a batch allotted to an examiner for practical examination shall not exceed 20<br />

students.<br />

6. Addition/deletion in the above list may be made in accordance with the facilities available with the approval of<br />

H.O.D.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. I Year Semester-II<br />

BPH-201<br />

MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS<br />

MM : 50 Sessional : 15<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 35<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

3 1 0<br />

NOTE: Ten questions are to be set taking two questions from each unit. The student has to attempt FIVE questions in all<br />

selecting one question from each unit. The previous year paper/model paper can be used as a guideline and the following<br />

syllabus should be strictly followed while setting the question paper.<br />

UNIT – I<br />

VECTOR ALGEBRA & THEORY OF ERRORS<br />

<strong>Sc</strong>alars & vectors, Dot and cross products of vectors, Triple and quadruple products of vectors, Vector<br />

equations of a straight line, plane & sphere. Reciprocal set of vectors, Binomial, Poisson and Gauss ( Normal)<br />

distributions, Systematic and random errors, Propagation of errors, Normal Law of errors, Standard and<br />

probable errors.<br />

UNIT – II<br />

VECTOR CALCULAS<br />

Differentiation of vectors, Partial differentiation, <strong>Sc</strong>alar and vector fields, Gradient of a scalar field,<br />

Divergence and curl of a vector field, ‘∇’ operator, Line, surface and volume integrals, Gauss’s divergence<br />

theorm, Stoke’s theorem, Green’s theorem.<br />

UNIT – III<br />

GENERAL ORTHOGONAL COORDINATES<br />

Different type of orthogonal coordinate systems, Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates,<br />

General orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, Gradient, Divergence, Curl and Laplace operator in Cartesian,<br />

cylindrical and spherical coordinates.<br />

UNIT – IV<br />

MATRICES<br />

Basic definitions, Rank of matrix, Diagonal matrices, Trace of matrices, Matrix inversion, Orthogonal matrix,<br />

Diagonalisation of matrices (Gauss-Jordan method), Jacobi identity, Hermitian matrices, Orthogonal matrices,<br />

Unitary matrices, Normal matrices, Moment of inertia matrix, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors including<br />

Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.<br />

UNIT – V<br />

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION<br />

Classification of differential equations, Linear and Non-Linear differential equations, Homogeneous & nonhomogeneous<br />

differential equations, Partial differential equations, First & second order differential equations,<br />

Separation of variables, Singular points, Series solutions-Frobenius’ method, Non-homogeneous equation,<br />

Green’s function, Heat flow or diffusion equation, Wave equation with an example of oscillation of a hanging<br />

chain.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. I Year Semester-II<br />

BPH-202<br />

WAVES & OSCILLATIONS<br />

MM : 50 Sessional : 15<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 35<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

3 1 0<br />

syllabus should be strictly followed while setting the question paper.<br />

UNIT-I<br />

SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION<br />

Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) , Type of S.H.M., Differential equation of S.H.M. and its solution,<br />

Characteristic of S.H.M.: Displacement, Amplitude, Velocity, Acceleration, Time period and phase, Kinetic,<br />

potential and total energy and their time average values, Electrical oscillator (LC circuit), Acoustic harmonic<br />

oscillator (Helmholtz resonator), Addition of S.H.M S . in straight line, Composition of two rectangular simple<br />

harmonic motions of same frequencies (or periods), Composition of two rectangular simple harmonic motions<br />

of frequency ratio 2:1 using graphical and analytical methods, Lissajous figures, Experimental methods for<br />

obtaining Lissajous’ figures, Uses of Lissajous’ figures.<br />

UNIT-II<br />

DAMPED OSCILLATIONS<br />

Damped harmonic motion, Mathematical formulation of damped harmonic motion, Power dissipation in<br />

damped harmonic motion, Relaxation time or modulus of decay, Quality factor of damped harmonic<br />

oscillator, Electrical damped harmonic oscillator (LCR circuit), Electromagnetic oscillator (moving coil<br />

galvanometer with small damping).<br />

UNIT-III<br />

FORCED OSCILLATIONS<br />

Forced oscillations, Mathematical formulation of forced oscillations, resonance, Types of resonance, Effect of<br />

damping on resonance, Sharpness of resonance, Band width of resonance, Quality factor of forced oscillations,<br />

