1.- Stabilization of slopes and embankments

delineacion

Catalogue

Stabilization of slopes and embankments


INDEX:

1.- Stabilization of slopes and embankments.

1.1.- Micropile.

1.2.- Lanes jacking.

1.3.- Breakwaters.

1.4.- Anti-erosion protection.

1.5.- Gunite or shotcrete.

1.6.- Anchors, mesh and cable networks.

1.7.- Stone columns.


Catalogue

Stabilization of slopes and embankments

1.- STABILIZATION OF SLOPES AND EMBANKMENTS.

Since our inception we have carried out numerous works of maintenance and upkeep of roads for the

various regional roads, public authorities, Ministry of public works and municipalities. Our specialization in

the stabilization of slopes and hillsides has emerged out of here. So much so that in collaboration with the

Ministry of development and the society for regional development of Cantabria (Sodercan) and the Group

of research of technology of the construction of the University of Cantabria have carried out various

conventions for the study and publication of a manual for the "stabilization of slopes by driven railway

Rails",aswellastheGuideon"Implementation of walls of breakwater road".

Slope stabilisation methods can be grouped into two containment systems and methods that increase the

resistance to cutting of the floor.

Stabilization of slope on motorway A-8 (Asturias), Spain.

Belong to the first group, systems that generate a continuous force that opposes the movement of soil,

such as reinforced concrete walls, walls of breakwater, gravity walls, screens of piles, reinforced concrete

continuous screens, dynamic displays, etc. These methods do not demand of field collaboration resistant,

being the structure which stabilises the soil. The second group is characterized by raising the global

resistance of the soil by the inclusion of structures or with the improvement of the soil. You can mention

in these systems, the grouting, the reinforced earth, displays of nuts and bolts, Californians, sewing pile or

Rails, drains etc.

We want to highlight the most common building systems, containment and/or stabilization of slopes and

slopes that we have been running being our high level of expertise with our experience the best guarantee

for our clients.


1.1.- MICROPILES.

They are elements of deep foundations, of circular cross‐section and small diameter up to 350 mm,

with a high load‐bearing capacity to compression, which transfer the loads to the ground in depth.

Similarly, the micropiles can be designed to withstand bending and cutting, and even traction. They

are drilled into the ground, armed with a pipe of steel of high resistance, profiles or bars and injected

with grout or mortar bed, covering the armor and getting optimum adhesion to the ground.

Example of micropiles as containment or support structure.

1.Stabilization of slopes and embankments


Catalogue

Stabilization of slopes and embankments

Drilling anchors.


Stabilization of slope in AC-282 in La Hermida (Cantabria).

1.Stabilization of slopes and embankments


Catalogue

Stabilization of slopes and embankments

1.2.- LANES JACKING.

He is meant by this piling method of railway rails in an unstable slope in order to intercept the

sliding surface, giving it the cutting needed to stop or minimize the movement of the slope. When

proposing this kind of works, usually slip has already said they have taken into account and

analyzed the geotechnical, structural, construction, environmental and economic aspects of

performance, and above all the reason and the mechanisms that originated the movement so that

it does not become manifest once installed the containment system.

The types of Rails used in Spain are two, UIC 45 (via close) and UIC 54. Rails quite well resist efforts

to Court of the land. Nominal admissible resistances of the rails are in the order of 1400 Kn. Digs

on the Rails, depend on the separation that they have in the design and in the field. This

configuration will result in the number of lanes per row and per linear meter of talus. The most

appropriate method is used depending on the type of sliding of the slope being the most widely

used finite slope method usually glides have semicircular shape.

They are normally forming alignments or groups with various inclinations, encepan head and

accompanied by anchors or other units of work. Theyareplacedinthesameplane(usually

vertical) or forming range.

Example of stabilization of slopes or hillsides.


He piling lane for stabilization of CA-182 in Carmona (Cantabria).

Detail of the upper bound of the due.

1.Stabilization of slopes and embankments


Catalogue

Stabilization of slopes and embankments

Tied and formwork due higher.


1.3.- BREAKWATERS.

They are understood by irregular walls of placed rockfill, the composed of blocks of rock, polyhedral,

uncut form and large size (between 300 and 3000 kg mass), which are placed one by one using

specific machinery, with containment or support functions. The placement of each of the blocks

should be conducted on an individual basis, taking into account the shape and size of the

immediately surrounding area, so that the whole present lower volume of holes as possible, getting

high values of the apparent specific gravity of placed rockfill and good stability of the wall.

Distinguishes two types of wall, in accordance with the mission that was entrusted to them:

a) retaining walls of slopes and embankments in dismantling (of contention).

b) Walls of fillings (support) support.

a) Retaining walls of slopes and embankments in dismantling (of contention).

For the walls of placed rockfill project be taken into account the criteria of the section geometry type

wall, breakwater blocks features, the methodology for calculating usually set to guide foundations of

road works, and the requirements for the implementation and the control of the same.

1.Stabilization of slopes and embankments


Catalogue

Stabilization of slopes and embankments

b) Walls of sosteniniento of fillings (support).

The walls of containment and maintenance are based on distinct basic approaches because, while in

the maintenance, in general the wall is one part more than one filler that is projected as new work

in its entirety, incontention, the wall has as function the stabilization of land, on which only can act

are focusing on certain specific aspects.

Embankment slope on motorway A-8 in Buelna, Asturias.


