travel-in-london-understanding-our-diverse-communities

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travel-in-london-understanding-our-diverse-communities

Transport for London 1


Travel in London: understanding our diverse communities

2015

A summary of existing research

Contents

How to use this document ........................................................................... 5

Setting the scene ........................................................................................ 7

Summary ................................................................................................... 13

Summary: Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) Londoners ................ 22

Summary: Women .................................................................................... 68

Summary: Older people ........................................................................... 114

Summary: Younger people ....................................................................... 156

Summary: Disabled People ..................................................................... 200

Summary: People on lower income ......................................................... 267

Summary: Lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) Londoners ............................ 308

Bibliography ............................................................................................ 317

Glossary .................................................................................................. 320

Appendix A: Equality groups in London boroughs ................................... 324

Transport for London 2


Confidentiality

Please note that the copyright in the attached report is owned by Transport for

London (TfL) and the provision of information under the Freedom of Information

Act does not give the recipient a right to reuse the information in a way that would

infringe copyright (for example, by publishing and issuing copies to the public).

Brief extracts of the material may be reproduced under the fair dealing provisions

of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 for the purposes of research for

non-commercial purposes, private study, criticism, review and news reporting.

Details of the arrangements for reusing the material owned by TfL for any other

purpose can be obtained by contacting enquire@tfl.gov.uk.

Transport for London 3


Preface

The Equality Act 2010 requires that TfL and other public bodies have due regard

for all of London’s communities when developing services.

In this document we set out in detail a collection of research that we have

undertaken or commissioned to identify the different barriers faced by London’s

communities when accessing transport. We also describe travel patterns, the

behaviour of different groups, and attitudes towards issues such as fares, personal

safety and security and satisfaction with the services we offer.

We intend for this to be a source document for TfL, to help staff to fulfil their

responsibilities to London’s diverse communities when designing and delivering

our services.

The document also provides information for stakeholders, including those from

different communities, to inform their engagement with TfL.

Transport for London 4


How to use this document

This document is a collection of research data focusing on travel in London among

equality groups.

The data that we have used comes from a number of sources, including qualitative

and quantitative research that TfL has commissioned, published third party

reports and external sources such as the 2011 Census and other information from

the Office for National Statistics (ONS). The London Travel Demand Survey

(LTDS) is our own survey of transport use among Londoners and we have used this

extensively throughout this report.

We have identified seven groups of Londoners who experience a variety of barriers

when accessing public transport:

1. Black, Asian and minority ethnic groups (referred to as BAME throughout)

2. Women

3. Older Londoners (aged 65 and over)

4. Younger Londoners (aged 24 and under)

5. Disabled Londoners

6. Londoners on lower incomes (with household income of less than £20,000 per

year)

7. Lesbian, gay and bisexual Londoners (referred to as LGB throughout) – We

recognise that there may be barriers to transport faced by some transgender

women and men, however TfL does not yet have sufficient data to provide a

detailed analysis

We have presented data from the perspective of the equality group in question.

Each chapter follows a similar structure. Here is a brief description of each section:






Profile – covers the demographic profile of each group

Transport behaviour – addresses modes of transport used; journey purpose

and tickets used

Barriers – looks at what prevents Londoners in equality groups from using

public transport more often. This section also covers issues related to safety

and security when travelling in London

Customer satisfaction – considers how satisfied users of each type of

transport are overall, perceptions of value for money and what drives

satisfaction levels

Access to information – addresses the information needs of each group,

access to the internet and internet behaviour, use of the TfL website and

smartphone use

We have used a numbering system to reference the sources of information in this

report, with the number cited in square brackets [x]. You can find the

corresponding number and information source in the bibliography at the end of

this report. This report uses a variety of data, including qualitative and

quantitative research commissioned by TfL, and published third party reports.

Transport for London 5


We have also included a glossary for unfamiliar terminology at the end of the

report.

You can find further data on borough comparisons in Appendix A.

You may also wish to refer to TfL’s Single Equality Scheme (SES) and SES Action

Plan, both of which you can find on the TfL website.

Transport for London 6


Setting the scene

Understanding the travel needs of London’s diverse ccommunities: a summary of

existing research

Context

The Mayor published his Transport Strategy (MTS) in 2010. The strategy describes

how we should develop London’s transport system if we are to deliver the best

possible service for all people living in, working in and visiting London [1].

Our Capital’s transport system should excel among world cities, providing access

and opportunities for all of its people and enterprises, achieving the highest

environmental standards and leading the world in tackling the urban transport

challenges of the 21st century [1].

The current MTS sets out the priorities for London over a 20 year period to 2030.

TfL publishes an Accessibility Implementation Plan alongside the MTS which

explains how and when we will carry out improvements, along with the expected

outcomes. We monitor this closely to ensure that TfL is delivering the best for our

diverse communities.

London: a growing city

London is growing rapidly, and at a rate faster than previously estimated. The

2011 Census showed that London had grown by one million people in 10 years [2].

The 2011 London Plan predicted that London would grow to a population of 8.6

million by 2026 [3], but the population is already approaching this number [4].

We now expect London’s population to reach 10 million by 2030 (2m people more

than in 2013) – equivalent to the populations of Manchester, Bristol and

Birmingham all moving to the capital [4].

London: a diverse, changing city

London is hugely diverse, and this diversity is increasing with the growing

population.

One of the changes is an increasing proportion of BAME Londoners, which is

projected to reach 50 per cent of the Greater London population by 2038 and is

projected to increase from 3.3 million in 2011 to 5.2 million in 2041 [5].

Transport for London 7


Changing proportion of Londoners of White / BAME ethnicity [5]

The growth in London’s BAME population is not expected to be even across each

group. Far greater growth is predicted in Chinese and Asian communities than

black Caribbean and Indian. The percentage growth for each of the communities is

shown in the table below [5].

Changing proportion of Londoners by ethnicity [5]

Community

% increase

2011-2041

White 4.4

Black Caribbean 7.2

Indian 38.5

Black African 52.4

Bangladeshi 54.7

Pakistani 57.2

Chinese 59.9

Other 74.4

Other Asian 87.9

Black other 94.1

Although international immigration into London is falling, previously higher levels

now mean that over half (55 per cent) of live births in London in 2012 were to

mothers born overseas [6].

The population is ageing, with a predicted increase in London’s population aged

over 65 increasing by 75 per cent between 2011 and 2041 compared with a 26 per

cent increase of the Greater London population as a whole [4].

The geographic distribution of age groups across London varies, and therefore the

transport challenges in each area will vary. The map below demonstrates that

Transport for London 8


outer London has a higher proportion of people over 75 years of age. Demand for

accessible transport in these areas may be higher as a result of this population

composition [5].

Predicted geographic distribution of over 75s in 2031 [5]

The proportion of younger Londoners (under 25) is predicted to increase at a

slower rate than the rest of the population with a 13 per cent increase between

2011 and 2041 [5].

Increasing challenges

As London’s population growth outstrips increases in housing supply, prices within

inner London are rising. In time, those with lower incomes will be priced out of the

inner London area, resulting in a move towards outer London. It is vital, therefore,

to ensure that access to transport services continues to improve, linking people to

higher paid jobs.

Since 2006 the average number of jobs available within 45 minutes travel time by

public transport has increased by 6.2% for London residents [7]. This trend needs

to continue in order to increase access for our diverse communities.

Transport for London 9


Predicted employment growth 2011 – 2036 (measurement: number of additional jobs) [11]

The number of trips made each day on public transport by disabled Londoners has

increased from 0.50 per person per day to 0.57 in 10 years since 2001. However,

this is still lower than 0.86 per day for the whole population. Of these trips, the bus

is more popular than for the general population (0.44 trips per day compared with

0.40) [8].

Many Londoners suffer health problems from lack of physical activity. The number

of walking trips per day for people under 20 between 2001 and 2011 has decreased

as shown below [7]. Similarly, in the period 2013-14 obesity in children in London

was over 18% higher than across the rest of England [9].

Conversely, walking trips have increased among some of the older age groups

since 2011, particularly for men. The pattern for women changes significantly

through their lifetime. The number of trips between the age of 30 and 54 for

women increased between 2001 and 2011 and at age 35-39 women’s walk trips are

almost double that of men [7].

Transport for London 10


Walking trip rates (average weekday) for London residents, by age and gender, for the

years 2001 and 2011 [7]

Men in 2001

Men in 2011

Women in 2001

Women in 2011

Addressing these challenges through transport

An accessible transport system is vital to help address these challenges, to provide

opportunities for all of our diverse communities and to make life in London better.

Access to a range of transport modes improves access to employment, health,

education and leisure services for Londoners. Enabling walking and cycling for as

many as possible as part of a journey, or as the entire journey will be an important

aspect of reducing emissions and improving Londoners’ health.

We are committed to providing accessible transport and supporting Londoners

and those visiting the capital to travel irrespective of physical abilities or perceived

barriers.

In order to understand what the barriers to travel are and what can be done to

address them, we conduct and commission extensive surveys, research and

consultation. As well as listening to our customers and stakeholders including

specific independent advisory boards such as the IDAG (Independent Disability

Advisory Group), we have developed our Single Equality Scheme (SES). The SES

sets out our goals and activity to remove barriers to travel in London.

TfL invests funds across the entire network to improve our service. Recent

improvements include:

Increasing the number of pedestrian crossings with Countdown timers to 340

sites across London

Transport for London 11


Expansion of the Travel Better campaign, which includes raising awareness of

the need to be considerate on the Tube, particularly ensuring seats are

provided for those that may need them

39 additional pedestrian crossings have been upgraded to provide tactile

paving and rotating cones/audible alerts. We are aiming to have upgraded all

crossings to this standard by 2016

Additional step free access at stations, with works continuing at Bond Street,

Greenford, Tottenham Court Road, Vauxhall, Victoria and Finsbury Park

45 per cent of Tube and rail stations are now step-free

Tactile paving has been installed on 696 of 711 Tube platforms

Successfully trialled ‘zero tolerance’ areas for advertising boards to reduce

street clutter where demand for footways and pavement widths are

constrained, providing a more accessible environment to all

New trains on the District line, Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan

lines. These trains provide level access, wide doors, a ‘walk-through’ design to

reduce overcrowding, dedicated wheelchair spaces, advanced audio and visual

announcements and low floors

Modification of the Emirates Air Line cable car cabins to allow motorised

scooters on board (to a particular size)

Hosting the first accessible transport exhibition, Access all Areas, to provide

people with a range of transport information and give first-hand experience

with full-scale mock-ups of Tube stations equipped with ramps and ‘talking’

bollards which give directions to visually-impaired people. The event was free

to attendees and following its success will now be held biannually.

These are some of the recent improvements that TfL has made. However there is

more that we can and must do to respond to the needs of London’s diverse and

growing population. We provide an annual progress report measured against the

Single Equality Scheme, demonstrating what we have achieved so far and the

ways in which we continue to develop our equality activities. The SES is updated

every three to four years to ensure that it continues to align with customer and

stakeholder requirements. It will next be published in 2016.

Transport for London 12


Summary

Profile of equality groups in London

The 2011 Census recorded that there are 8,173,941 people who usually live in

London and this is set to grow in the coming decades. London’s population is

extremely diverse and ever-changing [2].

BAME Londoners make up 40 per cent of the population [2]

Half of Londoners are women (51 per cent) [2]

Thirty-two per cent of Londoners are under the age of 25 and 11 per cent are

aged 65 or over [2]

Disabled Londoners make up 14 per cent of the population [2]

Thirty-seven per cent of Londoners are living in a household with an annual

income of less than £20,000 [12]

The percentage of Londoners who consider themselves to be lesbian, gay or

bisexual is 2. 5 per cent [13].

There are differences in the profile of Londoners who make up each equality

group:




Londoners living in a lower income household (less than £20,000 per year) and

older Londoners (aged 65 or over) are more likely to be women [12]

BAME Londoners are more likely to be younger, while women and those living

in lower income households are more likely to be older [2]

Men are more likely than women, and white Londoners are more likely than

BAME Londoners to be working, this may be linked in part to the different age

profile of these equality groups [12]

Note on data sources

There are two main sources of demographic data used in this document: the Office for

National Statistics Census indicated with reference [2] and the London Travel Demand

Survey indicated with reference [12]. Where two sources exist, this report generally refers

to the Census as this is considered the most robust source of profile data due to the large

sample size. There may be small differences observed in the specific proportions recorded.

Transport for London 13


Please note that many of the groups in this report are interrelated and therefore

some of the differences observed are affected by differences in their demographic

profile. For instance, those people on low incomes are also more likely to be older

people (23 per cent of those on low income are also 65+; as shown in column D)

and therefore they are less likely to use technology but are more likely to own a

freedom pass. Another example is that BAME are more likely to be younger (36

per cent of BAME Londoners are also aged 24 & under; as shown in column A) and

are therefore more likely to use technology and to travel for education and are less

likely to own a freedom pass. Disabled people are another example, as they are

more likely to be older (44 per cent of disabled people are also over 65; as shown in

column E) and are also more likely to be on a low income (69 per cent of disabled

people are also on low incomes, as shown in column E).

Overlap between groups: table showing the proportion of each group across the top,

made up by each group at the side

Bold numbers are where a group has a higher proportion compared to other groups (For

instance 19% of 65+ are also BAME). (2013/14) [12]

%

A B C D E F

BAME 65+ Aged 24

& under

Less

than

£20,000

Disable

d

Women

Base (5,563) (2,475) (4,220) (5,510) (1,821) (8,182)

BAME 19% 47% 45% 30% 37%

65+ 7% 23% 44% 13%

Aged 24 & under 36% 31% 9% 28%

Less than £20,000 43% 65% 41% 69% 40%

Disabled 9% 37% 4% 20% 11%

Women 51% 55% 49% 56% 56%

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five

Transport for London 14


The following table provides LTDS demographic data as this has the most directly comparable travel data by demographic profile

of equality groups (2013/14) [12]

Gender

Age

Ethnicity

Household

income

Working status

(16+)

Disabled

(limiting daily

activity/ ability

to travel)

% All Men Women White BAME Aged 24 &

under

65+ Less than

£20,000

Disabled

Nondisabled

Base (15,700) (7,518) (8,182) (10,044) (5,563) (4,220) (2,475) (5,510) (1,821) (13,879)

Men 49 - - 49 49 51 45 44 44 50

Women 51 - - 51 51 49 55 56 56 50

5-10 8 8 8 6 11 - - 9 2 9

11-15 6 6 6 5 8 - - 7 2 6

16-24 14 14 14 12 17 - - 15 5 15

25-59 55 55 55 55 55 - - 41 38 57

60-64 5 5 5 5 4 - - 4 9 4

65-70 5 5 5 7 3 - - 8 11 5

71-80 5 4 5 6 3 - - 9 17 3

81+ 3 2 3 4 1 - - 6 16 1

White 62 62 62 - - 52 81 55 69 61

BAME 37 37 37 - - 47 19 45 30 38

Less than £10,000 17 15 20 15 21 20 34 - 41 15

£10,000–£19,999 19 17 20 17 22 21 31 - 28 18

£20,000–£34,999 20 20 19 19 21 20 17 - 15 20

£35,000–£49,999 13 14 13 14 13 12 7 - 6 14

£50,000–£74,999 15 16 14 17 12 14 6 - 5 16

£75,000+ 16 18 14 19 11 13 6 - 6 17

Working full-time 40 45 32 50 42 24 5 15 8 52

Working part-time 10 5 12 11 12 8 6 10 5 12

Student 9 11 10 8 16 54 - 12 3 11

Retired 13 13 17 18 9 - 86 24 48 11

Not working 14 11 21 13 21 12 3 23 35 13

Yes 11 9 11 12 9 4 37 20 - -

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five and working status does not include under 16s.

Transport for London 15


Travel behaviour

Walking is the most common form of public transport for all Londoners. Almost all

Londoners walk every week (96 per cent). Disabled Londoners are less likely to walk at least

weekly (78 per cent); almost all younger Londoners walk at least once a week in London (99

per cent) [12].

The bus is the next most commonly used type of transport in London: 61 per cent of

Londoners use the bus at least once a week. Younger Londoners are the most likely equality

group to use the bus at least weekly; 7 in 10 Londoners aged under 25 do so (71 per cent).

Men and white Londoners are slightly less likely than average to use the bus once a week

(58 per cent and 57 per cent respectively) [12].

Disabled Londoners and Londoners over 65 years old use the UndergroundTube less than

other groups on a weekly basis (16 per cent of disabled Londoners and 23 per cent of

Londoners over 65; compared with 39 per cent of all Londoners) [12].

Transport for London 16


Proportion of Londoners using modes of transport at least once a week (2013/14) [12]

% All Men Women White BAME Aged 24

& under

65+ All less

than

£20,000

Disabled

Nondisabled

Base (15,700) (7,518) (8,182) (10,044) (5,563) (4,220) (2,475) (5,510) (1,821) (14,114)

Walking 96 97 96 95 97 99 86 94 78 98

Bus 61 58 65 57 68 71 61 70 56 62

Car as passenger 48 42 55 47 50 66 45 44 47 48

Car as driver 39 44 35 43 33 8 45 26 26 41

Tube 39 42 35 40 37 33 23 31 16 41

National Rail 17 19 15 19 14 13 11 11 8 18

Overground 9 10 8 9 10 8 4 8 4 10

Other taxi/minicab

6 6 6 6

5

8 6

6

6

6

(PHV)

London taxi/ black cab 5 6 4 6 2 2 5 3 3 5

DLR 4 5 4 3 6 4 2 4 4 5

Tram 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2

Motorcycle 1 2 - 2 - - - 1 1 1

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London 17


Tickets and passes

Oyster card ownership is related to age:



Younger Londoners are the most likely equality group to hold an Oyster card: 75 per

cent of 16 to 24-year-olds have one [12]

Older people are least likely to hold an Oyster card: only six per cent of Londoners

aged 65 or over have one. Most older Londoners (aged 65 or over) hold an older

person’s Freedom Pass (92 per cent) and this accounts for the lower proportion of

Oyster cards held in this group [12]

Transport for London 18


Possession of an Oyster card or Freedom Pass (2013/14) [12]

%

All Men Women White BAME 16-24 65+ Income Disabled Nondisabled


Barriers to public transport use

The most commonly mentioned barrier to using public transport more often across all

Londoners is overcrowded services, which is mentioned by 59 per cent of Londoners. 16

to 24 year olds (65 per cent), BAME Londoners (64 per cent) and women (60 per cent) are

the most likely equality groups to cite this barrier [14].

Cost of tickets, safety and security issues and slow journey times are more commonly

mentioned as barriers by some equality groups than across all Londoners.




Cost of tickets is more often mentioned as a barrier to public transport use by BAME

Londoners (53 per cent) and younger Londoners (49 per cent aged between 16 and

24) [14]

Slow journey times is also one of the main barriers to public transport use mentioned

(41 per cent of all Londoners). This is a particularly big barrier for younger Londoners

aged between 16 and 24 and BAME Londoners (both 50 per cent)

Concerns about antisocial behaviour and crime are particularly mentioned as barriers

to public transport use by Londoners living in DE households (social grade D refers to

semi- and un-skilled manual workers and E refers to state pensioners, casual/lowest

grade workers and unemployed Londoners) of whom 41 per cent say that concerns

about antisocial behaviour affect their travel frequency, BAME Londoners (40 per

cent), disabled Londoners (38 per cent) and women (38 per cent). The average among

all Londoners is 34 per cent [14]

Transport for London 20


Safety and security

TfL uses a typology of worry to monitor the perceptions of Londoners with regard to

their personal security while using public transport in London. The typology classifies

people into:






Unworried – reports no general worry and no episodes of recent worry

Unexpressed fear – reports no general worry, but specific recent episodes

Anxious – reports general worry, but no specific recent episodes

Worried – reports general worry and specific recent episodes

Don’t know

Three-quarters of Londoners (75 per cent) fall into the ‘unworried’ category. Londoners

aged 65 or over are the most likely to be ‘unworried’ (83 per cent). LGB Londoners (69 per

cent), BAME Londoners (70 per cent) and women (70 per cent) are the least likely to be

‘unworried’ [14].

Younger Londoners (65 per cent), BAME Londoners (62 per cent) and women (61 per

cent) are the most likely to say that that their frequency of travel is affected ‘a lot’ or ‘a

little’ because of concerns over crime or antisocial behaviour [14].

The relationship between concerns around safety and security and equality groups is

complex. For example, age, ethnicity, income and whether a person is disabled are all

likely to be interrelated. Likewise the travel patterns, preferences and area in which

someone lives also play a part.

Access to information

Ninety-two per cent of Londoners have access to the internet. Older Londoners who are

aged 65 or over and disabled Londoners are least likely to have access to the internet (64

per cent and 76 per cent access the internet respectively). Almost all young Londoners

aged between 16 and 24 have internet access (99 per cent) [15].

Nearly 4 out of 5 Londoners use a smartphone (77 per cent). Older Londoners (25 per

cent) and disabled Londoners (44 per cent) are least likely to use smartphone. In

comparison, almost all 16 to 24 year olds own or use a smartphone (96 per cent) [15].

Nearly 4 in 5 Londoners (78 per cent) use the TfL website. This figure is lower among

those over 65 and disabled Londoners (47 per cent and 54 per cent respectively).

Younger Londoners are most likely to access the TfL website, with eighty-three per cent

of Londoners aged 16-24 using it [15].

Use of technology continues to grow across all equality groups in terms of internet

access, smartphone use and use of the TfL website. However, it is worth noting that

although there has been growth in technology use amongst older and disabled

Londoners, use remains lower than for the overall population [15].