Velocity amplitude of forced (driven) oscillations, Power absorption by forced oscillator, Forced electrical<br />

oscillations, Mechanical and electrical impedances.<br />

UNIT-IV<br />

WAVE MOTION<br />

General equations of a stationary and progressive waves. Wave velocity and particle velocity. Group and<br />

phase velocity, Differential form of wave motion, Energy of a progressive wave, Velocity of longitudinal<br />

wave in elastic medium, Classification of sound waves.<br />

UNIT-V<br />

HARMONIC ANALYSIS & ULTRASONICS<br />

Fourier’s theorem, Evaluation of Fourier coefficients, Fourier analysis of a square wave, Fourier analysis of a<br />

saw tooth wave, Fourier analysis of a triangular wave, Sine and cosine series, Generation of ultrasonics,<br />

Quartz crystal and Piezo-electric effect, Production of ultrasonics, Detection of ultrasonics, Properties of<br />

ultrasonics, Determination of velocity of ultrasonics waves in liquids, Applications of ultrasonics.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. I Year Semester-II<br />

BPH-251<br />

Lab Course-II<br />

MM : 50<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 50<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

0 0 4<br />

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS<br />

LIST ‘A’<br />

1. To determine ‘Y’, ‘η’ and ‘ σ’ Searl’s apparatus<br />

2.. To determine Poisson’s ratio of rubber<br />

3. To determine ‘g’ by bar pendulum<br />

4.. To determine ‘g’ by Kater’s pendulum<br />

5. To study law of parallel and perpendicular axes for moment of inertia<br />

6. To determine viscosity of a liquid by Poiseuille’s method<br />

7. To determine of viscosity of air by rotating cylinder method<br />

LIST ‘B’<br />

1. To determine frequency of A.C. mains by sonometer<br />

2. To determine frequency of A.C. mains by electrical vibrator<br />

3. To determine frequency of tuning fork in (i) Longitudinal and (ii) Transverse mode<br />

4. To study Fourier series analysis<br />

5. Calibration of thermo couple by potentiometer<br />

6. Variation of thermo e.m.f. with temperature<br />

7. To determine Stefan’s constant<br />

NOTE:<br />

1. Each experiment shall carry 15 Marks and 10 Marks shall be assigned for viva-voce examination. 15 Marks<br />

shall be reserved for practical record.<br />

2. In practical examination the student shall be required to perform Two experiments one each from list ‘A’ and<br />

list ‘B’.<br />

3. A teacher shall be assigned 20 students for daily practical work in laboratory.<br />

4. No batch for practical class shall consist of more than 20 students.<br />

5. The number of students in a batch allotted to an examiner for practical examination shall not exceed 20<br />

students.<br />

6. Addition/deletion in the above list may be made in accordance with the facilities available with the approval of<br />

H.O.D.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. II Year Semester-III<br />

BPH-301<br />

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM<br />

MM : 50 Sessional : 15<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 35<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

3 1 0<br />

syllabus should be strictly followed while setting the question paper.<br />

UNIT – I<br />

ELECTROSTATICS<br />

Coulomb's law in vector form for point charges and continuos distribution of charges, Electric field and<br />

electric flux, Calculation of force and field due to various charge distribution, Gauss's law and its application,<br />

Gauss law in differential form, Field and potential of an electric dipole, Poisson's and Laplace equations for<br />

potential (no solution required), Dielectrics: Dielectric and dielectric constants, Polar and non-polar molecules,<br />

Electric polarization of matter, Gauss's law in dielectrics, The electric vectors E,P,D and their relationship,<br />

Atomic polarisability and electric susceptibility, Force between charges in dielectric medium.<br />

UNIT – II<br />

CURRENT ELECTRICITY<br />

Electric current & current density, Wideman's Franz law, Kirchhoff's laws and their application to<br />

Wheatstone's bridge, Sensitivity of Wheatstone bridge, Thomson’s and Mance's methods, Kelvin double<br />

bridge, Callender and Griffith bridge, Thermo electricity: Seeback, Peltier and Thomson effects and their<br />

explantion, Calculation of Pelteir & Thomson coefficients.<br />

UNIT – III<br />

TIME VARYING FIELD & ALTERNATING CURRENTS<br />

Electromagnetic induction, Faraday's &Lenz's law, Intergal and differential form of Faraday's law, Self and<br />

mutual inductance, Energy stored in an inductor, Search coil method of measuring a strong magnetic field,<br />

Rayleigh method to determine the self inductance, Charging and discharging of a condenser through<br />

resistance, Growth and decay of currents, Principle & working of ballistic galvanometer and its application<br />