Stabilization with walls of hillside in the A-67 motorway in Cantabria (before and after).

Before.

After.

1.Stabilization of slopes and embankments


Catalogue

Stabilization of slopes and embankments

Esplanade-bearing wall.


1.4.- ANTI-EROSION PROTECTION.

Mesh, prevention of landslides in LLN-4 in Buelna, Asturias.

Protection of runway in Requejada.

Protection of margins in Polanco.

1.Stabilization of slopes and embankments


Catalogue

Stabilization of slopes and embankments

Protection of river bed under the motorway A-8 and precast concrete for collecting rainwater in Buelna, Asturias.


1.5.- GUNITE OR SHOTCRETE.

It is mainly used for protection or support of slopes or rock fractured or degraded areas. Withthe

proper thickness and in combination with a metal frame (welded or metal mesh) and bolts or

anchors, it becomes a very effective system of support or containment, similar to what you can offer

a concrete wall. The protection offered to the degradation or erosion of the slope unstable

materials is one of its main advantages. The installation of drains in areas treated with shotcrete

should always be provided.

Shotcrete.

1.Stabilization of slopes and embankments


Catalogue

Stabilization of slopes and embankments

Detail drainage tubes.

Sandblasting of the shotcrete.


1.6.- ANCHORS, MESH AND CABLE NETWORKS.

The anchor is a technique of maintenance which consists in embedding the rocks inside a steel bar,

which provides a tensile strength, and that taking advantage of the resistant characteristics of the

rock, facilitates its sustainability. Anchors are collaborating on the stability of a slope providing a

counterforce to the movement of the mass, and increasing the normal stresses on the surface of

potential rupture.

There are a variety of anchors, and their differences are determined by:

A. The purpose to which van intended. (Clamping of isolated blocks, sewing of cracked, rocky areas

against slope landslides, support of excavations, etc.

B. Thetypeofmaterialorarmorthatarecomposed, in diameters from 16 to 50 mm. steel bar and

steel between 900 and 1,230 N / mm2, or cables of different configurations and diameters.

Protection against Rocky area.

1.Stabilization of slopes and embankments


Catalogue

Stabilization of slopes and embankments

Protection against Rocky area with wire triple twist in vertical area.

Also can be temporary or permanent, passive or active (stretched), anchored by adhesion with resin or

cement, or friction.

Screens or cable networks are panels made of steel cable from 8 to 16 mm thick, with holes mesh of

between 100 to 400 mm. They are commonly used for the consolidation of unstable slopes, in

combination with bolts or anchors and reinforcing steel cables. It is often used in combination with

triple twist mesh.

The main advantages of this system are the continuous application of load on the entire surface of the

ground with an increase of the safety and reliability of the bolting, the low environmental and visual

impact, and which does not interfere the natural drainage of the land.


1.7.- STONE COLUMNS.

This technique allows the improvement of the bearing capacity of soils through a process of very

low environmental impact, to make dry allowing the application of these procedures in the vicinity

of existing works, buildings, etc.

Fields of application of soil improvement techniques.

Columns in gravel‐based execution of radial vibrators. they areatechniqueofvibroreplacement,to

improve soils of very soft media (silty sands, silts, clayey silts, clays, soils not evolutionary as

landfills, slag or heterogeneous filling).

1.Stabilization of slopes and embankments


Catalogue

Stabilization of slopes and embankments

Advantages of dry gravel columns:

Solder is directly supplied to the domestic output, which ensures the continuity of the column.

• Compaction is done in a single pass.

• There is no risk of perforation in unstable soils desprendimieno.

• Vibrators mounted on chasis‐guia guarantee the perfect verticality of the columns.

• Not to use water pressure, the platform is not contaminated. Management of water and sludge is

not required...

Process of implementation of gravel columns.


Process for completion:

1. PREPARATION. The machine is parked on the point of piling and stabilizes on skates. A

loader is responsible for supplying solder.

2. FILLING. The contents of the hopper is poured into the camera. To close it, compressed

air keeps a continuous flow of materials to the outlet port...

3. PILING. Vibrator goes down, laterally moving soil, up to the planned depth, thanks to

the action of compressed air and static thrust of the whole.

4. COMPACTION. When the final depth is reached, vibrator is slightly elevated and solder

the freed space. Then turns to get the vibrator to expand material laterally against the

soil and compacting it.

5. FINISH. The column runs, successive passes, to the planned level. The footings are then

executed in traditional direct.

Implementation process of columns in gravel at Polígono Industrial de Marina y Medio Cudeyo (Cantabria).

1.Stabilization of slopes and embankments


Catalogue

Stabilization of slopes and embankments

Implementation process of columns in gravel at Polígono

Industrial de Marina y Medio Cudeyo (Cantabria).


WHEREWEARE?

Construction and Services, S.A.

Address: Paseo Julio Hauzeur, 45 B

39300 Torrelavega (Cantabria), Spain

e-mail: siecsa@siecsa.com

web:

www.siecsa.com

Phone: (+34) 942 89 24 11


Cantabria

Spain

Morocco

Paseo Julio Hauzeur, 45 Bajo | CP 39300 | TORRELAVEGA (Cantabria) | Tél. (+34) 942 892 411

www.siecsa.com | e‐mail: siecsa@siecsa.com

SIECSA, Construction and Services, S.A.

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