Transport for London 21


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Summary: Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME)

Londoners

Key findings

BAME Londoners account for 40 per cent of the London population [2]

Walking is the most commonly used type of transport by BAME Londoners (97 per cent

of BAME Londoners walk at least once a week compared with 95 per cent of white

Londoners)

After walking, the most commonly used type of transport by BAME Londoners is the

bus (68 per cent BAME compared with 57 per cent white) [12]

BAME Londoners cite a greater number of barriers to increased public transport use

than white Londoners [14]

BAME Londoners are more likely to be classified as ‘worried’ and also slightly more

likely to take precautions against crime when travelling [14]

In general BAME Londoners give slightly lower overall satisfaction ratings than white

Londoners for most transport types. This is likely to be related to the younger age

profile [16]

Internet access is higher for BAME Londoners than white Londoners (96 per cent BAME

compared with 91 per cent white). However, this difference is driven by the younger age

profile of BAME Londoners. When looking only at Londoners aged 16-64, there is no

discernible difference in internet access between BAME and white Londoners [15]

Profile of BAME Londoners

BAME Londoners account for 40 per cent of the London population. There are

some demographic differences between BAME Londoners and white Londoners.

Most notably, BAME Londoners have a much younger age profile than white

Londoners. Forty-one per cent of BAME Londoners are aged 24 and under

compared to 26 per cent of white Londoners [2].

BAME Londoners are less likely than white Londoners to be in employment (57 per

cent BAME compared with 64 per cent white) [2]. They are also more likely to live

in households with an average annual income below £20,000 (43 per cent BAME

compared with 32 per cent white) [12].

The majority of Londoners have English as their main language (78 per cent).

However, four per cent do not speak English well [2].

Transport behaviour

Walking is the most commonly used form of transport by BAME Londoners (97 per

cent BAME compared with 95 per cent white). After walking, the bus is the most

common type of transport used by BAME Londoners: 68 per cent of BAME

Londoners use the bus at least once a week compared to 57 per cent of white

Londoners.

Among different BAME groups bus use varies: 77 per cent of black, 72 per cent of

Londoners from an ‘other’ ethnic group, 70 per cent of mixed ethnic group

Transport for London – Women 22


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Londoners and 61 per cent of Asian Londoners use the bus at least once a week

[12].

The use of cars among BAME Londoners is lower than for white Londoners; 33 per cent of

BAME Londoners drive a car at least once a week compared to 43 per cent of white

Londoners [12].

Driving a car is higher among Asian Londoners compared to other BAME groups

(39 per cent of Asian Londoners drive a car at least once a week compared with 28

per cent of black Londoners) [12].

Cycling levels of BAME Londoners and white Londoners are very similar. Eighteen

per cent of BAME Londoners cycle in London at least sometimes compared to 17

per cent of white Londoners [17].

Barriers

Compared to white Londoners, BAME Londoners are more likely to mention a

larger number of potential barriers that prevent them from increasing their use of

public transport [14].

Cost is more of a barrier to increased public transport use among BAME

Londoners than white Londoners (53 per cent BAME compared with 40 per cent

white) [14].

Alongside cost, the barriers to greater public transport use most commonly

mentioned by BAME Londoners are overcrowding (64 per cent), slow journey

times (50 per cent), unreliable services (43 per cent), concerns about antisocial

behaviour (40 per cent) and dirty environments on the bus or train (39 per cent)

[14].

We use a typology of worry to assess Londoners’ attitudes to safety and security

when using the public transport network. Most Londoners are classified as

‘unworried’. BAME Londoners are less likely than white Londoners to be

‘unworried’ (70 per cent BAME compared with 80 per cent white) and also more

likely to be classified as ‘worried’ (seven per cent BAME compared with four per

cent white) [14].

A slightly higher proportion of BAME Londoners than white Londoners take

precautions against crime when using public transport (40 per cent BAME

compared with 38 per cent white). The most common precaution for BAME

Londoners is to sit by other people (44 per cent), whereas for white Londoners it is

to look after their belongings (36 per cent). [14].

BAME Londoners, both adults and children, are almost twice as likely as white

Londoners to be injured on the roads [18]. BAME Londoners are less likely than

white Londoners to say that they feel safe from road accidents when walking

around London at night (60 per cent BAME compared with 74 per cent white) [19].

Transport for London – Women 23


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Customer satisfaction

BAME customers are slightly less satisfied with the transport they use than white

customers. This applies to overall satisfaction, satisfaction with value for money

and other attributes, and is relevant across most types of transport. This is likely to

be related to the younger age profile of BAME Londoners.




BAME customers using the bus are slightly less satisfied overall than white

customers (83 out of 100 BAME compared with 86 out of 100 white) [16]

Satisfaction with value for money of bus travel among BAME customers has

risen again in 2014/2015 to 70 out of 100 from 67 out of 100 in 2013/14, having

risen from 64 to 67 in 2012/ 2013. However, this remains slightly lower than

among white customers (70 out 100 BAME compared with 74 out of 100 white)

[16]

Overall satisfaction with the Tube among BAME customers is also slightly

lower than among white customers (83 out of 100 BAME compared with 85 out

of 100 white) [16]

Access to information

A higher proportion of BAME Londoners have access to the internet than white

Londoners (96 per cent BAME compared with 91 per cent white). This is almost

entirely due to the older age profile of white Londoners, as the proportion of

BAME and white Londoners aged between 16 and 64 who access the internet is

very similar (98 per cent BAME 16-64 year olds compared with 96 per cent white

16-64 year olds) [15].

Both BAME and white 16 to 64-year-old Londoners tend to access the internet in

similar places.




Ninety-four per cent of BAME and 95 per cent of white Londoners aged

between 16 and 64 access the internet at home

Sixty-eight per cent of BAME 16-64 year olds access the internet ‘on the move’

compared with 70 per cent of white Londoners of this age

Sixty-three per cent of BAME 16 to 64year olds access the internet at work,

compared with sixty-six per cent of white Londoners [36].

Transport for London – Women 24


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Introduction

London is one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse cities in the world with

black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people making up 40 per cent of the city’s

population [2]. More than 300 languages are spoken and multiple faiths are

practised here [20].

The age structure of BAME Londoners tends to be younger than white Londoners,

and it is estimated that, by 2031, more than half of London’s 15 to 19 year olds will

belong to a BAME group and the proportion of all Londoners from a BAME ethnic

group will reach 51 per cent by 2041 [21].

Our Single Equality Scheme addresses many of the issues identified in the

research presented in this document [22].

This chapter focuses on transport issues relevant to BAME Londoners. For the

purposes of this section, Londoners are grouped according to their reported

ethnicity as follows:

Breakdown of ethnic groups used in this report [12]

Ethnic groups

White English/Welsh/Scottish/Northern Irish

White Irish

Other white British

Other white

Black or black British – Caribbean

Black or black British – African

Black or black British – other black background

Asian or Asian British – Indian

Asian or Asian British – Pakistani

Asian or Asian British – Bangladeshi

Asian or Asian British – Chinese

Asian or Asian British – other Asian background

Mixed or multiple ethnic groups – white and black

Caribbean

Mixed or multiple ethnic groups – white and black

African

Mixed or multiple ethnic groups – white and Asian

Other mixed or multiple ethnic background

Other ethnic group – Arab

Other ethnic group – any other

White

Black

Asian

Mixed

Other

White

Black, Asian

and minority

ethnic (BAME)

Transport for London – Women 25


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Profile of BAME Londoners

Forty per cent of Londoners are from a BAME group [2]. This has increased

significantly since 2001 when the comparative figure was 29 per cent and the

proportion is forecast to increase further in future [23]. Population projections

suggest that the proportion of BAME Londoners will rise to 51 per cent by 2041

[21].

Ethnic groups in London from the ONS Census [2]

% 2011 Census 2001 Census 1

White 60 71

BAME 40 29

Black/African/Caribbean/black British 13 11

Asian/Asian British 18 12

Mixed/other 8 6

We survey Londoners on an ongoing basis as part of the London Travel Demand Survey.

LTDS is a sample survey of Londoners and the equivalent figure from this survey is 62 per

cent white and 37 per cent BAME [12].

LTDS ethnic groups in London (2013/14) [12]

% LTDS

Base (15,700)

White 62

BAME 37

Black 13

Asian 18

Mixed/other 6

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Where percentages do not add up to 100, this is due to rounding and refused codes.

1 There is a slight change in the definition of ethnic groups between the 2001 and 2011 Census. See

www.ons.gov.uk for details.

Transport for London – Women 26


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

LTDS demographic profile of ethnic groups in London (2013/14) [12]

% All White BAME Black Asian Mixed Other

Base (15,700) (10,044) (5,563) (1,903) (2,785) (488) (387)

Gender

Men 49 49 49 47 51 47 47

Women 51 51 51 53 49 53 53

Age

5-10 8 6 11 13 9 23 8

11-15 6 5 8 8 6 13 7

16-24 14 12 17 17 15 24 19

25-59 55 55 55 53 59 37 55

60-64 5 5 4 3 5 2 4

65-70 5 7 3 2 3 1 4

71-80 5 6 3 3 3 1 2

81+ 3 4 1 1 1 - 1

Household income

Less than £10,000 17 15 21 26 16 16 31

£10,000–£19,999 19 17 22 27 18 23 27

£20,000–£34,999 20 19 21 21 23 18 17

£35,000–£49,999 13 14 13 12 14 11 12

£50,000–£74,999 15 17 12 8 14 18 5

£75,000+ 16 19 11 6 15 14 7

Working status*

Working full-time 47 50 42 39 45 41 31

Working part-time 11 11 12 13 11 11 13

Student 10 8 16 17 13 22 16

Retired 15 18 9 9 10 3 7

Not working 16 13 21 21 20 22 32

Disabled

Yes 11 12 9 10 8 5 11

No 89 88 91 90 92 95 89

Impairment affects travel

Yes 10 11 8 9 7 5 10

No 90 89 92 91 93 95 90

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five and working status does not include under 16s. All TfL surveys use the

Equality Act 2010 to define ‘disabled people’ as: ‘those who define themselves as having a long-term physical or mental disability or health

issue that impacts on their daily activities, the work they can do or limits their ability to travel’.

Transport for London – Women 27


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

BAME Londoners tend to have a younger age profile than white Londoners. Fortyone

per cent of BAME Londoners are under 25, compared to 26 per cent of white

Londoners [2].

Number of Londoners by ethnic group 2011 [2]

This younger age profile of BAME Londoners has an impact on many of the travel

behaviours covered in this chapter and should be kept in mind when using the results.

Transport for London – Women 28


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Employment and income

The Census data and LTDS show similar patterns in terms of employment and

income levels although the exact percentages do differ slightly. According to the

Census, 57 per cent of BAME Londoners are in employment compared with 64 per

cent of white Londoners aged 16 or over [2].

More BAME Londoners are in education than white Londoners (the Census

records 12 per cent BAME compared with five per cent white) [2].

Reflecting the older age profile, more white Londoners are retired than BAME

Londoners (the Census records 8 per cent BAME compared with 17 per cent white)

[2].

2011 Census – Economic activity of Londoners (16 years old and over) [2]

% White BAME

Employed 64 57

Unemployed 4 7

Students (economically inactive) 5 12

Retired 17 8

Long-term sick/disabled/other 6 8

Looking after home/family 4 7

Students fall into employed, unemployed and economically inactive categories.

Higher proportions of BAME Londoners have an annual household income of

below £20,000 (43 per cent) than white Londoners (32 per cent) [12].

Transport for London – Women 29


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Languages spoken

Twenty-two per cent of Londoners have a language other than English as their

first language, with Polish (two per cent), Bengali (one per cent), Gujarati (one per

cent), French (one per cent) and Urdu (one per cent) being the top five main

languages spoken [2]. This shows the wide range of languages used in London,

and according to the Greater London Authority (GLA) 300 languages are spoken

across the city [24].

European languages are spoken by 42 per cent of residents whose main language

is not English, making them the largest language group in London. South Asian

languages are spoken by 29 per cent of people whose main language is not

English. The remaining 29 per cent are split relatively equally among African (eight

per cent), Middle Eastern which includes Turkish and Arabic (eight per cent), East

Asian (seven per cent) and West/Central Asian languages (five per cent).

Languages outside these groups, such as Caribbean Creole and sign language,

account for the remaining one per cent [25].

The 2011 Census revealed that four per cent of Londoners have difficulty speaking

English. Difficulties speaking English are more common among older Londoners.

Two per cent of those aged between three and 15 do not speak English well

compared with six per cent of 65 year olds and over.

2011 Census – Londoners’ ability to speak English [2]

% English is main

language

English not main

language but spoken

well

English not spoken

well

All 78 18 4

Age

3-15 85 13 2

16-24 79 19 2

25-34 69 27 4

35-49 74 21 5

50-64 81 13 5

65+ 86 8 6

Transport for London – Women 30


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Religion and beliefs

The 2011 Census shows that the representation of religion and beliefs of

Londoners has changed over the last 10 years. There has been a decline in the

proportion of Londoners considering themselves to be Christian (58 per cent to 48

per cent), and there has also been an increase in the proportion who do not

identify with any religion (16 per cent to 21 per cent) [2].

The largest religious and faith groups in London are:

Religions and faith groups in London [23, AB]

% 2011 2001

Christianity 48 58

Islam 12 9

Hinduism 5 4

Judaism 2 2

Sikhism 2 2

Buddhism 1 1

Other 1 1

Not religious 21 16

Undeclared 8 9

Religion varies considerably between ethnic groups:




While 28 per cent of white and 27 per cent of mixed Londoners report they

have no religion, only seven per cent of black and eight per cent of Asian

Londoners report this

More than half of black (68 per cent) and white (57 per cent) Londoners report

that they are Christian

Asian Londoners and Londoners who have selected ‘other’ to describe their

ethnic group are most likely to be Muslims (36 per cent of Asian Londoners and

50 per cent of Londoners selecting ‘other’ ethnic group are Muslims)

Religion by ethnic group [2]

% White BAME Black Asian Mixed Other

Christian 57 36 68 12 47 22

Buddhist - 2 - 4 1 1

Hindu - 12 - 26 1 2

Jewish 3 - - - 1 3

Muslim 3 27 15 36 10 50

Sikh - 4 - 7 - 4

Other religion - 1 - 1 1 1

No religion 28 10 7 8 27 10

Religion not stated 9 8 9 6 12 9

Transport for London – Women 31


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

London boroughs

Some London boroughs have a higher proportion of BAME residents than others.

Those with the largest proportion of BAME residents are:

London boroughs with highest proportion of BAME residents [2]

Borough

% of BAME

residents

Newham 71

Brent 64

Harrow 58

Redbridge 57

Tower Hamlets 55

The boroughs with the smallest proportion of BAME residents are:

London boroughs with lowest proportion of BAME residents [2]

Borough

% of BAME

residents

Havering 12

Richmond upon Thames 14

Bromley 16

Bexley 18

Sutton 21

There is a high concentration of BAME residents in the most deprived boroughs in London.

According to Indices of Deprivation released by the ONS, the most deprived boroughs in

London are Hackney, Newham, Tower Hamlets and Islington [26], all of which have large

proportions of BAME residents.

Transport for London – Women 32


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Travel behaviour

The average number of trips completed per weekday (among those travelling on

any weekday) varies slightly according to ethnicity. On average, BAME Londoners

make 2.5 trips per weekday, compared to 2.8 trips made by white Londoners.

Transport types used

Walking at least once a week is almost universal across all ethnic groups. After

walking, the most commonly used types of transport for all Londoners are buses,

cars (as both drivers and passengers) and the Tube [12].

The proportion of Londoners using each type of transport at least once a week

varies according to ethnicity. BAME Londoners are more likely than white

Londoners to use the bus at least once a week (68 per cent BAME compared with

57 per cent white). In contrast, lower proportions of BAME Londoners travel at

least once a week by car (as the driver), black cab and National Rail than white

Londoners. Few differences are seen between white and BAME Londoners for

their frequency of use of minicabs, the Overground, trams and the Tube [12].

Looking specifically at the differences between ethnic minority groups, the use of

buses is particularly high among black Londoners, with 77 per cent using this type

of transport at least once a week, compared to 68 per cent of all BAME Londoners

and 57 per cent of white Londoners) [12]. Research among BAME Londoners

suggests this is because buses are seen to be cheaper than other transport options

and have a more comprehensive route network [27].

The use of cars (as the driver) tends to be higher among Asian Londoners than

other BAME groups [12].

Transport for London – Women 33


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Proportion of Londoners using types of transport at least once a week (2013/14) [12]

% All White BAME Black Asian Mixed Other

Base (15,700) (10,044) (5,563) (1,903) (2,785) (488) (387)

Walking 96 95 97 97 97 98 97

Bus 61 57 68 77 61 70 72

Car (as a passenger) 48 47 50 45 53 58 51

Car (as a driver) 39 43 33 28 39 22 33

Tube 39 40 37 34 37 35 46

National Rail 17 19 14 16 12 18 9

Overground 9 9 10 13 7 13 13

Other taxi/minicab

6 6 6

(PHV)

8 4 6 5

London taxi/black cab 5 6 2 1 3 3 5

DLR 4 3 6 7 6 4 4

Tram 2 2 2 3 1 2 -

Motorbike 1 2 - - - - 1

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Where there is more detailed information on the use of individual types of

transport, we have included a sub-section below.

Walking

There is little difference between the frequency of walking among BAME and

white Londoners. Ninety-seven per cent of BAME Londoners walk at least once a

week, which is very similar to white Londoners where 95 per cent walk at least

once a week [12].

BAME Londoners are slightly more likely than white Londoners to walk on a daily

basis (85 per cent of BAME Londoners walk five or more days a week compared

with 81 per cent of white Londoners) [12].

Frequency of walking (2013/14) [12]

% All White BAME Black Asian Mixed Other

Base (15,700) (10,044) (5,563) (1,903) (2,785) (488) (387)

5 or more days a

week

83 81 85 88 83 88 86

3 or 4 days a week 6 7 5 4 6 4 6

2 days a week 4 4 4 3 5 3 4

1 day a week 3 3 3 3 3 2 2

At least once a

fortnight

1 1 1 - 1 1 1

At least once a

month

1 1 1 - 1 1 -

At least once a year 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Not used in last year 1 2 1 1 1 - -

Never used - - - - - - -

Transport for London – Women 34


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Women 35


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

The purpose of journeys made by walking varies between BAME and white

Londoners:

BAME Londoners are more likely than white Londoners to walk (at least once a

week) to get to/from work, school or college (66 per cent BAME compared

with 44 per cent white) and to take a child to school (29 per cent BAME

compared with 12 per cent white)

White Londoners are more likely than BAME Londoners to walk (at least once

a week) to visit pubs/restaurants/cinemas and other social places (44 per cent

BAME compared with 59 per cent white)

BAME Londoners are slightly more likely to walk as part of a longer journey (79

per cent BAME compared with 75 per cent white) [19]

Walking at least once a week by purpose of journey (2015) [19]

% who walk at least once a week All White BAME

Base (1,000) (731) (232)

Walk…

To complete small errands such as getting a 86 88 84

newspaper or posting a letter

As part of a longer journey 77 75 79

To visit pubs/restaurants/cinemas and other 53 59 44

social places

To get to work/school/college 52 44 66

To visit friends and relatives 49 50 48

To take a child to school 18 12 29

Bus

Bus use among BAME Londoners is higher than among white Londoners (68 per

cent BAME compared with 57 per cent white Londoners using the bus at least once

per week). The proportion of black Londoners using the bus at least once a week is

77 per cent which is considerably higher than any other ethnic group (70 per cent

of mixed Londoners and 61 per cent of Asian Londoners use the bus at least once a

week) [12].

The greater use of buses by BAME Londoners is also shown by comparing data

from the Bus User Survey (2014) against the proportion of BAME Londoners in the

population. Forty-seven per cent of day bus users and 46 per cent of night bus

users are BAME customers, whereas BAME Londoners account for only 40 per

cent of the total London population [28].

Comparison of day and night bus users with London population (2014) [28, AB]

% White BAME Black Asian Mixed

All Londoners* [2] 60 40 8 18 13

Transport for London – Women 36


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Day bus users 52 47 20 14 4

Night bus users 54 46 17 13 5

Table excludes under 16s.

*Please note that figures for ‘All Londoners’ come from the 2011 Census.

BAME bus users are as likely as white customers to take the bus to or from work

during the day (54 per cent of BAME bus users travel to or from work during the

day compared with 53 per cent of white bus users, and 52 per cent of BAME

Londoners compared with 51 per cent white Londoners at night). A higher

proportion of white Londoners travelling by bus at night are doing so for leisure

purposes compared to BAME bus users (17 per cent BAME compared with 27 per

cent white). White bus users are also more likely to be travelling for leisure

purposes during the day (6 per cent BAME compared with 12 per cent white)

although the difference is less marked than at night.

Purpose of bus journey by ethnic group and time of day (2014) [28]

During the day

At night

% White BAME White BAME

Base (weighted) (17,221) (15,109) (4,192) (3,550)

To/from or for work 53 54 51 52

To/from

4 10 2 5

school/education

To/from shopping 12 9 1 2

Visiting

9 9 13 15

friends/relatives

Leisure 12 6 27 17

Personal business 6 8 2 2

Other purpose 3 4 5 6

Transport for London – Women 37


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Black Londoners are the most likely ethnic group to use a bus on a daily basis: 46

per cent of black Londoners do so compared with 28 per cent of all Londoners

[12].