Analysis of A.C. circuits and their phase diagrams, Series & parallel resonant circuits, Q factor, Power in A.C.<br />

circuit, Transformers.<br />

UNIT – IV<br />

MAGNETIC EFFECT OF STEADY CURRENT AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATTER<br />

Magnetic induction (B), Lorentz force, Biot-Savert law, Ampere's law and its application to circular coils and<br />

solenoid, Maxwell's equation, Motion of charged particle in magnetic field, Cyclotron, Magnetization, B,H<br />

and I vectors and their inter-relationship, Magnetic moment, Magnetic permeability and susceptibility,<br />

Elementary idea of para, dia & ferromagnetism, Hysteresis cycle, Ballistic method for drawing B-H curve<br />

(Anchor Ring Method).<br />

UNIT – V<br />

NETWORK THEOREMS & A.C. BRIDGES<br />

Electrical network , Superposition, Reciprocity, Norton, and Thevenin's theorems, Complex number and<br />

complex impedances, Kirchhoff's laws applied to A.C. networks, Balance condition in A.C bridges, Maxwell,<br />

Anderson and Wein's bridges, Maximum power transfer theorem.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. II Year Semester-III<br />

BPH-302<br />

OPTICS<br />

MM : 50 Sessional : 15<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 35<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

3 1 0<br />

syllabus should be strictly followed while setting the question paper.<br />

FERMAT’S PRINCIPLE & CARDINAL POINTS<br />

UNIT – I<br />

Fermat’s principle and its applications, Cardinal points, Focal length of combination of two thin lenses,<br />

Spherical and chromatic aberrations and their elimination, Huygen’s and Ramsden’s eye pieces.<br />

INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT<br />

UNIT – II<br />

Theory of interference, Coherent sources, Fresnel’s biprism, Determination of wavelength by biprism,<br />

Thickness of thin mica sheet, Llyod mirror, Achromatic fringes.<br />

Interference in thin films, Colours in thin films, Interference in wedge-shaped films, Theory and applications<br />

of Newton’s rings, Michelson interferometer and its applications.<br />

DIFFRACTIOPN OF LIGHT<br />

UNIT – III<br />

Fresnel’s theory of half period zones, Zone plate, Explanation of rectilinear propagation of light, Diffraction<br />

at straight edge and narrow wire, Fraunhoffer diffraction, Diffraction at a single slit and N slits, Plane<br />

transmission grating, Rayleigh criterion of resolution, Resolving power of telescope and grating.<br />

POLARIZATION OF LIGHT<br />

UNIT – IV<br />

Brewster’s law, Double refraction, Nicol prism, Huygen’s theory of double refraction, Elliptical and circular<br />

polarization, Quarter wave plate, Half wave plate, Specific rotation, Half shade and bi-quartz polarimeter,<br />

LASERS<br />

UNIT – V<br />

Purity of spectral lines, Coherence length and coherence time, Spatial coherence of source, Spontaneous and<br />

stimulated emission, Einstein’s A and B coefficients, Condition for laser action, Population inversion, Ruby<br />

laser, He-Ne laser, Uses of laser.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. II Year Semester-III<br />

BPH-351<br />

Lab Course-III<br />

MM : 50<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 50<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

0 0 4<br />

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS<br />

LIST ‘A’<br />

1. To study variation of magnetic field along the axis of a circular coil<br />

2. To compare two resistances (R 1 /R 2 ) by potentiometer<br />

3. Calibration of ammeter by potentiometer<br />

4. Calibration of voltmeter by potentiometer<br />

5. To determine resistance of galvanometer by Kelvin’s method<br />

6. To determine internal resistance of a cell by Mance’s method<br />

7. To determine high resistance by leakage method by using B.G.<br />

LIST ‘B’<br />

1. To determine refractive index of the material of a prism by spectrometer<br />

2. To determine dispersive power of the material of a prism by spectrometer<br />

3. To determine wavelength of sodium light by Newton’s ring method<br />

4. To determine wavelength of white light by grating<br />

5. Verification of formula 1/F = 1/f 1 +1/f 2 - x/f 1 f 2 by nodal slide method<br />

6. To determine resolving power of telescope<br />

7. To determine specific rotation of cane sugar by polarimeter<br />

NOTE:<br />

1. Each experiment shall carry 15 Marks and 10 Marks shall be assigned for viva-voce examination. 15 Marks<br />

shall be reserved for practical record.<br />

2. In practical examination the student shall be required to perform Two experiments one each from list ‘A’ and<br />

list ‘B’.<br />

3. A teacher shall be assigned 20 students for daily practical work in laboratory.<br />

4. No batch for practical class shall consist of more than 20 students.<br />

5. The number of students in a batch allotted to an examiner for practical examination shall not exceed 20<br />

students.<br />

6. Addition/deletion in the above list may be made in accordance with the facilities available with the approval of<br />

