EuroPneumo Special Issue / pneumonia 2015 Oct 21;7:I–72

(18.2%). Higher colonisation rates were also associated with the presence of respiratory signs, symptoms and diseases,

as well as with the consumption of steroidal medicaments and no affiliation to the health systems (social security).

Serotyping, antimicrobial resistance, genotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing

are currently under evaluation. This molecular epidemiology study in Medellín contributes to a better understanding of

the scenario of circulating pneumococcal strains and the factors favouring colonisation in children.


Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus

pneumoniae clinical isolates from invasive pneumococcal diseases in

Antioquia, Colombia

Carlos Eugenio Delgado 1, 3 , Jessica Morales 1, 3 , Beatriz Salazar 2, 4 , Leidy Acevedo 1, 2 , Johan

Bolivar 1, 2 , Sara Saldarriaga 1, 2 , Milena Cardona 1, 2 , Diego Florez 1, 2 , Steven Rivera 1, 2 , Alejandro

Gomez 1, 6 , Adriana Gonzalez 5 , Marleny Gallego 5 , Marcela Arrubla 5 , Blanca Restrepo 5 , Sven

Hammerschmidt 6 , Doracelly Hincapie 3 , Gustavo Gamez 1, 2


Basic and Applied Microbiology (MICROBA) Research Group, School of Microbiology, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; 2 Genetics,

Regeneration and Cancer (GRC) Research Group, University Research Center (SIU), Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; 3 Epidemiology

Research Group, National Faculty of Public Health, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; 4 Bacteria and Cancer Research Group, School of

Medicine, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; 5 Laboratorio Departamental de Salud Pública, Secretaría Seccional de Salud de Antioquia,

Medellín, Colombia; 6 Department Genetics of Microorganisms, Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University of Greifswald,

Greifswald, Germany

Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children 60% of all IPD cases in the region. According to the Agar diffusion test,

the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance were observed with penicillin (NS-45%), tetracycline (R-38%), trimethoprim/

sulfamethoxazole (R-35%), erithromycin (R-23%), and clindamycin (R-19%). Traditionally, serotype 14 is the most

prevalent serotype in Colombia; however, its incidence has decreased in the last decade. Conversely, the serotype 19A

prevalence is increasing in Colombia (emerging serotype) after the PCV introduction. Both serotypes are non-sensible

to penicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistants. The reduced number of IPD cases in children, in comparison

with non-PCV-immunised adults, and the shifts in the distribution of IPD serotypes, suggest the potential impact of PCVs

on IPDs in Antioquia, Colombia.


Vaccination drives changes in metabolic and virulence profiles of

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Eleanor Watkins 1 , Caroline Buckee 2 , Bridget Penman 1 , Martin Maiden 1 , Sunetra Gupta 1


University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 2 Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA

Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, increases in non-vaccine serotypes have been recorded in

several countries: a phenomenon termed vaccine-induced serotype replacement (VISR). Here, using a combination of

mathematical modelling and whole genome analysis, we show that targeting particular serotypes through vaccination

pneumonia 2015 Volume 7


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