Frequency of travelling by bus (2013/14) [12]

% All White BAME Black Asian Mixed Other

Base (15,700) (10,044) (5,563) (1,903) (2,785) (488) (387)

5 or more days a week 28 23 36 46 29 37 39

3 or 4 days a week 12 12 13 13 12 12 16

2 days a week 11 11 11 10 10 12 10

1 day a week 10 10 9 8 9 9 7

At least once a

fortnight

5 6 4 3 5 3 5

At least once a month 10 10 8 6 10 8 8

At least once a year 14 15 12 9 15 12 7

Not used in last year 7 9 5 3 7 4 4

Never used 2 2 2 1 3 2 4

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Car

BAME Londoners are less likely to hold a driving licence than white Londoners (54

per cent BAME aged 17 years or over compared with 69 per cent white). Asian

Londoners are slightly more likely than other BAME groups to hold a driving

licence (58 per cent).

The frequency with which people drive a car varies across BAME groups – 39 per

cent of Asian Londoners aged 17 years or over drive at least once a week

compared to 28 per cent of black Londoners and 22 per cent of mixed Londoners

[12].

Proportion of Londoners (aged 17+) with a full car driving licence (2013/14) [12]

% All White BAME Black Asian Mixed Other

Base (13,127) (8,742) (4,315) (1,456) (2,277) (274) (308)

Holds a full car driving 64 69 54 49 58 55 54

licence

Note that this table includes all Londoners aged 17 and over.

Transport for London – Women 38


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

BAME Londoners are less likely than white Londoners to live in a household that

owns or has access to a car (63 per cent BAME compared with 67 per cent white).

There are some big differences between BAME groups, with Asian Londoners

being the most likely to own or have access to a car (72 per cent) compared with 52

per cent of black Londoners and 60 per cent of mixed Londoners [12].

Proportion of Londoners in a household with access to a car (2013/14) [12]

% All White BAME Black Asian Mixed Other

Base (15,700) (10,044) (5,563) (1,903) (2,785) (488) (387)

0 cars 35 33 37 48 28 40 37

1 car 46 46 45 41 47 45 54

2+ cars 20 21 18 11 25 15 10

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Tube

Tube use among BAME Londoners is slightly lower than among white Londoners

(37 per cent of BAME Londoners use the Tube at least once a week compared to

40 per cent white). When looking at individual BAME groups there is very little

difference [12].

Frequency of travelling by Tube (2013/14) [12]

% All White BAME Black Asian Mixed Other

Base (15,700) (10,044) (5,563) (1,903) (2,785) (488) (387)

5 or more days a week 15 16 14 12 16 11 14

3 or 4 days a week 7 7 6 6 6 5 11

2 days a week 8 8 7 6 8 7 12

1 day a week 9 9 9 10 8 12 10

At least once a fortnight 8 8 8 7 8 9 6

At least once a month 15 14 15 16 15 13 14

At least once a year 25 23 28 29 27 32 21

Not used in last year 11 12 9 10 9 8 8

Never used 3 3 4 4 4 2 5

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Women 39


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Cycling

Cycling levels among BAME Londoners and white Londoners are very similar.

Eighteen per cent of BAME Londoners cycle in London at least sometimes,

compared with 17 per cent of white Londoners.

Proportion of Londoners who cycle (November 2014) [17]

% All White BAME

Base (2,192) (1,521) (671)

Cyclist (sometimes uses a bike to get

17 17 18

around London)

Non-cyclist (never uses a bike to get

around London)

83 83 82

There is also very little difference between white and BAME Londoners in

frequency of cycling (at least once a week) in London (14 per cent BAME

compared with 13 per cent white) [17].

Frequency of travelling by bicycle (November 2014) [17]

% All White BAME

Base (2,192) (1,521) (671)

5 or more days a week 4 4 3

3 or 4 days a week 5 4 5

2 days a week 3 3 3

1 day a week 2 2 3

At least once a fortnight 1 1 1

At least once a month 1 1 -

At least once a year 2 2 2

Not used in last year - - -

Never used 83 83 82

Most Londoners, regardless of whether they cycle currently, know how to ride a

bike. There is little difference between white and BAME Londoners in their ability

to ride a bike (83 per cent BAME compared with 84 per cent white) [17].

Proportion of Londoners able to ride a bike (November 2014) [17]

% All White BAME

Base (2,192) (1,521) (671)

Can ride a bike 83 84 83

Cannot ride a bike 17 16 17

Transport for London – Women 40


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

TfL has developed a behavioural change model to look at Londoners’ readiness to

cycle or cycle more if they already cycle around the city. According to this model,

white Londoners are more likely to be in the pre-contemplation stage, meaning

that they haven’t thought about cycling (more) or that they have thought about it,

but do not intend to do so (63 per cent of BAME and 72 per cent of white

Londoners) [17].

Behaviour change model of cycling (November 2014) [17]

% All White BAME

Base (2,192) (1,521) (671)

Pre-contemplation:

69 72 63

’You have thought about it but would be unlikely

to start in the future’

‘You have thought about it but don’t intend

starting in the future’

‘You have never thought of starting but could be

open to it in the future’

Contemplation:

10 8 12

‘You are thinking about starting in the future’

Preparation:

3 2 4

‘You have decided to start soon’

Change:

2 1 3

‘You have tried to start recently but are finding it

difficult’

‘You have started recently and are finding it quite

easy so far’

Sustained change:

10 11 9

‘You started a while ago and are still doing it

occasionally’

You started a while ago and are still doing it

regularly’

Lapsed:

‘You had started doing this but couldn’t stick to it’

6 5 8

Cycling schemes

Awareness of Cycle Hire is relatively high among all Londoners. However, BAME

Londoners are less likely than white Londoners to be aware (88 per cent BAME

compared with 93 per cent white).

Twenty one per cent of BAME Londoners have hired a bicycle through the scheme

compared with 15 per cent of white Londoners [17].

Seventeen per cent of casual Cycle Hire users (defined as not having a Cycle Hire

membership key) are BAME customers and 7 per cent of Cycle Hire members are

BAME customers [29].

Transport for London – Women 41


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Thirty seven per cent of BAME Londoners report that they will definitely/ probably

use the scheme in the next year compared with 22 per cent of white Londoners.

[17]

Expected use of Cycle Hire in the future (November 2014) [17]

% All White BAME

Base (1,180) (833) (347)

Yes, definitely/probably 27 22 37

Yes, definitely 9 7 13

Yes, probably 18 15 24

No, probably not 30 33 22

No, definitely not 33 36 27

Not sure 10 9 13

Across all ethnic groups, awareness of Cycle Superhighways is lower than for Cycle

Hire. In particular, BAME Londoners are less likely to be aware of Cycle

Superhighways: 53 per cent are aware compared to 65 per cent of white

Londoners [17].

The same proportion of BAME Londoners and white Londoners report that they

have used a Cycle Superhighway (10 per cent). BAME Londoners are again more

likely than white Londoners to say they will definitely/ probably use the

Superhighways in the future (28 per cent BAME compared with 21 per cent) [17].

Expected use of Cycle Superhighways in the future (November 2014) [17]

% All White BAME

Base (1,180) (833) (347)

Yes, definitely/ probably 23 21 28

Yes, definitely 6 6 7

Yes, probably 17 15 21

No, probably not 28 29 26

No, definitely not 31 34 26

Not sure 17 16 20

Transport for London – Women 42


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Dial-a-Ride

Thirty-five per cent of Dial-a-Ride members are BAME compared with 65 per cent

who are white. The proportion of BAME Dial-a-Ride members decreases as the

age of the member increases: 18 per cent of Dial-a-Ride members who are aged

90 or over are BAME [30].

Dial-a-Ride (DaR) membership by ethnicity (2014) [2,30]

% All disabled DaR 65-79 years 80-89 years 90+ years old

Londoners members

old

old-

Base (excludes

- (41,270) (10,312) (15,117) (8,144)

unknown data)

White 66 65 55 71 82

BAME 34 35 45 29 18

English is spoken by 94 per cent of Dial-a-Ride members. Gujarati and Punjabi are

the most common languages spoken by non-English speaking members [30].

Journey purpose

Across all travel in London, the purpose of journeys varies slightly by ethnicity,

especially between the ethnicity groups which make up BAME Londoners. BAME

Londoners are generally more likely than white Londoners to travel by public

transport for reasons relating to education, including escorting children to school

(26 per cent BAME compared with 15 per cent white). BAME Londoners are less

likely than white Londoners to use public transport during the week for leisure

purposes (18 per cent BAME compared with 26 per cent white); this may be

related to the younger age profile of BAME Londoners, as younger people tend to

make fewer leisure trips on weekdays [12].

Weekday journey purpose (2013/14) [12]

% All White BAME Black Asian Mixed Other

Base – all trips by (40,159) (27,071) (12,900) (4,492) (6,355) (1,245) (808)

Londoners

Shopping/personal 24 25 24 25 22 23 31

business

Usual workplace 20 20 20 17 25 9 12

Leisure 23 26 18 17 16 22 22

Education 19 15 26 26 24 32 26

Other work-related 8 9 6 8 4 7 6

Other 6 6 7 6 8 8 3

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Asian Londoners are the most likely of all ethnic groups to be making weekday

journeys to their usual workplace (25 per cent) and least likely to be making

journeys for leisure (16 per cent) [12].

Transport for London – Women 43


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Ticket types

Oyster pay as you go (PAYG) is the most common ticket type used by Londoners

on all types of public transport, regardless of ethnic group. Oyster PAYG is used by

a higher proportion of BAME Londoners than white Londoners. Sixty-five per cent

of BAME Londoners use Oyster PAYG, compared to 55 per cent of white

Londoners. This pattern is the same for Oyster season tickets, which are used by a

higher proportion of BAME Londoners than white Londoners (27 per cent for

BAME Londoners compared with 15 per cent for white Londoners) [32].

BAME Londoners are much less likely to use a Freedom Pass to travel on public

transport than white Londoners [32].

These findings are likely to be related to the younger age profile of BAME

Londoners.

Tickets and passes used on public transport (January 2015) [32]

%

Base: Public transport users:

All

(975)

White

(687)

BAME

(239)

Freedom Pass 21 29 7

Oyster PAYG 58 55 65

Oyster Season ticket 20 15 27

Contactless payment 16 16 17

Cash/single/return 10 10 12

Any other Travelcard 7 7 7

Oyster card

A slightly higher proportion of BAME Londoners hold an Oyster card than white

Londoners. Mixed Londoners are the least likely to hold an Oyster card (52 per

cent) [12].

Possession of an Oyster card (2013/14) [12]

% All White BAME Black Asian Mixed Other

Base (15,700) (10,044) (5,563) (1,903) (2,785) (488) (387)

Have an Oyster

60 59 61 61 63 52 62

card

Do not have an

Oyster card

40 41 39 39 37 48 38

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Note that Oyster card ownership excludes Freedom Passes, Oyster photocards and Zip cards.

Transport for London – Women 44


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Freedom Pass

Nineteen per cent of white Londoners have Freedom Passes compared with nine

per cent of BAME Londoners. These differences are largely linked to the differing

age profile of BAME and white Londoners. The proportion of BAME and white

Londoners aged 65 and over who hold a Freedom Pass is the same: 92 per cent of

both BAME and white Londoners aged 65 or over hold a Freedom Pass [12].

Freedom Passes held (2013/14) [12]

% All White BAME Black Asian Mixed Other

Base (15,700) (10,044) (5,563) (1,903) (2,785) (488) (387)

Older person’s

Freedom pass

15 19 9 8 10 3 8

Disabled person’s

Freedom pass

2 2 2 3 2 2 3

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Women 45


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Barriers

Barriers to greater public transport use

We have carried out several research programmes to investigate the barriers that

Londoners face when using public transport. The findings from each of these

studies are in general agreement. However, it is worth noting that the issue of

barriers is complex and the specific questions that Londoners were asked may

have had an impact upon the responses that people gave. The impact of specific

barriers may also be much more significant for some Londoners than others.

BAME Londoners cite a greater number of barriers to increased public transport

use than white Londoners. The barriers to greater public transport use that are

most commonly mentioned by BAME Londoners are overcrowded services (64 per

cent BAME compared with 56 per cent white), cost of tickets (53 per cent BAME

compared with 40 per cent white), slow journey times (50 per cent BAME

compared with 36 per cent white), and unreliable services (43 per cent BAME

compared with 33 per cent white) [14].

For all potential barriers put to Londoners (including concerns about antisocial

behaviour, fear of crime and a lack of information on how to use public transport)

a greater proportion of BAME Londoners than white Londoners cite these as

potentially stopping them from using public transport more often [14].

Barriers to using public transport more often (prompted) (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All White BAME

Base (4,005) (3,039) (791)

Overcrowded services 59 56 64

Cost of tickets 45 40 53

Slow journey times 41 36 50

Unreliable services 37 33 43

Concern about antisocial behaviour 34 31 40

Dirty environment on the bus/train 28 21 39

Fear of crime getting to/ waiting for the

bus/train

24 19 32

Fear of crime on the bus/train 23 18 30

Fear about knife crime 20 16 27

Dirty environment getting to the bus/train 18 12 27

Fear of terrorist attacks 12 9 17

Graffiti 10 8 13

Lack of information on how to use public

transport

10 9 12

Risk of accidents 9 6 12

Don’t understand how to buy bus tickets 5 5 6

None of these 17 20 12

Transport for London – Women 46


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Safety and security

TfL uses a typology of worry to monitor the perceptions of Londoners with regard

to their personal security while using public transport in London. The typology

classifies people into:






Unworried – reports no general worry and no episodes of recent worry

Unexpressed fear – reports no general worry, but specific recent episodes

Anxious – reports general worry, but no specific recent episodes

Worried – reports general worry, and specific recent episodes

Don’t know

The majority of Londoners fall into the ‘unworried’ category which means that

they are generally unworried about their personal security in London and have

experienced no incidents to make them feel worried in the last three months. A

significantly lower proportion of BAME Londoners are considered ‘unworried’ than

white Londoners (70 per cent of BAME Londoners are ‘unworried’ compared with

80 per cent of white Londoners). As with many other findings in this report, this

may be related to the younger age profile of BAME Londoners [14].

Typology of worry (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% White BAME

Base (3,039) (791)

Unworried 80 70

Unexpressed 10 14

Anxious 4 8

Worried 4 7

Don’t know 2 2

Transport for London – Women 47


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

BAME Londoners are also considerably less likely than white Londoners to say

that they are ‘not at all worried’ about personal security while using public

transport in London (35 per cent BAME compared with 47 per cent white) and are

more likely to report that they are ‘very worried’ (four per cent BAME compared

with two per cent white) [14].

Levels of concern about personal security when using public transport in London (Jan/

Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% White BAME

Base (3,039) (791)

Not at all worried 47 35

A little bit worried 43 49

Quite a bit worried 7 10

Very worried 2 4

Don’t know 1 1

Among Londoners who are worried about their personal security when using

public transport in London, BAME Londoners are more likely than white

Londoners to say that this worry reduces their quality of life ‘very much’ (15 per

cent BAME Londoners experience this level of worry compared with 11 per cent

white Londoners) [14].

Extent to which worry about personal security when using public transport reduces quality

of life (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% White BAME

Base (all worried about personal safety) (301) (127)

Not at all 20 17

A little 30 28

Moderately 18 19

Quite a bit 19 20

Very much 11 15

Don’t know 2 -

Net: Quite a bit/very much 30 35

A slightly higher proportion of BAME Londoners than white Londoners take

precautions against crime when using public transport (40 per cent BAME

compared with 38 per cent white). The most common precaution for BAME

Londoners is to sit by other people, whereas for white Londoners it is to look after

their belongings. For BAME Londoners the next most common precaution is to

travel with someone else, while for white Londoners the second most common

precaution is to sit near other people [14].

Transport for London – Women 48


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Precautions taken (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All White BAME

Base (all who take precautions) (1,507) (1,130) (322)

Sat near to other people 34 29 44

Looked after my belongings 29 36 18

Travelled with someone else 23 20 29

Travelled at a different time of day 16 13 21

Used a different route 15 11 22

Stayed aware/vigilant 15 15 15

Avoided using that transport type 12 11 15

Only took necessities with me 3 3 3

Carried a personal alarm 3 3 3

Note responses 2% or below among all Londoners not shown.

In terms of actual experiences, the proportion of BAME Londoners who have felt

worried about their personal security when using public transport in London in the

past three months is higher than white Londoners (20 per cent BAME compared

with 14 per cent white). There is little difference as to whether the last worrying

episode was during the day or at night between BAME and white Londoners: 38

per cent of the most recent worrying episodes mentioned by BAME Londoners

occurred during the day compared with 42 per cent of episodes mentioned by

white Londoners (this difference is not statistically significant) [14].

We asked those who have felt worried about their personal security when using

public transport in the last three months on which type of transport they

experienced this event. There is little difference in the proportion of worrying

events by transport type between BAME and white Londoners. Buses were the

most likely type of transport on which theses events occurred (52 per cent of

BAME Londoners who have felt worried in the last three months were on the bus)

[14].

Crime and antisocial behaviour concerns affect the frequency of travel on the

Tube, bus and National Rail ‘a little’ or ‘a lot’ for slightly more than half of

Londoners (53 per cent). BAME Londoners are affected to a greater extent than

white Londoners: 62 per cent of BAME Londoners report that the frequency with

which they use public transport is affected ‘a lot’ or ‘a little’ because of concerns

over crime or antisocial behaviour compared with 47 per cent of white Londoners

[14].

Transport for London – Women 49


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

A higher proportion of BAME Londoners are affected in terms of their public

transport travel frequency because of these concerns across all three forms of

transport (Tube, bus, National Rail) both during the day and at night [14].

Proportion of Londoners for whom concerns over crime/antisocial behaviour affect the

frequency of their public transport use ‘a lot/a little’ (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All White BAME

Base (4,005) (3,039) (791)

Overall: During the day/after dark

Underground/buses/National Rail 53 48 62

During the day:

Underground/buses/National Rail 23 17 31

Underground 16 11 23

Buses 17 13 24

National Rail 11 8 15

After dark:

Underground/buses/National Rail 48 44 56

Underground 37 31 46

Buses 42 38 50

National Rail 29 26 36

We recently conducted a trial on the number 25 bus route which showed that

intervention can make customers feel safer. This intervention (which included

regular patrols on the route by the Safer Transport Team, by community officers

and Revenue Protection Inspectors) led to an increase in the proportion of

customers who felt ‘unworried’ when travelling on the route (87 per cent

compared with 77 per cent before the intervention). BAME customers were more

likely to feel ‘unworried’ than white customers as a result of the intervention (88

per cent BAME compared with 85 per cent white) [33]

Transport for London – Women 50


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Road traffic injuries

BAME Londoners are less likely than white Londoners to say that they feel safe

from road accidents when walking around London either during the day or at

night. Thirty-seven per cent of white Londoners compared to 31 per cent of BAME

Londoners consider themselves very safe from road accidents when walking

around London during the day, and 23 per cent of white Londoners compared to

20 per cent of BAME Londoners consider themselves very safe from road

accidents when walking around London at night [19].

Feelings of safety from road accidents when walking around London (2015) [19]

% All White BAME

Base (1,000) (731) (232)

During the day:

Very safe 34 37 31

Quite safe 51 50 54

Not very safe 9 9 11

Not at all safe 2 2 3

During the night:

Very safe 22 23 20

Quite safe 46 51 40

Not very safe 17 13 25

Not at all safe 8 6 11

Transport for London – Women 51


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Differences exist between ethnic groups in terms of injury rates from road traffic

accidents (this refers to injuries sustained by any road users, so it includes

pedestrians, cyclists and car occupants). For both children and adults, road traffic

injury rates are higher among black Londoners compared to white and Asian

Londoners. Black adults are 1.36 times more likely to be injured on the roads than

white adults and 1.32 times more likely to be injured than Asian adults. A similar

pattern is seen for children [31].

Average annual injury rates per 100,000 for all transportation types (2007–2011) [31]

Average rate/100,000 people White BAME

Adults 237 460

Children 84 154

There is some uncertainty as to why these differences in injury rates exist. Some of

the variation is thought to be explained by the association between injury rates

and deprivation. However, this explanation is not thought to account for all of the

variation seen, especially among black Londoners, where research from 2007

found the relationship between injury rates and deprivation to be unclear [31].

Child pedestrian injuries

BAME children, especially children from black backgrounds, are more likely than

white children to be injured or killed in road accidents in London [23]. Black boys in

particular have higher pedestrian injury rates than black girls [31].

Average annual pedestrian injury rates in London per 100,000 people (1996–2006) [31]

Average

Gender White Black Asian

rate/100,000 people

Age group

0-4 Boys 45 95 68

Girls 29 52 41

5-9 Boys 125 235 141

Girls 72 135 69

10-14 Boys 254 313 136

Girls 179 255 97

15-24 Boys/Men 144 164 84

Girls/Women 122 148 69

Transport for London – Women 52


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Customer satisfaction

Overall satisfaction

We measure overall satisfaction with various transport types in London on an 11-

point scale, with 10 representing extremely satisfied and zero representing

extremely dissatisfied. We then scale this up to 100.

We have standardised satisfaction ratings, which are shown in the table below.

This allows us to apply consistent analysis across a wide range of satisfaction

research.

Average rating Level of satisfaction

Under 50

Very low/weak/poor

50-54 Low/weak/poor

55-64

Fairly/relatively/quite

low/weak/poor

65-69 Fair/reasonable

70-79 Fairly/relatively/quite good

80-84 Good or fairly high

85-90 Very good or high

90+ Excellent or very high

All the transport types receive fairly good/high overall satisfaction mean ratings,

and this is true across all ethnic groups.

While still good, BAME Londoners give lower overall satisfaction ratings compared

to white Londoners. In general, older Londoners tend to be more satisfied with

public transport. The greater proportion of older white Londoners than older

BAME Londoners may explain some of the differential in ratings. However, for the

transport types where sufficient data exists, younger BAME respondents still

provide lower satisfaction ratings than younger white respondents, indicating that

there is more to the differences than just age.