H.O.D.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. II Year Semester-IV<br />

BPH-401<br />

ATOMIC AND QUANTUM PHYSICS<br />

MM : 50 Sessional : 15<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 35<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

3 1 0<br />

syllabus should be strictly followed while setting the question paper.<br />

UNIT – I<br />

BOHR'S THEORY AND H-ATOM<br />

Rutherford alpha particle scattering, Rutherford's model, Bohr's theory and spectrum of H-atom, Energy level<br />

diagram, Frank-Hertz experiment, Motion of nucleus, Hydrogen like atoms, Mass of isotopes, Bohr's<br />

correspondence principle, Sommerfeld extension of Bohr's theory, Relativistic correction.<br />

UNIT – II<br />

VECTOR ATOM MODEL<br />

Electron spin, Stern-Gerlach experiment, Space quantization, Quantum numbers, L-S and J-J coupling,<br />

Magnetic moment of an atom, Larmor's theorem, Normal and anomalous Zeeman effect and their<br />

explanations.<br />

UNIT – III<br />

ORIGIN OF WAVE MECHANICS<br />

Planck's quantum theory of black body radiation, Photoelectric effect, Compton effect, Matter wave;<br />

de-Broglie hypothesis, Davisson-Germer experiment, Group and phase velocity, Uncertainty principle and its<br />

application.<br />

UNIT – IV<br />

SCHRöDINGER WAVE MECHANICS<br />

Postulates of <strong>Sc</strong>hrödinger wave mechanics, <strong>Sc</strong>hrödinger time independent and time dependent equations,<br />

Concept of probability amplitude, Probability current density, Expectation value of physical observables,<br />

Ehrenfest's theorem.<br />

UNIT – V<br />

APPLICATION OF SCHRöDINGER EQUATION<br />

Application of <strong>Sc</strong>hrödinger equation to free particle, Particle in a box, Rectangular potential barrier, Linear<br />

harmonic oscillator, <strong>Sc</strong>hrödinger equation for spherically symmetric potential, H-atom.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. II Year Semester-IV<br />

BPH-402<br />

NUCLEAR PHYSICS<br />

MM : 50 Sessional : 15<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 35<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

3 1 0<br />

syllabus should be strictly followed while setting the question paper.<br />

UNIT – I<br />

NUCLEAR STRUCTURE<br />

Structure of the nucleus: Composition, Basic properties; Charge, Mass, Size, Spin, Magnetic moment, Electric<br />

quadrupole moment, Mass defect, Binding energy and packing fraction, Binding energy per nucleon and its<br />

observed variation with mass number, Semi- empirical mass formula: Coulomb energy, Volume energy,<br />

Surface energy, Other corrections.<br />

UNIT- II<br />

NUCLEAR FORCES & NUCLEAR MODELS<br />

Nuclear forces and their properties, Meson theory of nuclear forces, Study of ground state of deuteron, Liquid<br />

drop model, Particle shell model, Explanation of magic numbers.<br />

UNIT- III<br />

RADIOACTIVITY<br />

The radioactive decay law, Decay constant and half life; Methods of measurement of half life, Spectra of<br />

emitters, Laws of radioactive transformation, Radioactive equilibrium, Natural radioactive series, Activity of<br />

radioactive substance, Successive radioactive disintegration, Alpha decay: Geiger-Nuttall law, Gamow's<br />

theory of alpha decay, , Beta decay and the neutrino.<br />

UNIT - IV<br />

NUCLEAR REACTIONS<br />

Artificial radioactivity, Discovery of neutron and determination of its mass, Artificial transmutation of<br />

elements, Radio isotopes and their uses.<br />

Kinematics of nuclear reaction, Q-value, Compound nucleus formation, Excited states of nuclei, Threshold<br />

energy, Nuclear cross section, Nuclear reactions induced by alpha particles, Neutrons, Protons and photons,<br />

Principle of nuclear fission and fusion.<br />

UNIT-V<br />

ELEMENTARY PARTICLES<br />

Introduction of charged particles, Leptons, Mesons, Baryons, Hadrons, Strange particles, Resonance of<br />

elementry particles, Quarks, Colour of the quark, Quark content of mesons and baryons.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. II Year Semester-IV<br />

BPH-451<br />

Lab Course-IV<br />

MM : 50<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 50<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

0 0 4<br />

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS<br />

LIST ‘A’<br />

1. To determine internal resistance of a cell by potentiometer<br />

2. Conversion of galvanometer into ammeter of a given range<br />

3. Conversion of galvanometer into voltmeter of a given range<br />

4. To determine the resistance per unit length of a C.F. bridge wire and to prepare one ohm coil to<br />

determine the specific resistance of a given wire<br />

5. To study C 1 / C 2 by ballistic galvanometer<br />

6. To study I.P. of photometer<br />

7. To study of decay of currents in LR and CR circuits<br />

LIST ‘B’<br />

1. To study characteristic of photocell<br />

2. To determine refractive index of a liquid by Newton’s ring method<br />

3. To study diffraction pattern at a straight edge<br />

4. To determine wavelength of sodium light by biprism<br />

5. To determine velocity of ultrasonic waves in a liquid<br />

6. To determine value of e/m by magnetic focusing or by bar magnet<br />

7. To determine the wavelengths of hydrogen spectrum and hence to determine Rydberg constant<br />

NOTE:<br />

shall be reserved for practical record.<br />

list ‘B’.<br />

3. A teacher shall be assigned 20 students for daily practical work in laboratory.<br />

4. No batch for practical class shall consist of more than 20 students.<br />

students.<br />

H.O.D.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. III Year Semester-V<br />

BPH-501<br />

THEORY OF RELATIVITY & TENSORS<br />

MM : 50 Sessional : 15<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 35<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

3 1 0<br />

syllabus should be strictly followed while setting the question paper.<br />

UNIT – I<br />

FRAME OF REFERENCE<br />

Inertial frame of reference, Galilean transformation, Galilean invariance of space & time intervals, Newton’s<br />

laws of motion; Law of conservation of linear momentum & energy, Non-inertial frames and fictitious forces,<br />

Effect of rotation of earth on ‘g’, Effects of centrifugal and Coriolis forces produced as a result of earth’s<br />

rotation, Focault’s pendulum and its equation of motion.<br />

UNIT-1I<br />

SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY-I<br />

Newtonian relativity, Instances of its failure in electromagnetism, Attempts to locate the absolute frame of<br />

reference, Aberration of star light, Ether-drag hypothesis and Fizeau’s experiment, Michelson-Morley<br />

experiment, Einstein’s basic postulates and geometric derivation of Lorentz transformation, Invariance of<br />

Maxwell’s equations, Length contraction, Synchronization and time dilation.<br />

UNIT-III<br />

SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY -II<br />

Consequences of Lorentz transformation. : Relativity of simultaneity, Relativistic addition of velocities,<br />

Relativity of mass, Mass-energy and momentum- energy relation, Relativistic Doppler effect.<br />

UNIT-IV<br />

TENSOR ANALYSIS<br />

Introduction, Summation, Conversion & Kronecker delta symbol, Definition of tensor in three & four<br />

dimensional spaces, Rank of a tensor, Covariant and contra variant tensors, Symmetric & anti-symmetric<br />

tensors, Addition, subtraction and multiplication of tensors, Quotient law.<br />

UNIT-V<br />

LINE ELEMENT & GEODESICS<br />

Fundamental tensor, Length of a curve, Magnitude of a vector, Associate tensors, Angle between two<br />

vectors-Orthogonality, Principal directions, Christoffel symbol & geodesic equation.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. III Year Semester-V<br />

BPH-502<br />

SOLID STATE PHYSICS<br />

MM : 50 Sessional : 15<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 35<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

3 1 0<br />

syllabus should be strictly followed while setting the question paper.<br />

UNIT – I<br />

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE<br />

Lattice, Basic and unit cell,Translation vector, Millar indices, Inter planer spacing, Simple crystal structure<br />

(SC,BCC,FCC), Crystal structure of NaCl, CsCl, and diamond, Reciprocal lattice, X-ray diffraction, Bragg's<br />

law, Laue's theory of X-ray diffraction, Laue pattern.<br />

UNIT-II<br />

CRYSTAL BINDING<br />

Type of crystal binding. Binding energy of ionic crystal, Madelung constant for NaCl lattice, Potential energy<br />

of ionic crystal , Covalent crystals, Molecular bonding and Vander-Waals interaction.<br />