In particular, BAME Londoners rate the Woolwich ferry, taxis, the Victoria coach

station and DaR lower than white Londoners [16].

Transport for London – Women 53


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Overall satisfaction with transport types – all customers (2014/15) [16]

Satisfaction score All White BAME Black Asian Mixed

(0-100)

Bus services

Base (14,155) (9,401) (4,622) (1,990) (1,840) (792)

Satisfaction score 85 86 83 83 83 83

Bus stations

Base (3,626) (1,850) (1,136) (509) (412) (215)

Satisfaction score 78 80 77 77 78 76

Night buses

Base (910) (550) (350) (169) (131) (50)

Satisfaction score 81 82 78 80 78 73

Underground

Base (17,634) (13,381) (4,186) (975) (2,101) (1,110)

Satisfaction score 84 85 83 82 83 83

Overground

Base (5,397) (3,531) (1,580) (558) (730) (292)

Satisfaction score 83 84 81 79 82 84

DLR

Base (13,398) (8,232) (4,563) (1,532) (1,995) (1,036)

Satisfaction score 89 89 88 87 88 87

Dial-a-Ride

Base (2,572) (1,937) (578) (218) (289) (71)

Satisfaction score 92 93 88 90 86 90

London River Services

Base (2,106) (1,787) (261) (35)* (111) (115)

Satisfaction score 90 90 89 - 87 90

Private Hire Vehicles

Base (439) (330) (102) (24)* (45)* (33)*

Satisfaction score 80 80 82 - - -

Taxis

Base (569) (449) (110) (17)* (58) (35)*

Satisfaction score 83 85 78 - 78 -

Trams

Base (4,329) (2,986) (1,175) (566) (406) (203)

Satisfaction score 89 90 88 88 89 88

Victoria Coach Station

Base (1,204) (911) (290) (113) (106) (71)

Satisfaction score 82 83 78 75 80 78

Woolwich Ferry

Base (1,056) (633) (349) (223) (90) (36)*

Satisfaction score 79 84 74 76 68 -

* Denotes small base size (data not shown in this report for base sizes of less than 50).

Transport for London – Women 54


Score out of 100

Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Bus

Overall, Londoners’ satisfaction with buses is fairly high at 85 out of 100. BAME

bus users are slightly less satisfied with the service overall compared to white

Londoners (83 out of 100 BAME; 86 out of 100 white). Satisfaction with buses has

seen a steady increase over time among both BAME and white Londoners [16].

Overall satisfaction with buses over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

78 79 80 80 79 81 82 81 81 82 84 84 86

74 74 75 76 76 78 78 78 78 79 80 81 83

White customers

BAME customers

Transport for London – Women 55


Score out of 100

Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Satisfaction with value for money on buses, as with other types of transport, is

lower than overall satisfaction. BAME customers rate value for money slightly

lower than white customers (70 out of 100 BAME compared with 74 out of 100

white). Looking at the trend over time, satisfaction with value for money does

fluctuate, but the long-term trend is relatively flat [16].

Value for money satisfaction with buses over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

79 78

73 73 72 74 75 75

76 74 71 73

69

72

69

71

70 69 70

68

64 64

73 74

67

70

White customers

BAME customers

Drivers of satisfaction

The main drivers of satisfaction with buses are similar for both BAME and white

customers and tend to relate to journey times, the ease of making the journey and

satisfaction with information on delays both at stops (more for white Londoners)

and on the bus (more for BAME Londoners). Satisfaction ratings given by BAME

customers are also likely to be driven by the time that they waited to catch the bus

[16].

Drivers of satisfaction for bus users [16]

White customers

Journey time

Ease of making journey

Satisfaction with info on delays at stop

Comfort inside the bus

Satisfaction with live bus info - TfL website

on tablet\laptop\PC

BAME customers

Ease of making journey

Time waited to catch bus

Journey time

Satisfaction with info on delays on bus

Comfort inside the bus

Transport for London – Women 56


Score out of 100

Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Tube

Overall satisfaction with the Tube is fairly high among all customers (84 out of

100). BAME Tube users are slightly less satisfied than white customers (83 out of

100 BAME compared with 85 out of 100 white) [16].

The long-term trend of overall satisfaction with the Tube has increased for both

BAME and white customers, but is still slightly lower overall for BAME customers

than for white customers [16].

Overall satisfaction with the Tube over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

75 77 78 79 78 78

71 72 74 76

73 75

80 81 80 81

77 77 77 78

84 83 85

81 81 83

50

40

30

20

10

0

White customers BAME customers

Transport for London – Women 57


Score out of 100

Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Satisfaction with value for money on the Tube is fair/reasonable among customers

overall (69 out of 100). Levels of satisfaction with value for money on the Tube are

lower for BAME customers than white customers (66 out of 100 BAME compared

with 70 out of 100 white) [16].

Value for money satisfaction with the Tube over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

63 64 63 62 62 63

66 68 66 64

61 62 61 62

60

62 64

66

63

58

67 68 70

63 64 66

White customers BAME customers

Transport for London – Women 58


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Drivers of satisfaction

The top three drivers of satisfaction with the Tube are ease of making journeys,

comfort on the journey and length of the journey. These top three reasons are the

same for BAME and white Londoners [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for Tube users [16]

White customers

Ease of making journey

Comfort of journey

Length of journey time

Length of time waiting for train

Train crowding

BAME customers

Ease of making journey

Comfort of journey

Length of journey time

Smoothness of journey

Personal safety on train

Overground

Overall satisfaction among all customers using the Overground is fairly high at 83

out of 100. Among BAME customers of the Overground, overall satisfaction is

slightly lower at 81 out of 100 [16].

Overall satisfaction with London Overground over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All White BAME Black Asian Mixed

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (5,397) (3,531) (1,580) (558) (730) (292)

2009/10 73 74 72 71 73 70

2010/11 80 82 79 78 78 80

2011/12 82 83 80 78 80 80

2012/13 82 83 80 79 81 79

2013/14 82 83 79 77 80 79

2014/15 83 84 81 79 82 84

Overall satisfaction with value for money on the Overground is 73 out of 100.

BAME Londoners are as satisfied as white Londoners (72 out of 100 white) [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with London Overground over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All White BAME Black Asian Mixed

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (5,182) (3,482) (1,575) (557) (730) (288)

2011/12 72 73 69 67 70 70

2012/13 71 79 69 69 71 65

2013/14 70 71 68 67 69 68

2014/15 73 72 73 73 73 74

Transport for London – Women 59


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Drivers of satisfaction

Ease of making a journey, the condition of trains and feeling valued as a customer

are the main drivers of satisfaction for white and BAME customers in relation to

overall satisfaction with London Overground.

Drivers of satisfaction for Overground users [16]

White customers

Ease of making journey

Condition and state of repair of the train

Feel valued as a customer

How well the information or assistance met

needs

Comfort of train

BAME customers

Condition and state of repair of the train

Ease of making your journey

Feel valued as a customer

General information about train times and

routes at the station

Information about service disruptions on the

train

Docklands Light Railway (DLR)

Overall satisfaction with the DLR is high among customers using the network at

89 out of 100. There is little difference between BAME and white users of the DLR

(88 out of 100 BAME compared to 89 out of 100 white) [16].

Overall satisfaction with DLR over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All White BAME Black Asian Mixed

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (13,398) (8,232) (4,563) (1,532) (1,995) (1,036)

2009/10 81 82 79 79 80 78

2010/11 81 83 80 80 79 81

2011/12 82 84 81 81 81 82

2012/13 87 87 86 85 87 86

2013/14 87 88 85 85 86 85

2014/15 89 89 88 87 88 87

Overall satisfaction with value for money on the DLR is quite good (77 out of 100),

but it is slightly lower for BAME customers than white customers (76 out of 100

BAME compared to 78 out of 100 white) [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with DLR over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All White BAME Black Asian Mixed

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (12,839) (8,060) (4,527) (1,510) (1,989) (1,028)

2011/12 72 74 70 70 70 70

2012/13 74 75 72 73 71 71

2013/14 75 76 73 74 74 70

2014/15 77 78 76 76 76 76

Transport for London – Women 60


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Drivers of satisfaction

Among both BAME and white DLR customers the drivers of satisfaction are very

similar. BAME customer satisfaction is slightly more related to feeling valued

rather than the length of time the journey took [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for DLR users [16]

White customers

Ease of making journey

Comfort inside the train

Length of time journey took

Reliability of trains

Feel valued as a customer

BAME customers

Ease of making journey

Comfort inside the train

Feel valued as a customer

Reliability of trains

Length of time you waited for the train

Trams

Overall satisfaction with trams is high among customers at 89 out of 100. This is

slightly lower among BAME users than white tram customers (88 out of 100 BAME

compared with 90 out of 100 white) [16].

Overall satisfaction with trams over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All White BAME Black Asian Mixed

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (4,329) (2,986) (1,175) (566) (406) (203)

2009/10 86 87 86 84 * *

2010/11 85 86 84 83 83 87

2011/12 86 87 84 83 84 *

2012/13 89 90 87 87 88 87

2013/14 89 90 88 88 89 89

2014/15 89 90 88 88 89 88

* Denotes small base size (percentages not shown in this report for base sizes of less than 50).

Overall satisfaction with value for money on the tram network is quite good (78

out of 100) but it is slightly lower for BAME customers than white customers (77

out of 100 BAME compared to 79 out of 100 white) [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with trams over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All White BAME Black Asian Mixed

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (2,824) (1,801) (1,002) (487) (337) (178)

2011/12 73 75 70 69 73 *

2012/13 77 79 75 77 73 73

2013/14 78 79 77 77 77 79

2014/15 78 79 77 77 77 77

* Denotes small base size (percentages not shown in this report for base sizes of less than 50).

Transport for London – Women 61


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Streets

There is little difference in the satisfaction ratings given by BAME and white

Londoners in terms of the use of London’s streets. Overall satisfaction with streets

and pavements is higher for people making a journey on foot than by car [34].

Overall satisfaction with streets and pavement after last journey over time – walking

journey [34]

Net fairly

All White BAME

satisfied/very

satisfied (%)

Base 2014/15 (957) (732) (184)

2011 64 61 74

2012 68 65 77

2013 69 67 75

2014 68 67 72

2015 68 69 69

Overall satisfaction with streets and pavements after last journey over time - car journey

[34]

Net fairly

All White BAME

satisfied/very

satisfied (%)

Base 2014/15 (830) (630) (163)

2011 54 52 61

2012 62 60 68

2013 57 54 65

2014 61 59 64

2015 60 60 61

Please note that satisfaction for streets is calculated as a combination of ‘very

satisfied’ and ‘fairly satisfied’ rather than the 11-point scale used for other

customer satisfaction survey (CSS) results [34].

Transport for London – Women 62


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Transport for London Road Network (TRLN)

Satisfaction with the TLRN is reasonable to fairly good. BAME users of the TLRN

give a score of 68 out of 100 for walking, 71 out of 100 for travelling by bus on red

routes and 66 out of 100 for driving. There are very few differences by ethnicity

[16].

Overall satisfaction – general impression of red routes over time [16]

Satisfaction score (0-100) All White BAME Black Asian Mixed

Walking

Base 2014-15 (1,254) (936) (318) (74) (130) (114)

2013/14 70 70 70 74 73 63

2014/15 68 68 68 65 71 65

Travelling by bus

Base 2014-15 (4,620) (3,392) (1,228) (396) (423) (409)

2013/14 69 69 72 74 71 69

2014/15 71 70 71 73 72 68

Driving

Base 2014-15 (3,605) (3,029) (576) (156) (253) (167)

2013/14 67 67 66 70 66 65

2014/15 67 67 66 70 65 63

Cycling

Base 2014-15 (1,838) (1,405) (433) (76) (195) (162)

2013/14 69 68 72 * * *

2014/15 70 70 72 75 74 66

* Denotes small base size (data not shown in this report for base sizes of less than 50).

Transport for London – Women 63


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Access to information

Information needs

For some BAME Londoners language can be a significant barrier to public

transport use, especially among people who were not born in the UK. While this is

less of an issue for familiar journeys, it can limit the extent to which people make

unfamiliar journeys [27].

Access to the internet

A higher proportion of BAME Londoners have access to the internet than white

Londoners (96 per cent BAME compared with 91 per cent white). This is almost

entirely due to the older age profile of white Londoners, as the proportion of

BAME and white Londoners aged between 16 and 64 who access the internet is

very similar (98 per cent BAME 16-64 year olds compared with 96 per cent white

16-64 year olds) [15].

Both BAME and white 16 to 64-year-old Londoners tend to access the internet in

similar places:




Ninety-four per cent of BAME and 95 per cent of white Londoners aged

between 16 and 64 access the internet at home

Sixty-eight per cent of BAME 16-64 year olds access the internet ‘on the move’

compared with 70 per cent of white Londoners of this age

Sixty-three per cent of BAME 16 to 64year olds access the internet at work,

which is slightly lower than the proportion of white Londoners in this age

group accessing the internet at work (66 per cent) [15]

Transport for London – Women 64


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Access to the internet among ethnic groups (Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

% All White BAME White BAME White BAME

16-64 16-64 65+ 65+

Base (2,001) (1,483) (394) (932) (343) (551) (51)

Any access 92 91 96 96 98 66 49

Access at home 89 89 92 95 94 65 49

Access ‘on the

61 59 66 70 68 16 10

move’

Access at work 56 54 61 66 63 5 6

Across all ethnic groups in London there is a wide range of different uses for the

internet. While most uses of the internet are common across ethnic groups, there

are several differences in the proportion of Londoners in each ethnic group

undertaking specific tasks.

From our research of travel-related internet use, we found that the main

difference is in using the internet for day-to-day travel plans (61 per cent BAME

compared with 71 per cent white).

Transport for London – Women 65


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

Mobile device usage and online behaviour

BAME Londoners are more likely than white Londoners to use smartphones (90

per cent BAME compared with 71 per cent white). This pattern is evident even

when accounting for the younger average age of BAME Londoners compared to

white Londoners [15].

Proportion of Londoners who use a smartphone (iPhone, BlackBerry, Android, other)

(Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

% Base Smartphone ownership

All Londoners (2,001) 77

White Londoners (1,483) 71

BAME Londoners (394) 90

16-24-year-old white

Londoners

16-24-year-old BAME

Londoners

16-64-year-old white

Londoners

16-64-year-old BAME

Londoners

(70) 94

(64) 100

(932) 82

(343) 92

65+-year-old white Londoners (551) 25

65+-year-old BAME Londoner (51) 27

Transport for London – Women 66


Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) people

We have found a number of differences among BAME and white Londoners in

terms of the social media channels that they use:





A greater proportion of white than BAME Londoners use Facebook (80 per

cent BAME social media users compared with 85 per cent white)

A higher proportion of BAME than white Londoners use YouTube (44 per cent

BAME social media users compared with 38 per cent white)

A larger proportion of BAME than white Londoners use Instagram (31 per cent

BAME social media users compared with 17 per cent white)

More BAME Londoners use Google+ compared with white Londoners (17 per

cent BAME compared with 10 per cent white)

Use of Twitter is more even between BAME and white Londoners (32 per cent for

BAME compared with 33 per cent for White Londoners) [15].

Use of the TfL website

The proportion of both BAME and white Londoners who have used the TfL

website is very similar (80 per cent BAME compared to 79 per cent white).

However, when looking solely at 16-64year olds, slightly fewer BAME Londoners

access the TfL website than white Londoners (82 per cent BAME compared to 86

per cent white) [15].

Proportion of Londoners who visit www.tfl.gov.uk (Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

% All White BAME

Base (2,001) (1,483) (394)

Any 78 79 80

Daily 10 9 12

Up to 3-4 times a week 21 21 22

Up to 3-4 times a month 20 23 16

About once a month 17 16 18

Less than once a month 11 11 12

Never 20 20 19

Don’t know/ refused 2 1 1

Accessing information in the event of travel disruption

The proportion of internet users stating that they obtain real-time travel

information from the TfL website is similar between BAME and white Londoners

(71 per cent BAME compared to 70 per cent white). Most other channels (such as

other websites, apps, and Twitter feeds) are used relatively evenly by both BAME

and white Londoners [15].

Transport for London – Women 67


Women

Summary: Women

Key findings

According to the 2011 Census, 51 per cent of Londoners are women [2]

Women tend to complete more weekday trips on average than men (2.8 for women

compared to 2.6 for men) [12]

Walking is the most commonly used type of transport by women (96 per cent walk at

least once a week). Women are more likely to use buses than men (65 per cent women

compared with 58 per cent men), but are less likely to use other types of transport

including the Tube (35 per cent women compared with 42 per cent men) [12]

Women are more likely than men to be travelling with buggies and/or shopping, and

this can affect transport choices [35]

Satisfaction with transport among women and men is very similar and is mainly driven

by the ease of making the journey [16]

Women are more likely than men to experience episodes of worry when travelling on

public transport and this is more likely to reduce their frequency of travel than for men

[14]

Use of the TfL website is equally high among women and men (both 78 per cent) [15]

We recognise that there may be barriers to transport faced by some transgender

women and men. However, we do not yet have sufficient data to provide a detailed

analysis

Transport for London – Women 68


Women

Profile of women in London

In line with the rest of England and the UK, 51 per cent of Londoners are women.

There is little variation across the London boroughs in terms of the split between

women and men; only the City of London, Newham and Tower Hamlets see any

sizeable difference from the average across the Capital (45 per cent of City of

London residents and 48 per cent of Newham and Tower Hamlets residents are

women) [2].

The key demographic differences between women and men are employment

status and household income. Thirty-eight per cent of women are not working or

are retired, with a further 15 per cent employed part-time (compared to 24 per

cent and seven per cent of men respectively) [12]. Women are also more likely to

be the primary carer of children at home. Both of these factors appear to influence

the travel behaviour and attitudes of women in London.

Transport behaviour

Women make a greater number of journeys per weekday than men. Trips made by women

tend to be shorter [12].





Women are more likely than men to use the bus at least once a week (65 per

cent of women do so, compared with 58 per cent of men) and are less likely to

travel by Tube at least once a week (35 per cent of women compared with 42

per cent of men) [12]. Women are also less likely to ever cycle in London (10

per cent of women compared with 16 per cent men) [17]

Women are less likely to drive at least once a week (35 per cent of women do

so compared with 44 per cent of men). However, they are more likely to be a

car passenger (55 per cent compared with 42 per cent of men) [12]

Women are less likely to be employed full or part-time, and this is reflected in

the smaller proportion of journeys that are made by women for work purposes

than men (22 per cent compared with 34 per cent of journeys made by men). A

higher proportion of journeys made by women are for shopping/personal

business (27 per cent of women’s journeys compared with 21 per cent of

journeys made by men) [12]

Women are equally likely as men to use Oyster PAYG to travel around London

(59 per cent of women compared with 58 per cent of men) [32]

Transport for London – Women 69


Women

Barriers

The reasons that men and women give as barriers to using public transport are

often similar. The most commonly mentioned barriers for both women and men

are overcrowded services and the cost of tickets. There are some differences,

however, particularly around fear of crime where women are more likely to

experience barriers [14].

Personal safety is a concern for some women. While 81 per cent of men are

considered to be ‘unworried’ according to our typology of worry on public

transport, only 70 per cent of women are considered ‘unworried’. Likewise, seven

per cent of women are considered ‘worried’ compared with four per cent of men

[14].






Women are more likely than men to take precautions against crime when

using public transport (42 per cent of women compared with per cent of men)

[14]

The most common precaution taken by women is to sit next to other people

(39 per cent of women who take precautions when travelling on public

transport do this). Travelling with someone else and looking after their

belongings are the other main precautions taken by women (both 28 per cent)

[14]

Concerns around crime and antisocial behaviour also have an impact upon

women’s frequency of public transport use: 61 per cent report that the

frequency with which they travel is affected ‘a lot’ or ‘a little’ because of these

concerns, compared with 43 per cent of men [14]

Women (of all ages) are less likely to use unbooked minicabs, with 13 per cent

claiming they are likely to do so in future compared to 26 per cent of men [36]

Among Londoners who are willing to answer the question, 11 per cent of

women report experiencing some form of unwanted sexual behaviour while

travelling in London in the previous year (the equivalent figure for men is two

per cent) [14]

Customer satisfaction

Women are generally satisfied with public transport in London and report very

similar satisfaction levels to men [16].

Among women using the bus, overall satisfaction is fairly high (85 out of 100)

and is mainly linked to the ease of making a journey and journey time

Overall satisfaction with the Tube is also fairly high at 85 out of 100. This is

linked to the ease of making journeys, comfort and journey time issues

Overall satisfaction with both the Tube and bus has increased significantly

from 2002/03 to 2014/15. Satisfaction among women who use the bus has

increased from 76 to 85 out of 100 and for the Tube from 75 to 85 [16]

Transport for London – Women 70


Women

Access to information

Use of the TfL website is high among women and men (both 78 per cent) [15]

For both women and men, the main reason for using the TfL website is to use

Journey Planner. However, women are significantly more likely to use it than

men (71 per cent women compared with 62 per cent men). Women are less

likely to make use of live travel updates (27 per cent women compared with 34

per cent men) [37]

Transport for London – Women 71


Women

Introduction

In line with the demographic profile of the UK in general, women make up 51 per

cent of the London population [2]. On the whole, women and men have similar

experiences and requirements from the transport network. However, there are

some key differences, particularly relating to age, employment status and safety

and security issues.

TfL’s Single Equality Scheme addresses many of the issues that we have identified

in the research presented in this document. We have introduced a number of

initiatives, such as the ‘Safer Travel at Night’ scheme, which aims to increase

awareness of the risks posed by using unbooked minicabs [22].