UNIT- III<br />

LATTICE VIBRATION AND SPECIFIC HEAT OF SOLIDS<br />

Lattice vibration, Vibration of 1-D monatomic lattice, Vibration of diatonic linear lattice, Phonons, Specific<br />

heat, Einstein’s theory and Debye model of lattice heat capacity.<br />

UNIT- IV<br />

FREE ELECTRON THEORY<br />

Drude-Lorentz theory, Sommerfeld model,Fermi-Dirac distribution, Effect of temperature on F-D distribution,<br />

Electronic specific heat, Electrical conductivity and Ohm’s Law,Thermal conductivity of metals, Wiedemann-<br />

Frenz law, Hall effect.<br />

UNIT-V<br />

BAND THEORY OF SOLIDS<br />

Energy band, Origin of energy gap, Classification of solids as conductors, insulators and semiconductors,<br />

Brillouin zones, Effective mass of electron in crystals, Hall effect, Electrical conductivity of metals,<br />

Semiconductors ; Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, Temperature dependence of electron and hole<br />

concentrations, Fermi level.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. III Year Semester-V<br />

BPH-551<br />

Lab Course-V<br />

MM : 50<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 50<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

0 0 4<br />

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS<br />

LIST ‘A’<br />

1. To determine Cauchy’s relation by spectrometer<br />

2. To determine Planck’s constant by photocell and filters<br />

3. To study different network theorems<br />

4. To study transformer<br />

5. To determine impedance of LCR A.C. circuit<br />

6. To study series & parallel resonant LCR A.C. circuit<br />

7. To study the response curve for LCR circuit and resonant frequency & quality factor<br />

LIST ‘B’<br />

1. To study characteristics of p-n junction diode & Zener diode<br />

2. To study half wave & full wave rectifier<br />

3. To determine voltage regulation and ripple factor of a power supply using filters<br />

4. To study voltage regulation by Zener diode<br />

5. To study various transistor biasing circuits<br />

6. To study characteristics of PNP transistor<br />

7. To study AF and RF oscillator<br />

NOTE:<br />

shall be reserved for practical record.<br />

list ‘B’.<br />

3. A teacher shall be assigned 20 students for daily practical work in laboratory.<br />

4. No batch for practical class shall consist of more than 20 students.<br />

students.<br />

H.O.D.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. III Year Semester-VI<br />

BPH-601<br />

ELECTRONICS<br />

MM : 50 Sessional : 15<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 35<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

3 1 0<br />

syllabus should be strictly followed while setting the question paper.<br />

UNIT – I<br />

SEMICONDUCTOR AND P-N JUNCTION DIODE<br />

Semiconductor and its properties, Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, P-N junction, Biasing and V-I<br />

characteristics of P-N junction, Avalanche and zener breakdowns, semiconductor diode, Crystal diode as half<br />

wave (HW) and full wave (FW) rectifier, Efficiency and ripple factor of HW& FW rectifiers, Filter circuits:<br />

Capacitor input, Series inductor, L-section and II-section filters, Zener diode and its application to voltage<br />

regulation, Simple power supply.<br />

UNIT-II<br />

BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR AND ITS BIASING<br />

Transistor, Transistor action, Transistor connections : CB,CE and CC configurations and their characteristics,<br />

alpha and beta parameters and their relationship, DC load line analysis and operating point, Transistor biasing,<br />

Stability factor, Methods of transistor biasing : Base resistance method, Biasing with feedback, Voltage<br />

divider bias method.<br />

UNIT- III<br />

TRANSITOR AMPLIFIER<br />

Basic principle of transistor amplifier, DC and AC equivalent circuits, CE and CC amplifiers, Voltage gain,<br />

Input and output impedances, Cascaded stages amplifiers, RC coupled, Transformer coupled and direct<br />

coupled amplifiers and their frequency responses (qualitative analysis only), Transistor power amplifier.<br />

Classification of power amplifiers. Heat sink, Push pull amplifiers.<br />

UNIT-IV<br />

FEEDBACK IN AMPLIFIERS AND OSCILLATORS<br />

Basic principle of feed back, Advantage of negative feedback, Voltage and current negative feed back<br />

transistor amplifiers, Emitter follower, Phase relations, Voltage gain, Load line. AC model, Input and output<br />

impedances, Barkhausian criterion of sustained oscillations, Tuned collector oscillator,Wein bridge oscillator,<br />