This chapter focuses on the transport issues that are relevant to women in

London. It is important to note that the differences highlighted between women

and men in this chapter may well be influenced by a number of factors other than

gender, with age, income, working status and education all affecting perceptions

towards travel in London and travel behaviour.

Transport for London – Women 72


Women

Profile of women in London

Fifty-one per cent of Londoners are women, which is the same split as across

England as a whole [2].

Gender profile of Londoners 2011 Census [2]

% Proportion of Londoners

Men 49

Women 51

London has a much younger age profile than England as a whole, with 52 per cent

of the London population aged under 34, compared to 44 per cent across England.

This younger age profile is seen for both women and men [2].

Age profile of women and men in London and England (2011) [2]

% of total London/England

population

Age groups All Men Women

London

0-34 52 26 26

35-54 28 14 14

55+ 20 9 11

England

0-34 44 22 22

35-54 28 14 14

55+ 28 13 15

Base size not shown, as data are based on ONS Census data.

Transport for London – Women 73


Women

Women and men make up a roughly equal proportion of each age group until

around 80 years of age. Londoners over 80 are much more likely to be women

than men (see population pyramid) [2].

2014

9 0-4

80+

75-

70- 79

65- 74

60-

0-4 69

55-

0-4

64

0-4

50- 59

45-

0-4 54

0-4

40- 49

0-4 35-39 44

0-4 30-

25- 34

20- 29

0-4

15- 24

0-4

10- 19

0-4 14 5-

0-4

10-14

10-14

10-14

10-14

10-14

10-14

Reflecting the fact that more older Londoners are women than men, women are

marginally more likely than men to be disabled (11 per cent of London’s women

are disabled, compared with nine per cent for London’s men, and 56 per cent of

disabled Londoners are women). Similarly, women are more likely than men to be

retired (17 per cent of women are retired compared with 13 per cent of men, and

58 per cent of retired Londoners are women) [12].

Within this document there are two main sources of demographic data: the Office

for National Statistics Census and the London Travel Demand Survey. The

following table shows the demographic breakdown of Londoners recorded in the

LTDS.

Transport for London – Women 74


Women

LTDS demographic profile of women and men in London (2013/14) [12]

% Men Women Proportion of

category that are

women

Base (7,518) (8,182) (varies)

Age

5-10 8 8 48

11-15 6 6 48

16-24 14 14 50

25-59 55 55 50

60-64 5 5 52

65-70 5 5 52

71-80 4 5 57

81+ 2 3 59

Ethnicity

White 62 62 51

BAME 37 37 51

Household income

Less than £10,000 15 20 58

£10,000–£19,999 17 20 54

£20,000–£34,999 20 19 50

£35,000–£49,999 14 13 49

£50,000–£74,999 16 14 47

£75,000+ 18 14 46

Working status*

Working full-time 58 36 39

Working part-time 7 15 70

Student 11 10 50

Retired 13 17 58

Not working 11 21 68

Disabled

Yes 10 12 56

No 90 88 50

Impairment affects travel

Yes 8 11 57

No 92 89 50

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five and working status does not include under 16s. All TfL surveys use the

Equality Act 2010 to define disabled people as those who define themselves as having a long-term physical or mental disability or health issue

that impacts on their daily activities, the work they can do, or limits their ability to travel.

Transport for London – Women 75


Women

The proportion of Londoners who are white and who are BAME is very similar for

women and men. However, looking at specific ethnic groups in London, there are

some differences by gender. For example, 51 per cent of white Londoners are

women compared to 43 per cent of Arab Londoners [2].

Proportion of women living in London by detailed ethnic group [2]

Ethnic group

% Women

All 51

White: Total 51

English/Welsh/Scottish/Northern Irish/British 50

Irish 52

Gypsy or Irish Traveller 52

Other white 52

Mixed/multiple ethnic group: Total 51

White and black Caribbean 52

White and black African 51

White and Asian 49

Other mixed 52

Asian/Asian British: Total 50

Indian 49

Pakistani 47

Bangladeshi 49

Chinese 54

Other Asian 51

Black/African/Caribbean/black British: Total 53

African 53

Caribbean 56

Other black 50

Other ethnic group: Total 47

Arab 43

Any other ethnic group 49

Transport for London – Women 76


Women

Employment and income

Differences exist between women and men in terms of employment and

household income. Higher proportions of women say that they are currently not

employed (21 per cent of women compared with 11 per cent of men) and 68 per

cent of Londoners aged 16 or over and not employed are women. More women

than men are employed part-time (12 per cent of women compared with five per

cent of of men) and 70 per cent of Londoners working part-time are women [12].

Women are more likely than men to have a low household income. Forty per cent

of women have an income of less than £20,000 per year compared with 32 per

cent of men. This may be linked to the higher proportion of women being in parttime

employment, retired or not working [12].

Women get paid less than men on average. The median salary in 2013 for a

woman in London was £25,411 compared with £35,894 for men. This is due in part

to the increased number of part-time positions occupied by women. Women

occupy 71 per cent of part-time positions in the Capital. However, even when

looking solely at full-time salaries there is still a discrepancy in the average annual

pay for women and men; the median full-time annual pay for a woman in London

is £31,100, compared to £38,606 for a man [38].

The employment rate of women is affected by child dependency. Employment

rates (noted in 2010) decline steadily from 78 per cent of women with no

dependent children to 22 per cent of women with four or more dependent children

[39]. These family commitments also change the way in which women use public

transport, affecting their travel patterns and behaviour.

London boroughs

We found few differences in the split between women and men across London’s

boroughs. The City of London has the lowest proportion of women; within the City

only 45 per cent of residents are women. Newham and Tower Hamlets also have a

lower than average proportion of women, both with 48 per cent. All other

boroughs lie within two percentage points of the London average [2].

Transport for London – Women 77


Women

Travel behaviour

On average, women in London take a greater number of trips on a weekday than

men (2.8 women compared with 2.6 men) [12].

The difference in the number of trips made by women and men changes with age.

Women aged 65 and older take as many trips as men of the same age [12].

Average number of weekday trips (2013/14) [12]

Age groups Men Women Difference

All 2.6 2.8 0.2

Under 16s 2.3 2.4 0.1

16-24 2.3 2.5 0.2

25-64 2.7 3.1 0.4

65+ 2.3 2.3 -

Base: Men all 5,231; under 16, 844; 16-24,606; 25-64, 2,947; 65+, 834; Women all 5,787; under 16, 812; 16-24, 650; 25-64,

3,329;; 65+,996.

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport types used

The three most common transport types used by women at least once a week are

walking (96 per cent), bus (65 per cent) and car as a passenger (55 per cent). The

most common transport types used at least once a week by men are also walking

(97 per cent) and bus (58 per cent). However, the third most commonly used type

of transport for men is the car as a driver (44 per cent) rather than as a passenger

(42 per cent), or the Tube (42 per cent) [12].

There are some marked differences in the types of transport that women and men

living in London use at least once a week. Women are more likely than men to

travel by bus at least once a week (65 per cent of women compared with 58 per

cent of men), which is a pattern that we see across age groups.



Eighty-two per cent of women aged 16-24 use the bus at least once a week

compared with 77 per cent of men

Although the proportion of women and men aged 65 and over that use the bus

at least once a week is relatively similar (63 per cent of women compared to 60

per cent of men) the higher number of women in this age group increases the

proportion of bus users that are women aged 65 or over [12]

Women living in London are less likely than men to use the Tube at least once a

week (35 per cent women compared with 42 per cent men). This is mainly driven

by the reduced use of the Tube by older women. Women aged 65 and over are

considerably less likely to use the Tube at least once a week than men of the same

age group (19 per cent women compared with 29 per cent of men) [12].

Transport for London – Women 78


Women

Women aged 17 or over who are living in London are less likely than men to have a

full driving licence (56 per cent of women aged 17 or over compared with 72 per

cent of men aged 17 or over) or have access to a car (65 per cent of all women

compared with 69 per cent of all men). These factors are likely to be related to the

frequency of car use as a driver that we have observed. Women are more likely to

travel by car at least once a week as a passenger than men (55 per cent of women

compared with 42 per cent of men) and in turn are less likely to travel by car as a

driver at least once a week than men (35 per cent of women compared with 44 per

cent of men) [12].

The likelihood of using a number of modes of transport is very similar between

women and men. This includes the likelihood of walking (96 per cent of women

compared with 97 per cent of men), use of the Overground (eight per cent of

women compared with ten per cent of men), the DLR (four per cent of women

compared with five per cent of men), black cabs (four per cent of women

compared with six per cent of men), minicabs (both six per cent) and the tram

(both two per cent) [12].

Proportion of Londoners using types of transport at least once a week (2013/14) [12]

% Men Women 16-24 25-64 65+

M W M W M W

Walking 97 96 98 98 97 97 89 84

Bus 58 65 77 82 52 61 60 63

Car (as a driver) 44 35 19 15 59 47 59 34

Tube 42 35 51 53 50 39 29 19

Car (as a passenger) 42 55 54 55 32 49 32 54

National Rail 19 15 22 20 24 17 14 10

Overground 10 8 11 13 12 10 5 3

London taxi/black cab 6 4 4 4 7 5 3 3

Other taxi/minicab (PHV) 6 6 7 9 7 6 5 6

DLR 5 4 8 6 6 4 2 1

Motorbike 2 - 1 - 3 - 1 -

Tram (London Tramlink) 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1

Base size: Men 7,518; women 8,182; men 16-24, 906; men 25-64, 4,275; men 65+, 1,116; women 16-24, 943; women 25-64,

4,730; women 65+, 1,359.

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Where there is more detailed information on individual types of transport, we

have included a sub-section below.

Transport for London – Women 79


Women

Walking

Ninety-six per cent of women walk at least once a week and 83 per cent walk five

or more days a week. Walking frequency is very similar for women and men [12].

Frequency of walking (2013/14) [12]

% Men Women

Base (7,518) (8,182)

5 or more days a week 83 83

3 or 4 days a week 6 6

2 days a week 4 4

1 day a week 3 3

At least once a fortnight 1 1

At least once a month 1 1

At least once a year 1 1

Not used in last year 1 2

Never used - -

*Note that LTDS in this report data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Women are more likely than men to walk a child to school at least once a week (21

per cent compared with 15 per cent of men) and less likely than men to walk as

part of a longer journey at least once a week (73 per cent of women compared to

80 per cent of men). Women are also less likely than men to visit

pubs/restaurants/cinemas and other social places on foot at least once a week (45

per cent of women compared to 61 per cent of men) [19].

Walking at least once a week by purpose of journey (2015) [19]

% who walk at least once a week Men Women

Base (418) (582)

Walk…

To complete small errands such as getting a newspaper 85 87

or posting a letter

As part of a longer journey 80 73

To get to work/school/college 52 52

To visit friends and relatives 50 48

To visit pubs/restaurants/cinemas and other social

61 45

places

To take a child to school 15 21

Transport for London – Women 80


Women

Bus

The bus is the second most frequently used type of transport (after walking)

among women with almost two thirds (65 per cent) using the bus at least once a

week. This is higher than among men where 58 per cent use the bus at least once a

week [12].

Frequency of travelling by bus (2013/14) [12]

% Men Women

Base (7,518) (8,182)

5 or more days a week 27 30

3 or 4 days a week 11 14

2 days a week 10 12

1 day a week 10 9

At least once a fortnight 6 5

At least once a month 11 9

At least once a year 15 13

Not used in last year 8 7

Never used 3 2

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

The most recent bus user research shows that daytime bus use among women is

higher than that of men (57 per cent of bus users are women and 43 per cent are

men). On night buses however, the majority of customers are men (64 per cent are

men and 36 per cent are women) [28]. This may reflect concerns that women have

about travelling on buses at night. Women are also less likely than men to travel at

night for work [14].

Comparison of day and night bus users (2014) [28]

%

Base

Men

(21,084)

Women

(23,622)

Men

16-24

(5,093)

Women

16-24

(5,957)

Men

25+

(15,991)

Women

25+

(17,665)

Day bus users 43 57 22 23 78 77

Night bus users 64 36 30 41 70 59

Transport for London – Women 81


Women

Work is the main purpose of travelling by bus among men and women, although

even more so for men. Of women travelling by bus during the day, 13 per cent are

travelling to or from shopping (this compares to 8 per cent of men)[28].

Purpose of bus journey by gender and time of day (2014) [28]

During the day

At night

% Men Women Men Women

Base (14,982) (19,815) (5,525) (3,036)

To/from or for work 58 51 56 46

To/from shopping 8 13 1 2

Visiting friends/relatives 9 9 13 14

To/from school/education 8 9 4 4

Leisure 10 9 18 26

Personal business 5 5 2 2

Other purpose 3 3 5 6

Car

Women are more likely to have travelled as a car passenger than a driver in the last

week. Fifty-five per cent of women travel as a passenger compared with 35 per

cent travelling as a driver. These proportions are reversed for men, where 44 per

cent travel as the driver and 42 per cent as a passenger [12].

Fifty-six per cent of women aged 17 or over hold a full driving licence, a lower

proportion than among men (72 per cent of men hold a driving licence). The

proportion of Londoners who hold a driving licence is highest among people in

younger age groups, and decreases as age increases [12].

Proportion of Londoners aged 16 or over with a full car driving licence (2013/14) [12]

% Men Women

Base (6,185) (6,942)

Holds a full car driving licence 72 56

Women are less likely than men to have household access to a car. Thirty-six per

cent of women do not have access to a car compared with 33 per cent of men [12].

*Note that data above excludes under 16s.

Transport for London – Women 82


Women

Proportion of Londoners in a household with access to a car (2013/14) [12]

% Men Women

Base (7,518) (8,182)

0 cars 33 36

1 car 46 45

2+ cars 21 19

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Tube

Thirty-five per cent of women use the Underground at least once a week; a

significantly smaller figure than men at 42 per cent. Men are also more likely than

women to use the Tube on a daily basis [12].

Frequency of travelling by Tube (2013/14) [12]

% Men Women

Base (7,518) (8,182)

5 or more days a week 18 13

3 or 4 days a week 7 6

2 days a week 8 7

1 day a week 9 9

At least once a fortnight 8 8

At least once a month 14 15

At least once a year 24 26

Not used in last year 10 12

Never used 3 3

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Women 83


Women

Cycling

Women are less likely to cycle than men: 21 per cent of men cycle in London

compared with 14 per cent of women [17].

Ten per cent of women cycle regularly (at least once a week) in London and a

further four per cent cycle occasionally, with the remaining 86 per cent never using

bikes as a way of getting around the Capital. [17].

Proportion of Londoners who cycle (November 2014) [17]

% Men Women

Base (1,003) (1,189)

Cyclist (sometimes uses a bike to get

around London)

Non-cyclist (never uses a bike to get

around London)

21 14

79 86

Men travel by bicycle more frequently than women (16 per cent of men compared

with 10 per cent of women use a bicycle at least once a week) [17].

Frequency of travelling by bicycle (November 2014) [17]

% Men Women

Base (1,003) (1,189)

5 or more days a week 4 3

3 or 4 days a week 6 3

2 days a week 4 2

1 day a week 2 2

At least once a fortnight 2 1

At least once a month 1 1

At least once a year 2 2

Not used in last year - -

Never used 79 86

Women are also less likely than men to be able to ride a bike. Seventy-nine per

cent of women living in London can ride a bike, compared with 88 per cent of men

[17].

Proportion of Londoners able to ride a bike (November 2014) [17]

% Men Women

Base (1,003) (1,189)

Can ride a bike 88 79

Cannot ride a bike 12 21

Transport for London – Women 84


Women

We have developed a behavioural change model to look at Londoners’ readiness

to cycle or cycle more. Sixty-nine per cent of Londoners classified themselves as

being in the pre-contemplation category (defined in the table). Women show a

higher level of pre-contemplation about cycling than men (74 per cent of women

are in this category compared with 64 per cent of men) [17].

Thirteen per cent of men compared with eight per cent of women are classified as

being in the ‘sustained change’ category, meaning that they started cycling or

cycling more a while ago and are still doing it occasionally or regularly [17].

Behaviour change model of cycling (November 2014) [17]

% Men Women

Base (all) (1,003) (1,189)

Pre-contemplation

‘You have never thought about it, but would be unlikely to start in the future’ 64 74

‘You have thought about it, but don’t intend starting in the future’

‘You have never thought about it, but could be open to it in the future’

Contemplation

‘You are thinking about starting soon’ 10 9

Preparation

‘You have decided to start soon’ 4 2

Change

‘You have tried to start recently, but are finding it difficult’

2 2

‘You have started recently and are finding it quite easy so far’

Sustained change

‘You started a while ago and are still doing it occasionally’

13 8

‘You started a while ago and are still doing it regularly’

Lapsed

‘You had started doing this but couldn’t stick to it’ 6 6

Transport for London – Women 85


Women

Cycling schemes

A larger proportion of men than women have used Cycle Hire (15 per cent of

women have used the scheme compared with 19 per cent of men) [17].

Twenty-nine per cent of casual Cycle Hire users (defined as not having a Cycle Hire

key) are women and 23 per cent of members are women [58].

Among Londoners, a similar proportion of women and men say they intend to use

the scheme in the next year (25 per cent of women compared with 30 per cent of

men) [17].

Expected use of Cycle Hire in the future (November 2014) [17]

% Men Women

Base (536) (644)

Yes, definitely/ probably 30 25

Yes, definitely 10 8

Yes, probably 20 16

No, probably not 31 28

No, definitely not 30 36

Not sure 9 12

For both women and men, levels of awareness of Cycle Superhighways are lower

than for Cycle Hire. As with Cycle Hire, men are more likely than women to be

aware; fifty-three per cent of women are aware of Cycle Superhighways compared

to 70 per cent of men. We also observed a similar pattern with usage: 14 per cent

of men have used a Cycle Superhighway compared with seven per cent of women

[17].

Anticipated use of Cycle Superhighways among Londoners is lower than for Cycle

Hire: 17 per cent of women and 29 per cent of men say that they are definitely/

probably likely to use the Superhighways in the future [17].

Expected use of Cycle Superhighways (November 2014) [17]

% Men Women

Base (536) (644)

Yes, definitely/ probably 29 17

Yes, definitely 8 5

Yes, probably 21 13

No, probably not 30 26

No, definitely not 26 37

Not sure 15 19

Transport for London – Women 86


Women

Dial-a-Ride

Dial-a-Ride members are more likely to be women than men. Seventy-four per

cent of Dial-a-Ride members are women and this proportion increases with age

[30]. The 2011 Census also shows that disabled Londoners are more likely to be

women than men and that the proportion of women tends to increase with age.

However, this does not happen to the same extent as the profile of Dial-a-Ride

members [2].

Dial-a-Ride (DaR) membership by gender (2014) [2, 30]

% All disabled

DaR members

Londoners

Base (excludes unknown data) - (41,639)

Men 45 26

Women 55 74

Gender splits of Dial-a-Ride membership by age (2014) [2, 30] 2

All disabled London

residents

All DaR members (%)

(2011 Census %)

Age Men Women Men Women

Base - - (11,031) (30,608)

Under 18 58 42 63 37

18-34 49 51 47 53

35-49 48 52 38 62

50-64 47 53 35 65

65-79 45 55 28 72

80-89 34 66 23 77

90+ 23 77 21 79

2 Where data does not add up to 100 per cent, this is due to respondents not disclosing their gender.

Transport for London – Women 87


Women

Journey purpose

Weekday journey purpose varies between women and men in London. Women are

less likely to be travelling for work than men (17 per cent of women compared with

23 per cent of men). This may be linked to the higher proportion of women who

are economically inactive.

A greater proportion of journeys by women are for the purposes of

shopping/personal business which accounts for 27 per cent of weekday journeys

(compared with 21 per cent of those made by men). Women are also more likely

than men to be making trips for education, which includes taking children to

school (21 per cent of women compared with 16 per cent of men) [12].

Weekday journey purpose (2013/14) [12]

% Men Women

Base – all trips by Londoners

Shopping/personal business 21 27

Leisure 23 23

Education 16 21

Usual workplace 23 17

Other work-related 11 5

Other 6 7

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Women 88


Women

Ticket types

There is little difference between how women and men use tickets and passes

when travelling on public transport. For instance, women and men are just as

likely to use Oyster PAYG on public transport (59 per cent of women compared

with 58 per cent of men), which is by far the most popular payment method.

Similarly, there is little difference between the use of other tickets and passes ong

men and women [32].

Tickets and passes used on public transport (January 2015) [32]

% Men Women

Base: Public transport users: (378) (597)

Oyster PAYG 58 59

Oyster Season ticket 19 21

Contactless payment 15 17

Cash/single/return 11 9

Any other Travelcard 7 8

Freedom Pass 21 21

Travelcards

Sixty per cent of women have an Oyster card, which is in line with the proportion

of men who possess one (59 per cent) [12].

Ticket types held (2013/14) [12]

% Men Women

Base (7,518) (8,182)

Oyster card 59 60

Older person’s Freedom Pass 14 17

Disabled person’s Freedom Pass 2 2

Staff/police pass 2 1

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

A slightly greater proportion of women than men hold an older person’s Freedom

Pass (17 per cent of women compared with 14 per cent of men). The same

proportion of women and men hold a disabled person’s Freedom Pass (two per

cent each) [12].

Transport for London – Women 89


Women

Barriers

Barriers to greater public transport use

There are a number of potential barriers that can prevent Londoners from using

public transport more frequently. When presented with a list of these, women are

more likely than men to say that at least one issue prevents them from increasing

their use of public transport (84 per cent of women compared with 81 per cent of

men mention at least one barrier) [14].

The most commonly cited barrier for women and men is overcrowding on

transport services, which is a bigger issue for women (60 per cent of women

compared with 56 per cent of men). The second most common barrier relates to

the cost of tickets, which is also a bigger issue for women than men (47 per cent of

women compared with 43 per cent of men) [14].