Hartley oscillator, Phase shift oscillator.<br />

UNIT-V<br />

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS<br />

Number system: Decimal, Binary, Octal and hexadecimal number systems and their inter- conversion, Logic<br />

gates:AND, OR, NOR, XOR, NAND gates, Boolean algebra, De Morgan’s theorem. Binary addition,<br />

Subtraction, Multiplication and division, Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh map, Algebraic simplifications.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. III Year Semester-VI<br />

BPH-602<br />

Statistical <strong>Physics</strong><br />

MM : 50 Sessional : 15<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 35<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

3 1 0<br />

NOTE: Ten questions are to be set taking two questions from each unit. The Student has to attempt FIVE questions in all<br />

syllabus should be strictly followed while setting the question paper.<br />

UNIT-I<br />

INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICAL METHODS<br />

Elementary statistical concepts, Simple random walk problem in one dimension, Mean values and their<br />

calculation for the random walk problem, Probability distribution for large N, Gaussian probability<br />

distributions.<br />

UNIT-II<br />

STATISTICAL DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES<br />

Specification of the state of a system, Statistical ensemble, Basic postulates, Behaviour of density of states,<br />

Interaction between macroscopic systems, Statistical thermodynamics, Equilibrium conditions & constraints,<br />

Reversible and irreversible processes, Thermal interaction between macroscopic systems, Heat reservoirs,<br />

Sharpness of probability distribution, Equilibrium between interacting systems, Properties of the entropy.<br />

UNIT-III<br />

BASIC METHODS AND RESULTS OF STATISTICAL MECHANICS<br />

Isolated system, System in contact with a heat reservoir, Simple applications of canonical distribution, Mean<br />

values in canonical distribution, Connection with thermodynamics, Grand canonical and other ensembles,<br />

Partition function, Ideal monatomic gas, Gibbs paradox, Validity of classical approximation, Equipartition<br />

theorem, Simple applications, Specific heats of solids, Paramagnetism<br />

UNIT-IV<br />

KINETIC THEORY OF TRANSPORT PROCESS<br />

Collision time, <strong>Sc</strong>attering cross-section, Viscosity, Thermal conductivity, Diffusion and electrical<br />

conductivity, Distribution functions and transport processes, Boltzmann equation in the absence of collisions,<br />

Path integral formulation, Boltzmann differential equation formulation, Equivalence of the two formulations<br />

and application to viscosity and electrical conductivity. Description of two-particle collisions, <strong>Sc</strong>attering<br />

crosssections and symmetry properties. Derivation of Bolzmann equation.<br />

UNIT-V<br />

QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS<br />

Introduction to Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics; Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics as a classical limit;<br />

Comparison of the three statistics; Qualitative features of degenerate Fermi and Bose gases.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>

B. <strong>Sc</strong>. III Year Semester-VI<br />

BPH-651<br />

Lab Course-VI<br />

MM : 50<br />

Time : 3 hrs ESE : 50<br />

L T P Pass Marks : 20<br />

0 0 4<br />

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS<br />

LIST ‘A’<br />

1. To draw B-H curve of iron core by using a solenoid and to determine the energy loss due to hysteresis<br />

2. To determine coefficient of increase of resistance with temperature by Callendar and Griffth’s bridge<br />

3. To determine wavelength of a monochromatic light by Michelson interferometer<br />

4. To determine the energy band gap<br />

5. To study LASER as a monochromatic coherent source<br />

6. To determine low resistance by Kelvin double bridge<br />

7. To determine inductance of an inductor by Anderson bridge<br />

LIST ‘B’<br />

1. To study regulation characteristics of a Zener regulated power supply<br />

2. To study characteristics of NPN transistor<br />

3. To study load line analysis of transistor<br />

4. To study R.C. coupled amplifier<br />

5. To study Transformer coupled amplifier<br />

6. To study logic gates, half adder and full adder<br />

7. To study VTVM<br />

NOTE:<br />

shall be reserved for practical record.<br />

list ‘B’.<br />

3. A teacher shall be assigned 20 students for daily practical work in laboratory.<br />

4. No batch for practical class shall consist of more than 20 students.<br />

students.<br />

H.O.D.<br />

Department of <strong>Physics</strong><br />

<strong>Physics</strong>