Women are more likely than men to mention barriers relating to crime and

personal safety. In particular, they are more inclined to say that each of the

following prevents them from using public transport more:

Fear of crime on the bus/train and getting to the bus/train

Concern about antisocial behaviour

Concern about knife crime

Fear of terrorist attacks

Risk of accidents [14]

Barriers to using public transport more often (prompted) (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% Men Women

Base (1,619) (2,386)

Overcrowded services 56 60

Cost of tickets 43 47

Slow journey times 40 41

Unreliable services 34 39

Concern about antisocial behaviour 30 38

Dirty environment on the bus/train 25 30

Fear of crime getting to/ waiting for the bus/train 17 30

Fear of crime on the bus/train 16 28

Concern about knife crime 16 24

Dirty environment getting to the bus/train 16 20

Fear of terrorist attacks 8 16

Risk of accidents 5 12

Lack of information on how to use public transport 9 11

Graffiti 10 10

Don’t understand how to buy bus tickets 4 6

None of these 19 16

Transport for London – Women 90


Women

Women are more likely than men to be travelling with buggies and/or shopping,

and to be travelling with children. For this reason, the car is often seen as a

convenient type of transport, presenting less of a challenge to travelling when

laden down. However, our qualitative research indicates that the cost and stress

associated with driving encourages some people to use public transport –

particularly the bus, which is perceived to be more child-friendly and educational

than other types of transport such as the Tube [35].

Tube

Presently people make only a small number of trips on the Tube with buggies. We

assume that people are put off because of accessibility issues [40]. In research that

we carried out in 2012 with people travelling with restricted mobility (PRM), we

found that not all disabled customers or customers travelling with children 3 or

luggage made use of lifts available in Underground stations. Forty-eight per cent

of women travelling with children planned their journey with access to a lift in

mind, significantly higher than the PRM sample overall (29 per cent). When we

asked people to rank the Tube for accessibility on a scale of 0–10, 28 per cent of

women travelling as a PRM ranked it good to excellent (8-10), consistent with the

overall result (29 per cent) [41].

Bus

Travelling by bus with a buggy and/or children is often stressful for women and

presents potential issues with other passengers and drivers. Some buggy users

make use of the wheelchair priority area on buses. We have conducted research

around this area in recent years as part of a communications programme relating

to the use of this space [BP, 43].

3 Travelling with children is defined as those travelling with children aged under five or with

a pram/buggy [38].

Transport for London – Women 91


Women

Case study: Travelling with buggies on the bus 4

Travelling with children and buggies can present a stressful challenge at times for women.

The experience of people travelling with buggies on the bus depends on a number of

factors: how frequently they do so, the time of travel (and therefore how crowded the bus

is), the bus design, the age of the child/children and the number of children travelling in the

group [BP, 43].

Many customers have experienced difficulties when travelling with buggies on the bus.

These difficulties include crowding on buses, negative attitudes of other passengers,

negotiating getting on and off the bus and drivers refusing to allow buggies on the bus [43].

Additionally, women travelling with buggies mention practical issues that can be

problematic, such as moving the buggy around the pole to reach the wheelchair priority

area, and drivers parking too far away from the kerb [44].

‘I feel guilty standing there with the child in the pram. I’m always apologising, getting the

pram, pulling it over to let people go past…I just feel like I shouldn’t be on [the bus]. I feel

like it is a hindrance.’ (Woman, buggy user) [42]

Buggy users’ concerns and anxieties [43]

In terms of the travel experiences of buggy users, customers reported that inconsistent

experiences surrounding the space and driver approaches are the major cause of stress for

buggy and wheelchair users, and recommended clarification on 'the rules' for all customers

and drivers [43]. This feedback helped to inform the information campaign that we

launched.

4 We have included more information in the disabled customer chapter about the experiences of wheelchair

users.

Transport for London – Women 92


Women

Safety and security

We use a typology of worry to monitor the perceptions of Londoners with regard

to their personal security while using public transport in London. The typology

classifies people into:






Unworried – reports no general worry and no episodes of recent worry

Unexpressed fear – reports no general worry, but specific recent episodes

Anxious – reports general worry, but no specific recent episodes

Worried – reports general worry, and specific recent episodes

Don’t know

The majority of Londoners fall into the ‘unworried’ category, which means that

they are generally unworried about their personal security in London and have

experienced no incidents that made them feel worried in the last three months.

However, a significantly lower proportion of London’s women are considered

‘unworried’ than men (70 per cent of women are ‘unworried’ compared with 81 per

cent of men) [14].

Typology of worry (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% Men Women

Base (1,619) (2,386)

Unworried 81 70

Unexpressed 10 12

Anxious 3 8

Worried 4 7

Don’t know 2 3

Women living in London are considerably less likely than men to say that they are

‘not at all worried’ about personal security while using public transport. They are

also more likely to report that they are ‘very worried’ [14].

Levels of concern about personal security when using public transport in London (Jan/

Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% Men Women

Base (1,619) (2,386)

Not at all worried 51 34

A little bit worried 41 48

Quite a bit worried 5 12

Very worried 2 4

Don’t know 1 2

Transport for London – Women 93


Women

A higher proportion of women than men take precautions against crime when

using public transport (42 per cent of women compared with 35 per cent of men).

The most common precaution for women is to sit by other people (39 per cent),

whereas for men it is to look after their belongings (31 per cent). For women, the

next most common precautions are to travel with someone else and to look after

their belongings (both 28 per cent), whereas for men it is to sit by other people (28

per cent) [14].

Precautions taken (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All Men Women

Base (all who take precautions) (1,507) (536) (971)

Sat near to other people 34 28 39

Look after my belongings 29 31 28

Travelled with someone else 23 18 28

Travel at a different time of day 16 14 18

Used a different route 15 15 15

Stay aware/vigilant 15 21 10

Avoided using that type of transport 12 9 15

Only take necessities with me 3 2 5

Carry a personal alarm 3 1 5

Note that responses 2% or below among all Londoners are not shown.

In terms of actual experiences, the proportion of women who have felt worried

about their personal security when using public transport in London in the past

three months is higher than men (19 per cent of women compared with 14 per

cent of men). Women are also more likely than men to experience an episode of

worry during the daytime. Women’s most recent experience of worry is roughly

equally split between day and night-time events (45 per cent daytime compared

with 54 per cent night-time) whereas when men experience an episode of worry,

this is more likely to occur at night (33 per cent daytime compared with 65 per cent

night-time) [14].

We asked people who have felt worried about their personal security when using

public transport in the last three months which type of transport they were using

when they experienced this event. For women and men who experienced a

worrying event on public transport in the past three months, the most likely type

of transport on which the event occurred was the bus (48 per cent of women and

men who felt worried in the last three months were on the bus). It is important to

note this reflects the higher use of buses by Londoners compared with Tube or

train. Women and men were also just as likely to experience worry on the Tube

(both 30 per cent in the past three months) [14].

Concerns about crime and antisocial behaviour affect how frequently people travel

on the Tube, bus or National Rail ‘a little’ or ‘a lot’ for slightly more than half of

Londoners (53 per cent). Women are affected to a greater extent than men: 61 per

Transport for London – Women 94


Women

cent of women report that the frequency with which they use the Tube, buses or

National Rail is affected ‘a little’ or ‘a lot’ because of concerns over crime or

antisocial behaviour compared to 43 per cent of men [14].

A higher proportion of women are affected in terms of their public transport travel

frequency because of these concerns across all three types of transport (Tube, bus,

National Rail) both during the day and at night [14].

Proportion of Londoners for whom concerns over crime/antisocial behaviour affect the

frequency of their public transport use ‘a lot/a little’ (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All Men Women

Base (4,005) (1619) (2386)

Overall: During the day/after dark

Underground/buses/National Rail 53 43 61

During the day:

Underground/buses/National Rail 22 18 26

Underground 16 12 20

Buses 17 13 21

National Rail 11 8 14

After dark:

Underground/buses/National Rail 49 40 57

Underground 37 27 46

Buses 42 35 50

National Rail 29 21 37

Project Guardian

In 2014 TfL, the Metropolitan Police Service and the British Transport Police launched

Project Guardian to raise public awareness of unwanted sexual behaviour on the transport

network. This initiative focuses on encouraging victims to report these types of crimes –

which are historically significantly underreported - alongside more proactive police

enforcement and engagement. We have been supported by stakeholders that include

Everyday Sexism, End Violence Against Women Coalition and HollaBack UK, and the

project has resulted in a 16 per cent increase in the reports of unwanted sexual behaviour

on the transport network, and a 25 per cent increase in the detection of crimes of this

nature.

Among Londoners who are willing to answer questions about their experiences of

unwanted sexual behaviour while travelling around the city, 11 per cent of women report

experiencing some form of unwelcome sexual behaviour, including sexual harassment or

sexual assault, while travelling on, waiting for, or heading to/from public transport in

London in the previous year (the equivalent figure for men is two per cent). A range of

unwanted sexual behaviours are reported by Londoners, the most common being groping

or touching, sexual comments and staring [14].

Transport for London – Women 95


Women

A very low proportion of unwanted sexual behaviour is reported. There are a number of

theories as to why, including a socio-cultural model that sees harassment as a wider

manifestation of a system of asymmetrical power relationships between women and men.

Research also suggests that men can mistakenly view unwanted sexual behaviour as

harmless, thereby making it more commonplace, even though to women it is often

threatening and therefore harmful.

Women who experience unwanted sexual behaviour tend to employ the following coping

strategies:



Internal (psychological): endure, normalise/minimise – ‘you just have to put up with it’,

deny, reinterpret, self-blame

External (problem-solving): avoid, change behaviour (for example, walk to work a

different way), appease (for example, humour), seek social support, assert, attack,

make a formal complaint

Four barriers appear to prevent Londoners reporting incidents of unwanted sexual

behaviour while travelling in London to TfL or the police:





Normalisation: unwanted sexual behaviours are normalised, experiences are generally

ignored. They are viewed as a social nuisance and as part of a wider spectrum of

antisocial behaviour

Internalisation: the reporting process can be at odds with what someone who has

experienced unwanted sexual behaviour may need. Firstly, there is often a need to

internalise the situation, escape and forget about the incident as quickly as possible.

Secondly, there is frequently a need to seek empathy, support and validation from

someone who cares

Lack of awareness: most people are unaware that a reporting process exists. They are

unclear about what behaviours warrant action, who to tell and what the process will

entail

Credibility: very few people believe that reporting an unwanted sexual behaviour will

result in any form of justice

Our research has identified a number of key recommendations in this area which can help

TfL and other organisations to encourage greater reporting [45].

Transport for London – Women 96


Women

Safer Travel at Night (STaN) campaign: the use of illegal (unbooked) minicabs

TfL has run the Safer Travel at Night (STaN) campaign since 2003, with the aim of

reducing the use of illegal (unbooked) minicabs. We have targeted our

communication campaigns at young women aged between 16 and 34 in particular

[36].

We conduct research on an annual basis to monitor the use of unbooked minicabs

among our target audience, and we also evaluate our communications campaign

to determine its effectiveness.

STaN campaign posters

Since we began to monitor the use of unbooked minicabs among users of late

night venues in London, there has been a significant decline in their use. Among

women aged 16-34, two per cent used an unbooked minicab to reach their onward

destination on the night of the research in 2015, compared with 19 per cent in

2003. In 2015 this was down to zero amongst women [36].

Women and men have different views on using unbooked minicabs. While 26 per

cent of men say they are likely to use an illegal minicab in future, the figure is

much lower at 13 per cent among women (also 13 per cent for women aged 16-34)

[36].

Further to the reduction in the use of unbooked minicabs, initiatives by the TfLfunded

Metropolitan Police Service's Safer Transport Command (STC) and City of

London Police (CoLP) are helping to remove taxi touts from the streets. In a

targeted initiative at the end of 2013, more than 170 arrests were made for cabrelated

offences during two crackdowns as part of Operation Safer Travel at Night

[46].

The use of illegal (unbooked) minicabs (2014) [36]

% Use of illegal minicabs Men Women Women

(all ages) (16-34)

Base (324) (327) (288)

Used an illegal minicab to reach onward destination 2 - -

on night of interview

Likely to use illegal minicab in future 26 13 13

Unlikely to use illegal minicab in future 74 87 87

Transport for London – Women 97


Women

Customer satisfaction

We measure overall satisfaction with various transport types in London using an

11-point scale, with 10 representing extremely satisfied and zero representing

extremely dissatisfied. We then scale this up to 100.

Our standardised satisfaction ratings are shown in the table below. This allows us

to apply consistent analysis across a wide range of satisfaction research.

Average rating Level of satisfaction

Under 50

Very low/weak/poor

50-54 Low/weak/poor

55-64 Fairly/relatively/quite low/weak/poor

65-69 Fair/reasonable

70-79 Fairly/relatively/quite good

80-84 Good or fairly high

85-90 Very good or high

90+ Excellent or very high

Satisfaction levels are very similar between women and men. Only a few areas

have differences of more than two points out of 100:



Women are slightly more satisfied than men with Dial-a-Ride (92 per cent

compared with 89 per cent)

Women are slightly more satisfied than men with the Woolwich Ferry (83 per

cent compared with 80 per cent)

Transport for London – Women 98


Women

Overall satisfaction with transport types (2013/14) – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score (0-100) All Men Women

Bus services

Base (14,155) (6,283) (7,872)

Satisfaction score 85 85 85

Bus stations

Base (3,626) (1,544) (2,082)

Satisfaction score 78 79 78

Night buses

Base (910) (616) (294)

Satisfaction score 81 81 81

Underground

Base (17,634) (7,940) (9,694)

Satisfaction score 84 84 85

Overground

Base (5,397) (2,782) (2,615)

Satisfaction score 83 82 83

DLR

Base (13,398) (7,461) (5,937)

Satisfaction score 89 88 89

Dial-a-Ride

Base (2,572) (394) (2,175)

Satisfaction score 92 89 92

London River Services

Base (2,106) (1,131) (975)

Satisfaction score 90 90 90

Private Hire Vehicles

Base (439) (149) (290)

Satisfaction score 80 81 79

Taxis

Base (569) (275) (294)

Satisfaction score 83 83 84

Trams

Base (4,329) (2,069) (2,260)

Satisfaction score 89 89 90

Victoria Coach Station

Base (1,204) (608) (596)

Satisfaction score 82 82 81

Woolwich Ferry

Base (1,056) (732) (231)

Satisfaction score 79 80 83

Transport for London – Women 99


Score out of 100

Women

Bus

Overall satisfaction among bus users is high at 85 out of 100, and both women and

men give the same rating [16].

The long-term trend for bus users in London shows a consistent improvement in

the ratings of overall satisfaction for both women and men [16].

Overall satisfaction with buses over time [16]

100

90

80

70

76 77 78 78 78 80 80 80 80 80 82 83

76 77 78 77

79 80

77

79 79 80

83 83

85

85

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Men

Women

Transport for London – Women 100


Score out of 100

Women

As we have found across all types of transport, satisfaction with value for money

of the bus is lower than overall satisfaction. The satisfaction rating for value for

money is 72 out of 100 for women and 73 out of 100 for men [16].

Satisfaction with value for money of buses has returned to a relatively flat longterm

trend after a couple of lower ratings observed for women and men in recent

years. There is no discernible difference with the satisfaction of value for money

between women and men [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with buses over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

78 77

78 77

72 71 71

73 73

71

74 74 73

73 74 73

70

66

68 67

68

67

71

73

71 72

50

40

30

20

10

0

Drivers of satisfaction

Men

Women

Journey time and ease of making a journey are key drivers of satisfaction with buses for

women and men. Ease of making the journey is the main driver for women, whereas

information on delays at the stop is the main driver for men [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for bus users [16]

Men

Satisfaction with info on delays at stop

Journey time

Ease of making journey

Time waited to catch bus

Driver approachability and helpfulness

Women

Ease of making journey

Journey time

Comfort inside the bus

Safety and security

Level of crowding

Transport for London – Women 101


Women

Tube

Overall satisfaction with the Tube among women in London is fairly high at 85 out

of 100. This is in line with men’s satisfaction level (84 out of 100) [16].

Long-term trends for Tube satisfaction show that levels of overall satisfaction

have risen ten points over the last twelve years. They have been fairly stable over

the last three years [16].

Overall satisfaction with the Tube over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

75 77 78 79 77 77 80 80 79 80

74 76 77 77 76 76 79 79 78 80

84 83 85

83 82 84

Men

Women

Transport for London – Women 102


Women

Satisfaction with value for money of the Tube is lower than overall satisfaction

ratings. Women rate their satisfaction with value for money slightly lower than

men do, giving a rating of 68 out of 100 compared with 70 out of 100 by men [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with the Tube over time [16]

100

90

0

1

f

o

t

u

o

re

o

c

S

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

64 65 64 62 62 64 66 68 65 64

63 63 61 61 60 62

65 66 65

61

67 68 70

66 66 68

Men

Women

Satisfaction ratings are very similar between women and men for all measures

covered in the research (for example, level of crowding, personal safety) [16].

Drivers of satisfaction

Among women and men who use the Tube, overall satisfaction is related to the

same main drivers: ease of making the journey, comfort of journey, length of

journey time and length of time waiting for train. Men are slightly more likely to

prioritise train crowding (the fourth most important driver of overall satisfaction),

whereas women are more likely to prioritise personal safety on the train [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for Tube users [16]

Men

Length of journey time

Ease of making journey

Comfort of journey

Train crowding

Length of time waiting for train

Women

Ease of making journey

Comfort of journey

Length of journey time

Personal safety on train

Length of time waiting for train

Transport for London – Women 103


Women

Overground

Women on the whole are satisfied with the London Overground service at 83 out

of 100. Men also give a similar overall rating (82 out of 100) [16].

Women and men give very similar satisfaction ratings for each of the service

elements that we monitor. Women and men are fairly satisfied with their personal

safety when using the Overground, both rating their satisfaction as 88 out of 100

[16].

Overall satisfaction with London Overground over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All Men Women

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (5,397) (2,782) (2,615)

2009/10 73 73 73

2010/11 80 80 82

2011/12 82 81 82

2012/13 82 82 82

2013/14 82 82 83

2014/15 83 82 83

Satisfaction with value for money of London Overground is high at 73 out of 100

among women who use the service (men give a rating of 72 out of 100) [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with London Overground over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All Men Women

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (5,182) (2,678) (2,504)

2011/12 72 72 71

2012/13 71 71 70

2013/14 70 70 71

2014/15 73 72 73

Drivers of satisfaction

Ease of making a journey is the biggest driver of overall satisfaction for women

when using London Overground, whereas feeling valued as a customer is the

biggest driver for men. How well information meets needs is the second biggest

driver for women, whereas for men it’s about the ease of making a journey [16].

Transport for London – Women 104


Women

The main drivers of overall satisfaction are:

Drivers of satisfaction for Overground users [16]

Men

Feel valued as a customer

Ease of making journey

Condition and state of repair on train

Comfort of train

Information about service disruptions on the

train

Women

Ease of making journey

How well the information or assistance meet

needs

Ease of finding information at station

Condition and state of repair of the train

Comfort of train

DLR

Overall satisfaction with the DLR is very good/high among women at 89 out of 100

(compared with 88 out of 100 for men) [16].

Overall satisfaction with DLR over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All Men Women

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (13,398) (7,461) (5,937)

2009/10 81 81 81

2010/11 81 81 82

2011/12 82 82 83

2012/13 87 86 87

2013/14 87 86 88

2014/15 89 88 89

As with other types of transport, we have observed no real differences in

satisfaction ratings with the service between women and men using the DLR [16].

Satisfaction with value for money of the DLR among women is higher than other

types of transport at 77 out of 100, and the same rating is given by men [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with DLR over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All Men Women

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (12,839) (7,165) (5,674)

2011/12 72 72 72

2013/14 75 75 75

2014/15 77 77 77

Transport for London – Women 105


Women

Drivers of satisfaction

The top drivers of overall satisfaction with the DLR are similar for women and

men, although women focus slightly more on how issues with using tickets were

resolved, whereas men are more focused on the reliability of trains [16]. The main

drivers of satisfaction are:

Drivers of satisfaction for DLR users [16]

Men

Ease of making journey

Reliability of trains

Comfort inside the train

Length of time journey took

Feel valued as a customer

Women

Ease of making journey

How issues using ticket were resolved

Comfort inside the train

Length of time journey took

Reliability of trains

Trams

Overall satisfaction with trams is high among customers at 89 out of 100. This is

slightly higher among women than men (90 out of 100 for women compared with

89 out of 100 for men) [16].

Overall satisfaction with trams over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All Men Women

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (4,329) (2,069) (2,260)

2009/10 86 85 88

2010/11 85 86 85

2011/12 86 86 86

2012/13 89 88 90

2013/14 89 88 90

2014/15 89 89 90

* Denotes small base size (percentages not shown in this report for base sizes of less than 50).

Overall satisfaction with value for money on the tram network is quite good (78

out of 100) but it is slightly lower for women than men (77 out of 100 for women

compared with 79 out of 100 for men) [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with trams over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All Men Women

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (2,824) (1,353) (1,471)

2011/12 73 73 73

2012/13 78 77 78

2013/14 78 79 78

2014/15 78 79 77

* Denotes small base size (percentages not shown in this report for base sizes of less than 50).

Transport for London – Women 106


Women

Streets

Women are significantly less likely than men to be satisfied with the streets and

pavements after their last journey by foot (65 per cent of women were satisfied

compared with 72 per cent of men) [34].

Fifty-nine per cent of women are satisfied with the streets for their last car journey

(the equivalent figure for men is 61 per cent and the difference is not statistically

significant) [34].

Forty-six per cent of all Londoners are satisfied with their last cycling journey.

Women are less satisfied compared to men (39 per cent of women compared with

50 per cent of men).

Please note that satisfaction for streets is calculated as a combination of ‘very

satisfied’ and ‘fairly satisfied’ rather than the 11 point scale that we have used for

other transport types.

Overall satisfaction with streets and pavement after last journey – walking journey [34]

Net fairly

All Men Women

satisfied/very

satisfied (%)

Base 2014/15 (957) (379) (578)

2011 64 66 62

2012 68 71 65

2013 69 72 67

2014 68 73 63

2015 68 72 65

Overall satisfaction with streets and pavement after last journey over time - car journey [34]

Net fairly

All Men Women

satisfied/very

satisfied (%)

Base 2014/15 (830) (333) (497)

2011 54 57 52

2012 62 60 64

2013 57 58 56

2014 61 62 59

2015 60 61 59

Transport for London – Women 107


Women

Overall satisfaction with streets and pavement after last journey over time - cycling journey [34]

Net fairly

All Men Women

satisfied/very

satisfied (%)

Base 2014/15 (357) (187) (170)

2011 49 49 49

2012 55 55 56

2013 51 51 52

2014 54 57 51

2015 46 50 39

Seventeen per cent of women have walked in London with a pram or pushchair

(compared to 11 per cent of men) and among these women 11 per cent think that

it is easier to walk around London with a pram or pushchair this year than last

(although 14 per cent think that it has become more difficult) [34].

Transport for London – Women 108


Women

Transport for London Road Network (TRLN)

Satisfaction with the TLRN is reasonable to fairly good. Women users of the TLRN

give a score of 69 out of 100 for walking, 71 out of 100 for travelling by bus and

cycling on red routes and 68 out of 100 for driving. There is very little difference

between the ratings given by women and men [16].

Overall satisfaction – general impression of red routes over time [16]

Satisfaction score (0-100) All Men Women

Walking

Base 2014-15 (1,254) (591) (663)

2013/14 70 68 71

2014/15 68 66 69

Travelling by bus

Base 2014-15 (4,620) (1,808) (2,812)

2013/14 69 67 72

2014/15 71 70 71

Driving

Base 2014-15 (3,605) (1,536) (2,069)

2013/14 67 66 71

2014/15 67 65 68

Cycling

Base 2014-15 (1,838) (1,022) (816)

2013/14 69 68 68

2014/15 70 70 71

Transport for London – Women 109


Women

Access to information

From our research, women are thought to be more cautious in their travel

behaviour than men. Our customer segmentation studies (Touchpoints) suggest

that women are more likely to fit into the categories of ‘travel shy’, ‘reassurance

seeker’ and ‘cautious planner’. For all three categories, levels of confidence using

the public transport network are relatively low (particularly so for people who are

classed as ‘travel shy’). As a result, some women may choose to restrict

themselves to familiar journeys where possible or seek advice and information to

help plan and complete journeys [47].

We provide a wide range of information sources. While there are some specific

differences in the use of particular information sources by women compared to

men (for example, women are more likely than men to use the pocket Tube map -

85 per cent compared with 73 per cent), on the whole, awareness and use of

information sources is comparable between women and men [48].

Access to the internet

Ninety-one per cent of women access the internet, with 88 per cent accessing it at

home, 58 per cent ‘on the move’ and 52 per cent at work. The proportion of

women accessing the internet is almost the same as men (93 per cent). However,

men are more likely to access the internet in multiple places [15].

Accessing the internet [15]

% Men Women

Base (809) (1,192)

Any access 93 91

Access at home 91 88

Access ‘on the move’ 63 58

Access at work 60 52

Women use the internet for a variety of reasons. The top reasons are:

Email (94 per cent of women who access the internet)

Finding and sourcing information (90 per cent)

Maps and directions (84 per cent)

Buying goods and services (78 per cent)

Accessing live travel information (78 per cent) [15]

Transport for London – Women 110


Women

Overall internet use is very similar between women and men. However, women

are less likely than men to use the internet for:

Watching video content (56 per cent women compared with 69 per cent men)

Banking (62 per cent women compared with 74 per cent men)

Work-related matters (60 per cent women compared with 70 per cent men)

Contacting companies for customer service (48 per cent women compared

with 57 per cent men) [15]

Seventy per cent of women who access the internet use it for social networking

(69 per cent of men). The most popular social networking site for both women and

men is Facebook, which is used by 87 per cent of women who use social networks

(and 77 per cent of men).

There are some differences between the social media sites used by women and

men. Men are more likely than women to use YouTube (36 per cent of women who

use social networking compared with 45 per cent of men), Twitter (29 per cent of

women who use social networking compared with 36 per cent of men) and

LinkedIn (19 per cent of women who use social networking compared with 31 per

cent of men). Women are more likely to use Instagram than men (29 per cent of

women who use social networking compared with 16 per cent of men) [15].

Device usage and behaviour

Women and men are equally likely to own a smartphone (76 per cent women

compared with 78 per cent men). Smartphone use has significantly increased over

the last few years (in 2010, 55 per cent of women owned a smartphone) [15].

Proportion of Londoners who own a smartphone (iPhone, BlackBerry, other) (April 2014) [15]

% Men Women

Base (809) (1,192)

Uses a smartphone 78 76

Transport for London – Women 111


Women

Using the TfL website

Seventy-eight per cent of both women and men living in London access the TfL

website. Twenty-eight per cent of women and 34 per cent of men access the TfL

website three to four times a week or more [15].

Overall, 19 per cent of women in London never use the TfL website (compared

with 20 per cent of men) [15].

Proportion of Londoners who use www.tfl.gov.uk [15]

% Men Women

Base (809) (1,192)

Uses TfL website 78 78

Daily 10 10

3-4 times a week 24 18

3-4 times a month 20 20

Once a month 15 18

Less than once a month 10 13

Never 20 19

Don’t know/refused 1 2

Women who use the TfL website are more likely than men to use Journey Planner

(71 per cent of women compared with 62 per cent of men). Women are less likely

than men to visit the website for live travel updates (27 per cent of women

compared with 34 per cent of men) or for information on planned works and

closures (23 per cent of women compared with 25 per cent of men) [37].

Main purpose of today’s visit to the TfL website (2013) [37]

% Men Women

Base (12,060) (16,217)

Using Journey Planner to plan a route 62 71

Finding out live travel information 34 27

Finding out about planned works or closures 25 23

Doing something related to Oyster cards or other tickets 22 19

Finding a map 16 14

Doing something related to Congestion Charge 5 4

Finding out about cycling 3 2

Finding out about roads or driving 2 2

Other 5 3

Transport for London – Women 112


Women

Accessing information in the event of travel disruption

Women are less likely than men to seek real-time travel information (80 per cent

compared with 85 per cent of men). Fifty per cent of women obtain information

from staff or announcements/displays about problems or delays on public

transport (compared with 57 per cent of men). Forty-two per cent of women

(compared with 45 per cent of men) get information from the TfL website and

nine per cent from a non-TfL site that features London travel advice (13 per cent

for men) [15].

Seventeen per cent of women use apps to seek real-time travel information on

disruptions compared with 22 per cent of men. People also use social media; four

per cent of women use TfL’s Twitter feed and three per cent use another Twitter

feed (the figures for men are five per cent and three per cent respectively) [15].

Transport for London – Women 113


Older People

Summary: Older people

Key findings

Londoners aged 65 or over make up 11 per cent of London’s population [2]

Older Londoners tend to make fewer weekday journeys (2.3 journeys on average

compared with 2.7 for Londoners overall). This is especially the case among Londoners

aged 70-79 (2.4 journeys) and those aged 80 and over (1.6 journeys) [12]

Walking is the most frequently used type of transport by older Londoners aged 65 and

over (86 per cent walk at least once a week). Sixty-one per cent travel by bus, 45 per

cent travel by car as a passenger and 45 per cent drive a car at least once a week [12]

Older Londoners tend to give higher overall satisfaction scores for each transport type

than all Londoners [16]

Older Londoners are less likely than Londoners overall to state that their travel

frequency on buses, Tube or National Rail is affected ‘a lot’ or ‘a little’ by concerns over

crime and antisocial behaviour (39 per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over compared

with 53 per cent all Londoners) [14]

Older Londoners are less likely to access the internet than Londoners overall (64 per

cent of Londoners aged 65 and over compared with 92 per cent of all Londoners) [15]

Older Londoners, aged 65 or over are less likely to use the TfL website than Londoners

overall (47 per cent compared with 78 per cent of all Londoners) [15]

Older Londoners are also less likely to use a smartphone (25 per cent compared with 77

per cent) [15]

Transport for London – Older People 114


Older People

Profile of older Londoners

Londoners aged 65 and over make up 11 per cent of the Capital’s population [2].

Older Londoners have a different demographic profile to the total London

population in a number of ways. Compared with all Londoners, people aged 65

and over are more likely to be women (55 per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over

are women compared with 51 per cent of all Londoners), from a white ethnic

group (81 per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over are white compared with 62 per

cent of all Londoners), on an annual household income of less than £20,000 per

year (65 per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over live in a lower income household

compared with 36 per cent of all Londoners) and be disabled (37 per cent of

Londoners aged 65 and over are disabled compared with 11 per cent of all

Londoners) [12]. Each of these factors can affect the travel behaviour and

attitudes of older people in London.

Transport behaviour

Older people tend to travel less frequently. Walking is the most commonly used

transport option by older Londoners; 86 per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over

walk at least once a week. The bus is also a key form of transport for people aged

65 and over, with 61 per cent saying they use the bus at least once a week (the

same amount as for all Londoners) [12].

With the exception of driving and travelling by bus, older Londoners use all forms

of transport less frequently than the total London population (for example,

walking 86 per cent compared with 96 per cent overall; Tube 23 per cent

compared with 39 per cent overall) [12].







Forty-five per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over drive a car at least once a

week and 45 per cent travel by car as a passenger [12]

Around three-quarters of Londoners aged between 65 and 69 hold a full

driving licence (74 per cent aged between 65 and 69 compared with 64 per cent

all Londoners). This drops considerably for the older age groups (58 per cent

for 70-79 year olds and 38 per cent for 80+) [12]

A similar proportion have access to a car (73 per cent of Londoners aged

between 65 and 69 compared with 65 per cent all Londoners). This drops

considerably for the older age groups (63 per cent for 70-79 year olds and 43

per cent for 80+) [12]

Lower numbers of Londoners aged 65 and over cycle as a means of transport.

Eight per cent sometimes use a bicycle to get around London compared with

17 per cent of the wider London population [17]

Dial-a-Ride members tend to have an older age profile than disabled

Londoners overall; 83 per cent of Dial-a-Ride members are aged 65 or over

compared with 41 per cent of all disabled Londoners [30, AB]

Fifty-two per cent of weekday journeys made by Londoners aged 65 and over

are for shopping/personal business, while 31 per cent are for leisure purposes

[12]

Transport for London – Older People 115


Older People

Barriers

Many of the barriers to greater public transport use that affect all Londoners are

less likely to impact people aged 65 and over. For example, slow journey times are

seen as a barrier to increased public transport use for 41 per cent of all Londoners,

but only 18 per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over [14].

The most commonly mentioned barrier to increased public transport use among

older Londoners is concern about overcrowded services (40 per cent of older

Londoners mention overcrowding compared with 59 per cent of all Londoners)

and concerns around antisocial behaviour (34 per cent for both Londoners aged 65

and over and all Londoners) [14].

Londoners aged 65 or over are also more likely to be classified as ‘unworried’ (83

per cent of Londoners aged 65 or over compared with 75 per cent of all Londoners)

and less likely to take precautions against being a victim of crime or antisocial

behaviour on public transport (32 per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over

compared with 38 per cent of all Londoners). People in this age group are also less

likely to say that concerns over crime or antisocial behaviour affect the frequency

of their public transport use ‘a lot’ or ‘a little’ than all Londoners (39 per cent of

Londoners aged 65 or over compared with 53 per cent of all Londoners) [14].

Customer satisfaction

Older customers are more satisfied with all types of transport than customers

overall [16].





Overall satisfaction with buses is high at 90 out of 100 (compared with 85 for

customers overall) [16]

Overall satisfaction with the Tube is also high at 89 out of 100 (compared with

84 out of 100 for all customers) [16]

Older Londoners are also more satisfied with value for money than customers

overall [16]

Londoners aged 65 and over are less satisfied with the streets and pavements

on their last walking journey than Londoners overall (57 per cent compared

with 68 per cent) [34]

Transport for London – Older People 116


Older People

Access to information

Internet access is lower among Londoners aged 65 and over than Londoners

overall (64 per cent compared with 92 per cent) [15].



Use of the TfL website declines with age: 47 per cent of Londoners aged 65 and

over access the TfL website compared with 78 per cent of all Londoners [15].

Older Londoners who do visit the website do so less frequently than all

Londoners [15]

Similarly, a much lower proportion of older Londoners aged 65 and over use a

smartphone than all Londoners (25 per cent compared with 77 per cent) [15]

Transport for London – Older People 117


Older People

Introduction

People aged 65 and over make up 11 per cent of London’s population, and it is

projected that this proportion will grow over time [2, 18].

For many people, the transition from working to retirement changes the way that

they use public transport in London. Journey purposes shift away from the focus of

work, and journeys tend to be made less frequently.

The focus of this chapter is predominantly on Londoners aged 65 and over. Where

possible, data is shown for the age bands of 65-69, 70-79 and 80+, though other

similar age brackets are used where data is not available.

Note that transport behaviour, attitudes and barriers in this chapter may well be

influenced by a number of factors other than age, with disability, gender, income

and education all affecting perceptions towards travel in London.

Transport for London – Older People 118


Older People

Profile of older people in London

Eleven per cent of Londoners are aged 65 and over. Three per cent of the London

population is aged 80 and over [2].

2011 Census – age profile of Londoners [2]

Proportion of age group who are…

% All Men Women

15 and under 20 51 49

16-24 12 50 50

25-59 53 50 50

60-64 4 48 52

65-69 3 47 53

70-79 5 46 54

80+ 3 37 63

Percentage change in population of London (1971–2011) [49, AB]

% change 1971–1981 1981–1991 1991–2001 2001–2011

All ages -10 0 +7 +12

0-14 -22 +2 +8 +8

15-64 -8 +2 +10 +17

65+ +4 -8 -7 +1

The proportion of older Londoners is set to grow. The GLA estimate is that by

2040, 15 per cent of London’s population will be aged 65 or over [18].

Transport for London – Older People 119


Proportion of population

in each age group

0 ‒ 4

5 ‒ 9

10 ‒ 14

15 ‒ 19

20 ‒ 24

25 ‒ 29

30 ‒ 34

35 ‒ 39

40 ‒ 44

45 ‒ 49

50 ‒ 54

55 ‒ 59

60 ‒ 64

65 ‒ 69

70 ‒ 74

75 ‒ 79

80 ‒ 84

85 ‒ 89

90 ‒ 94

95 ‒ 99

100 and over

Older People

The chart below shows how, in comparison to the UK average, London has a

smaller proportion of people aged 65 and over and a greater proportion of people

aged between 20 and 44. Eighteen per cent of the total UK population are aged 65

or over [2].

Population split by age (2011) [2]

12%

10%

8%

6%

4%

2%

0%

United Kingdom

London

Londoners aged 65 and over are more likely to be women (56 per cent) than all

Londoners (51 per cent). The difference is particularly pronounced among

Londoners aged 80 and over where 63 per cent are women [2].

Proportion of Londoners who are women by age (2011) [2]

Transport for London – Older People 120


Older People

In this document we use two primary sources of of demographic data: the Office

for National Statistics Census and the London Travel Demand Survey. The

following table shows the demographic breakdown of Londoners recorded in the

LTDS.

LTDS demographic profile of older people in London (2013/14) [12]

% All 65+ 65-69 70-79 80+

Base (15,700) (2,475) (748) (1,113) (614)

Gender

Men 49 45 49 44 41

Women 51 55 51 56 59

Ethnicity

White 62 81 80 78 88

BAME 37 19 20 22 12

Household income

Less than £10,000 17 34 23 34 48

£10,000–£19,999 19 31 29 32 31

£20,000–£34,999 20 17 22 17 12

£35,000–£49,999 13 7 9 7 3

£50,000–£74,999 15 6 7 6 3

£75,000+ 16 6 9 5 3

Working status*

Working full-time 47 5 10 3 1

Working part-time 11 6 11 6 1

Student 10 - - - -

Retired 15 86 76 87 97

Not working 16 3 4 4 2

Disabled

Yes 11 37 20 34 64

No 89 63 80 66 36

Impairment affects travel

Yes 10 34 19 31 60

No 90 66 81 69 40

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five and working status does not include under 16s.

All TfL surveys use the Equality Act 2010 to define disabled people as those who define themselves as having a long-term physical or mental

disability or health issue that impacts on their daily activities, the work they can do, or limits their ability to travel.

Transport for London – Older People 121


Older People

White Londoners tend to have an older age profile than BAME Londoners. This is

seen in Census data below, where 78 per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over are

from a white ethnic group, compared with 60 per cent of all Londoners [2].

Proportion of older Londoners by detailed ethnic group [2]

% All 65+

White: total 60 78

English/Welsh/Scottish/Northern Irish/British 45 67

Irish 2 5

Gypsy or Irish Traveller - -

Other white 13 6

Mixed/multiple ethnic group: total 5 1

White and black Caribbean 1 -

White and black African 1 -

White and Asian 1 -

Other Mixed 1 -

Asian/Asian British: total 18 11

Indian 7 6

Pakistani 3 1

Bangladeshi 3 1

Chinese 2 1

Other Asian 5 2

Black/African/Caribbean/black British: total 13 8

African 7 2

Caribbean 4 5

Other black 2 1

Other ethnic group: total 3 2

Arab 1 -

Any other ethnic group 2 1

Employment and income

Eighty-six per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over are retired and 11 per cent are

in full- or part-time work. The proportion of Londoners who are retired ranges

from 76 per cent among Londoners aged 65-69 to 97 per cent among Londoners

aged 80 or over [12].

With increasing age the proportion of Londoners who are working decreases and

therefore a shift occurs towards increasing proportions in the lower bands for

household income [12]. Please note that household income does not always

reflect employment or household wealth.

Average household incomes are substantially lower for older Londoners than

Londoners overall; 34 per cent of Londoners aged 65 or over have an annual

household income of less than £10,000, compared with 17 per cent of all

Londoners [12].

Transport for London – Older People 122


Older People

Older disabled people

Of all Londoners aged 65 and over, 37 per cent report that they are disabled or

have a health issue that limits their daily activities. With increasing age, the

proportion of people who report that they are disabled or have a health issue that

limits their ability to travel and get about increases to 64 per cent among

Londoners aged 80 or over [12].

You can find more information about disabled Londoners in the relevant chapter

of this report.

London boroughs

The boroughs with the highest proportion of older residents are:

London boroughs with the highest proportion of older residents [2]

Borough

% proportion of

older residents

Havering 18

Bromley 17

Bexley 16

Sutton 14

Harrow 14

The boroughs with the lowest proportion of older residents are:

London boroughs with the lowest proportion of older residents [2]

Borough

% proportion of

older residents

Tower Hamlets 6

Newham 7

Hackney 7

Lambeth 8

Southwark 8

Transport for London – Older People 123


Older People

Travel behaviour

Older Londoners aged 65 or over make an average of 2.3 trips per weekday,

compared with 2.7 trips per weekday for all Londoners [12].

Londoners aged between 65 and 69 make an average of 2.7 trips per weekday, in

line with the number of trips made by Londoners overall. This average drops to 2.4

among Londoners aged between 70 and 79 and 1.6 among people aged 80 and

over [12]. This is likely to be related to the lower proportion of older Londoners in

work, as retired Londoners do not need to make regular journeys to work, as well

as decreasing individual mobility.

Transport types used

The most frequent method of transport used by older Londoners and all

Londoners is walking. Eighty-six per cent of Londoners aged 65 or over walk at

least once a week. This figure is higher for Londoners aged under 80; 94 per cent

of Londoners aged 65-69 walk at least once a week. The equivalent figure is 90 per

cent among Londoners aged 70-79, and 69 per cent among Londoners aged 80 or

older [12].

Buses are the next most common type of transport used by older Londoners; 61

per cent of Londoners aged 65 or over use the bus at least once a week. Use of the

bus is higher among Londoners aged between 65 and 79 (65 per cent of Londoners

aged 65-79 use the bus at least once a week) but this decreases among Londoners

aged 80 or over (50 per cent). For all other types of transport, except the car as a

passenger and minicab, levels of use either remain the same or decline as age

increases [12].

Among Londoners aged 65-69, 60 per cent drive a car at least once a week which

is higher than Londoners overall (39 per cent). Londoners aged 80 or over are

considerably less likely to drive a car, and only 27 per cent drive on a weekly basis

[12].

Transport for London – Older People 124


Older People

Proportion of Londoners using types of transport at least once a week (2013/14) [12]

% All 65+ 65-69 70-79 80+

Base (15,700) (2,475) (748) (1,113) (614)

Walking 96 86 94 90 69

Bus 61 61 65 65 50

Car (as a passenger) 48 45 44 44 45

Car (as a driver) 39 45 60 44 27

Tube 39 23 33 23 11

National Rail 17 11 13 13 6

Overground 9 4 6 4 1

Other taxi/minicab (PHV) 6 5 4 6 6

London taxi/black cab 5 3 3 3 3

DLR 4 2 2 2 1

Tram (London Tramlink) 2 1 1 2 1

Motorbike 1 - 1 - -

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Walking

Older Londoners are less likely to walk at least once a week than all Londoners (86

per cent of Londoners aged 65 or over walk once a week compared with 96 per

cent of all Londoners). The proportion of older Londoners who walk declines with

age; 94 per cent of 65 to 69 year olds walk at least once a week compared with 90

per cent of 70 to 79 year olds and 69 per cent of Londoners aged 80 or over [12].

Frequency of walking (2013/14) [12]

% All 65+ 65-69 70-79 80+

Base (15,700) (2,475) (748) (1,113) (614)

5 or more days a week 83 61 72 64 41

3 or 4 days a week 6 13 13 13 14

2 days a week 4 7 6 7 8

1 day a week 3 5 3 5 6

At least once a fortnight 1 1 1 2 2

At least once a month 1 2 1 1 3

At least once a year 1 2 1 2 5

Not used in last year 1 7 2 5 18

Never used - 1 - 1 3

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Older People 125


Older People

The proportion of Londoners aged 65 and over who walk at least once a week to

complete small errands (84 per cent) is in line with the 86 per cent of all Londoners

who do this. However, smaller proportions of people aged 65 and over walk for

other purposes listed compared with all Londoners [19].

Walking at least once a week by purpose of journey (2015) [19]

% who walk at least once a week All 65+

Base (1,000) (314)

Walk…

To complete small errands such as getting a newspaper or

86 84

posting a letter

As part of a longer journey 77 70

To visit friends and relatives 49 41

To visit pubs/restaurants/cinemas and other social places 53 40

To get to work/school/college 52 11

To take a child to school 18 4

Bus

Bus use at least once a week among Londoners aged 65 and over is 61 per cent,

which is the same level as for all Londoners. Use of the bus among older

Londoners is higher among those aged between 65 and 79 (65 per cent use the bus

at least once a week) and then decreases among Londoners aged 80 or over (50

per cent) [12].

Frequency of travelling by bus (2013/14) [12]

% All 65+ 65-69 70-79 80+

Base (15,700) (2,475) (748) (1,113) (614)

5 or more days a week 28 20 21 22 18

3 or 4 days a week 12 20 22 21 14

2 days a week 11 12 13 13 10

1 day a week 10 9 9 9 8

At least once a fortnight 5 6 6 6 4

At least once a month 10 8 9 8 7

At least once a year 14 11 11 10 11

Not used in last year 7 13 7 10 25

Never used 2 2 1 1 3

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Older People 126


Older People

People over 60 years old are significantly less likely to use the bus for work

purposes, during the day or night. They’re more likely to use the bus for shopping,

personal business and visiting friends/ relatives, both during the day and at night

[28].

Purpose of bus journey by age and time of day (2014) [28]

During the day

At night

% All 60+ All 60+

Base (weighted) (37,585) (4,933) (9,121) (263)

To/from or for work 53 20 53 39

To/from

school/education

7 1 4 2

To/from shopping 11 33 1 6

Visiting

friends/relatives

9 12 13 18

Leisure 9 16 21 19

Personal business 7 13 2 7

Other purpose 3 6 6 9

Car

Forty-five per cent of Londoners aged 65 or over drive a car at least once a week

and 45 per cent travel as a passenger in a car [12].

Fifty-eight per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over hold a full car driving licence,

which is slightly lower than the figure for Londoners overall (64 per cent all

Londoners aged 17 or over). The proportion of older Londoners who hold a full car

driving licence reduces with age: 74 per cent of 65 to 69 year olds hold a full driving

licence compared to 58 per cent of those aged 70-79, and 38 per cent of people

aged over 80 [12].

Proportion of Londoners with a full car driving licence (2013/14) [12]

% All (17+) 65+ 65-69 70-79 80+

Base (13,127) (2,475) (748) (1,113) (614)

Holds a full car driving licence 64 58 74 58 38

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Household access to a car reduces with age; 61 per cent of Londoners aged 65 and

over have a car in their household compared with 65 per cent across all Londoners.

Among Londoners aged 65-69, access to a car in the household is higher at 73 per

cent and this drops to 63 per cent among Londoners aged 70-79, and 43 per cent

for Londoners aged 80 and over [12].

Transport for London – Older People 127


Older People

Proportion of Londoners in a household with access to a car (2013/14) [12]

% All 65+ 65-69 70-79 80+

Base (15,700) (2,475) (748) (1,113) (614)

0 cars 35 39 27 37 57

1 car 45 46 48 49 37

2+ cars 20 16 25 14 7

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

After the age of 80, older people tend to drive less frequently. Driving can provide

a sense of self-worth through independence and equality with other Londoners,

freedom through greater accessibility and convenience, and enjoyment of the act

itself. Therefore giving up driving is an important and emotional event [50].

‘When I relinquish my car it will be like my snail shell on my back is being taken

away.’ (Driver aged 65+) [50]

Among Londoners aged 60 and over who do not drive 5 , the most common reasons

for not doing so are a lack of interest (43 per cent), availability of friends and family

to drive them instead (38 per cent), a focus on feeling too old (27 per cent) and

being concerned about safety (22 per cent) [51].

Reasons for not driving by age (England) (2013) [51]

% All 17+ 60+

Base (2,965) (990)

Not interested in driving 29 43

Family/friends drive me when necessary 32 38

Too old 9 27

Safety concerns/nervous about driving 17 22

Other forms of transport available 20 14

Physical difficulties/health impairments 11 12

Cost of learning to drive 32 10

Cost of buying a car 25 10

Cost of insurance 25 8

Busy/congested roads 6 7

Other general motoring costs 12 5

Put off by theory/practical test 4 2

Too busy to learn 10 2

Environmental reasons 3 1

Other 5 3

Based on individuals aged 17 and over who do not hold a full driving licence and are not currently learning to drive.

5 Note that these data are for Great Britain and not London specifically.

Transport for London – Older People 128


Older People

Tube

Twenty-three per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over use the Tube at least once a

week. This is considerably lower than Londoners overall (39 per cent). The

proportion using the Tube at least once a week decreases further with age, from

33 per cent of Londoners aged 65-69, to 25 per cent among 70 to 79 year olds and

11 per cent for those aged 80 and over [12].

Frequency of travelling by Tube (2013/14) [12]

% All 65+ 65-69 70-79 80+

Base (15,700) (2,475) (748) (1,113) (614)

5 or more days a week 15 3 5 3 1

3 or 4 days a week 7 6 6 7 4

2 days a week 8 6 10 6 2

1 day a week 9 7 12 9 4

At least once a fortnight 8 4 9 8 4

At least once a month 15 12 14 12 7

At least once a year 25 24 26 25 21

Not used in last year 11 28 16 26 49

Never used 3 5 2 5 8

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Cycling

Eight per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over sometimes use a bike to get around

London [17]. Note that we do not currently have data to analyse this age group

further.

Proportion of Londoners who cycle (November 2014) [17]

% All 65+

Base (2,192) (323)

Cyclist (sometimes uses a bike to get

around London)

Non-cyclist (never uses a bike to get

around London)

17 8

83 92

The proportion of Londoners aged 65 and over who can ride a bike (72 per cent) is

lower than the total population of Londoners (83 per cent) [17].

Proportion of Londoners able to ride a bike (November 2014) [17]

% All 65+

Base (2,192) (323)

Can ride a bike 83 72

Cannot ride a bike 15 25

Transport for London – Older People 129


Older People

We have developed a behavioural change model to look at Londoners’ readiness

to cycle or cycle more. Sixty-nine per cent of Londoners classified themselves as

being in the ‘pre-contemplation’ category (defined in the behaviour model table

below). Londoners aged 65 and over show a lower level of ‘contemplation’ than

other Londoners, and 87 per cent are in the pre-contemplation category [17].

A small proportion of Londoners aged 65 and over classify themselves as being in

the ‘sustained change’ category, meaning that they started cycling a while ago

and are still doing it occasionally or regularly [17].

Behaviour change model cycling (November 2014) [17]

% All 65+

Base (all) (2,192) (323)

Pre-contemplation:

‘You have never thought about it, but would be unlikely to start in the future’

‘You have thought about it, but don’t intend starting in the future’

‘You have never thought about it, but could be open to it in the future’

Contemplation:

‘You are thinking about starting soon’

Preparation:

‘You have decided to start soon’

Change:

‘You have tried to start recently, but am finding it difficult’

‘You have started recently and am finding it quite easy so far’

Sustained change:

‘You started a while ago and am still doing it occasionally’

‘You started a while ago and am still doing it regularly’

Lapsed:

‘You started doing this but couldn’t stick to it’

69 87

10 2

3 -

2 -

10 6

6 4

Transport for London – Older People 130


Older People

Cycling schemes

Awareness of Cycle Hire among Londoners aged 65 and over is 95 per cent. This is

similar to awareness among all Londoners which stands at 91 per cent. Despite

high awareness, only one per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over have actually

used the scheme compared to 17 per cent of all Londoners [17].

Two per cent of Londoners aged 65 or over intend to use Cycle Hire in the future

(compared with 27 per cent of all Londoners who haven’t yet hired a bicycle) [17].

Evidence suggests older Londoners are less likely to check for availability of

bicycles and/or spaces before hiring a bicycle (25 per cent of people aged over 55

always or usually check for bicycle availability, compared with 39 per cent of

people aged 16-34) [52]. This is most probably related to lower use of technology

among older Londoners [15].

Expected use of Cycle Hire in the future (November 2014) [17]

% All 65+

Base (1,180) (165)

Yes definitely/probably 27 2

Yes, definitely 9 0

Yes, probably 18 2

No, probably not 30 30

No, definitely not 33 61

Not sure 10 6

Seventy per cent of older Londoners are aware of Cycle Superhighways, which is

higher than the figure for all Londoners (61 per cent). Seven per cent of older

Londoners say that they are likely to use Cycle Superhighways in the future [17].

Expected use of Cycle Superhighways (November 2014) [17]

% All 65+

Base (1,180) (165)

Yes definitely/ probably 23 7

Yes, definitely 6 1

Yes, probably 17 6

No, probably not 28 29

No, definitely not 31 55

Not sure 17 9

Transport for London – Older People 131


Older People

Dial-a-Ride

Dial-a-Ride members tend to have an older age profile than disabled Londoners

overall. Eighty-three per cent of Dial-a-Ride members are aged 65 and over,

compared with 41 per cent of all disabled Londoners. Twenty-seven per cent of

Dial-a-Ride members are aged between 75-84 and 43 per cent are 85 and over,

compared with 16 per cent and eight per cent respectively for all disabled

Londoners [30, AB].

Dial-a-Ride members are more likely to be women (74 per cent) [30].

Dial-a-Ride (DaR) membership by age (2012 based on 2010 data) [2, 30]

% All disabled Londoners

Census

DaR members

(41,451)

Under 25 9 1

25-34 7 2

35-49 19 5

50-64 25 11

65-74 17 13

75-84 16 28

85+ 8 40

Where the proportion of Dial-a-Ride members does not sum to 100 per cent, this is due to no age being listed for the member on

file.

Journey purpose

The proportion of weekday journeys made for different purposes varies by age.




Twenty-eight per cent of journeys are work-related for all Londoners

(travelling to/from usual workplace, or ‘other work-related’ travel) whereas

only seven per cent of older Londoners’ weekday journeys are for this purpose

Fifty-two per cent of older Londoners’ journeys are for shopping and personal

business (compared with 24 per cent for all Londoners)

Leisure journeys make up 31 per cent of weekday trips for older Londoners

(compared with 23 per cent for all Londoners) [12]

Weekday journey purpose (2013/14) [12]

% All 65+ 65-69 70-79 80+

Base – all trips by Londoners

Shopping/personal business 24 52 46 53 64

Usual workplace 20 4 6 3 -

Leisure 23 31 33 32 24

Education 19 2 2 2 1

Other work-related 8 3 3 3 2

Other 6 8 9 7 9

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Older People 132


Older People

Ticket types

Freedom Passes are by far the most common ticket type used by Londoners aged

65 or over; 97 per cent of public transport users use a Freedom Pass [32].

Since very high proportions of Londoners in this age group make use of the

Freedom Pass, only a small percentage of people aged 65 or over use other tickets

such as Oyster PAYG (only five per cent use Oyster PAYG on any form of public

transport) [32].

Tickets and passes used on public transport (January 2015) [32]

%

Base: Public transport users:

All

(975)

65+

(152)

Freedom Pass 21 97

Oyster PAYG 58 5

Oyster Season ticket 20 1

Contactless payment 16 1

Cash/single/return 10 3

Any other Travelcard 7 1

Transport for London – Older People 133


Older People

Travelcards

Very few older Londoners have an Oyster card compared with the proportion of all

Londoners (six per cent of Londoners aged 65 or over compared with 60 per cent

all Londoners). Londoners aged 65-69 are more likely to have an Oyster card than

people aged over 80 (nine per cent for 65 to 69 year olds compared with three per

cent of Londoners aged 80 or over) [12].

Ninety-two per cent of 65 year olds or over have an older person’s Freedom Pass.

This drops to 87 per cent for those aged 80 or over [12].

Possession of an Oyster card or Freedom Pass (2013/14) [12]

% All 65+ 65-69 70-79 80+

Base (15,700) (2,475) (748) (1,113) (614)

Have an Oyster card 60 6 9 5 3

Older person’s Freedom Pass 15 92 95 93 87

Disabled person’s Freedom

Pass

2 - - 1 -

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Note that Oyster card ownership excludes Freedom Passes, Oyster photocards and Zip cards.

Transport for London – Older People 134


Older People

Barriers

We have conducted several research programmes to investigate the barriers faced

by Londoners when using public transport. Our findings from each of these studies

are in general agreement. However, it is worth noting that the issue of barriers is

complex and the specific questions that we ask Londoners may have an impact

upon the responses that they provide. The impact of specific barriers may also be

much more significant for some Londoners than others.

With increasing age, some older people become less active. Reduced activity

levels are often connected to changing lifestyles, expectations and confidence

levels. Accessible transport can help people to maintain a more active lifestyle

[53].

Qualitative research based on in-depth interviews (which included accompanied

journeys 6 ) that we completed in 2009 showed that there are three categories of

barriers to transport use that older people face in particular. These are:




Physical barriers – examples include long distances to bus stops and

connection points, presence of steps, speed of closing doors on public

transport, and jerky movement on buses

Emotional barriers – examples include overcrowding, loud or disruptive

passengers, adverse weather conditions and the fear of crime

Information barriers – many people restrict their journeys to those that they

know well, have reduced expectations that public transport can cater for their

needs, and are unaware of supported travel options such as DaR [53]

6 ‘Accompanied journeys’ refers to journeys made when interviewers travel with respondents to observe and

ask questions about their journey experience.

Transport for London – Older People 135


Older People

Barriers to greater public transport use

When presented with a number of possible barriers to using public transport more

often, the greatest barrier, cited by 40 per cent of Londoners aged 65 years and

over (compared of 59 per cent of all Londoners) is concern about overcrowded

services. A larger proportion of Londoners aged 65 and over also said that none of

the barriers listed put them off using public transport (33 per cent of 65 year olds

and over compared with 17 per cent of all Londoners) [14].

Beyond overcrowding, the next most common barrier identified is about antisocial

behaviour, which is mentioned by 34 per cent of both Londoners and Londoners

aged 65 and over [14]. We address safety and security issues in more detail later in

this section.

Cost of tickets is mentioned by nine per cent of older Londoners as a barrier to

greater public transport use; this increases to 45 per cent of all Londoners [14].

This is likely to reflect the high use of older people’s Freedom Passes amongst

Londoners aged 65 and over.

Barriers to using public transport more often (prompted) (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All 65+

Base (4,005) (1,351)

Overcrowded services 59 40

Cost of tickets 45 9

Slow journey times 41 18

Unreliable services 37 19

Concern about antisocial behaviour 34 34

Dirty environment on the bus/train 28 20

Fear of crime getting to/ waiting for the

24 20

bus/train

Fear of crime on the bus/train 23 20

Fear about knife crime 20 20

Dirty environment getting to the bus/train 18 14

Fear of terrorist attacks 12 11

Graffiti 10 13

Lack of information on how to use public

10 10

transport

Risk of accidents 9 8

Don’t understand how to buy bus tickets 5 4

None of these 17 33

Transport for London – Older People 136


Older People

Safety and security

We use a typology of worry to monitor the perceptions of Londoners with regard

to their personal security while using public transport in London. The TfL typology

classifies people into:






Unworried – reports no general worry and no episodes of recent worry

Unexpressed fear – reports no general worry, but specific recent episodes

Anxious – reports general worry, but no specific recent episodes

Worried – reports general worry, and specific recent episodes

Don’t know

The majority of Londoners fall into the ‘unworried’ category, which means that

they are generally unworried about their personal security in London, and have

experienced no incidents that made them feel worried in the last three months. A

greater proportion of older Londoners (65 and over) are ‘unworried’ than the

average across all Londoners (83 per cent of 65 year olds and over compared with

75 per cent of all Londoners) [14].

Typology of worry (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All 65+

Base (4,005) (1,351)

Unworried 75 83

Unexpressed 11 6

Anxious 6 6

Worried 6 3

Don’t know 2 3

A similar pattern is observed when looking at the levels of concern about personal

security when using public transport in London. Again, Londoners aged 65 or over

are more likely to say they are ‘not at all worried’ than all Londoners (54 per cent

of older Londoners compared with 42 per cent all Londoners) [14].

Levels of concern about personal security when using public transport in London (2013)

[14]

% All 65+

Base (4,005) (1,351)

Not at all worried 42 54

A little bit worried 45 35

Quite a bit worried 9 6

Very worried 3 3

Don’t know 1 2

Transport for London – Older People 137


Older People

Among older Londoners who are worried about their personal security when using

public transport, 31 per cent of 65 year olds or over feel that this impacts

negatively on their quality of life either ‘very much’ or ‘quite a bit’ (compared with

32 per cent all Londoners) [14].

Extent to which worry about personal security when using public transport reduces quality

of life (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All 65+

Base (all worried about personal safety) (463) (123)

Not at all 19 21

A little 29 21

Moderately 19 21

Quite a bit 19 19

Don’t know 1 6

Net: Quite a bit/very much 32 31

A smaller proportion of older Londoners take precautions against crime when

using public transport (32 per cent of 65 year olds or over compared with 38 per

cent of all Londoners). The most common precaution for older Londoners is to

look after their belongings (37 per cent compared with 29 per cent for all

Londoners) whereas the most common precaution for all Londoners is to sit near

other people (34 per cent for all Londoners compared with 24 per cent for 65 year

olds and over).

Older Londoners are less likely than all Londoners to say that they travel with

someone else, use a different route, travel at a different time of day, or avoid using

a type of transport, but are more likely to say that they only take necessities with

them (seven per cent of 65 year olds and over compared with three per cent all

Londoners) [14].

Precautions taken (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All 65+

Base (all who take precautions) (1,507) (442)

Look after my belongings 29 37

Sit near to other people 34 24

Travel with someone else 23 16

Travel at a different time of day 16 11

Use a different route 15 8

Stay aware/vigilant 15 18

Avoid using that type of transport 12 6

Only take necessities with me 3 7

Carry a personal alarm 3 6

Note that responses 2% or below among all Londoners are not shown.

Transport for London – Older People 138


Older People

In terms of actual experiences, the proportion of older Londoners who have felt

worried about their personal security when using public transport in the past three

months is considerably lower than the average across all Londoners (eight per

cent of 65 year olds or over compared with 17 per cent of all Londoners) [14].

Older Londoners who have experienced a worrying incident in the three months

prior to being surveyed were much more likely to have experienced this during the

day than at night (67 per cent of the most recent episodes of worry were

experienced in the daytime compared with 40 per cent among all Londoners who

have experienced a worrying incident) [14].

Those who have felt worried about their personal security when using public

transport in the last three months were asked on which type of transport they

experienced this event. The types of transport where older Londoners experience

worrying events are similar to those reported by all Londoners (47 per cent of the

most recent worrying experiences by 65 year olds and over were on the bus, 27 per

cent Tube, and 20 per cent train) [14].

Crime and antisocial behaviour concerns affect the frequency of travel on the

Tube, bus or National Rail ‘a little’ or ‘a lot’ for just over half of all Londoners (53

per cent). The frequency of public transport use is affected ‘a little’ or ‘a lot’ for a

smaller proportion of older Londoners (39 per cent of 65 year olds and over) [14].

Proportion of Londoners for whom concerns over crime/antisocial behaviour affect the

frequency of their public transport use ‘a lot/a little’ (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All 65+

Base (4,005) (1,351)

Overall: during the day/after dark

Underground/buses/National Rail 53 39

During the day:

Underground/buses/National Rail 23 17

Underground 16 11

Buses 17 11

National Rail 11 8

After dark:

Underground/buses/National Rail 48 32

Underground 37 25

Buses 42 26

National Rail 29 20

Transport for London – Older People 139


Older People

Customer satisfaction

Overall satisfaction

We measure overall satisfaction with various types of transport in London on an

11-point scale, with 10 representing extremely satisfied and zero representing

extremely dissatisfied. We then scale this up to 100). For all of the transport types

listed below, Londoners aged 65 and over give higher overall satisfaction mean

scores than all Londoners.

We have standardised satisfaction ratings, which are shown in the table below.

This allows TfL to apply consistent analysis across a wide range of satisfaction

research.

Average rating Level of satisfaction

Under 50

Very low/weak/poor

50-54 Low/weak/poor

55-64 Fairly/relatively/quite low/weak/poor

65-69 Fair/reasonable

70-79 Fairly/relatively/quite good

80-84 Good or fairly high

85-90 Very good or high

90+ Excellent or very high

Older people aged 65 and over are more satisfied with every mode of London transport compared

with all Londoners. Their ratings are excellent or very high for most modes when compared with all

customers, whose ratings out of 100 are generally three to six points lower. The differences in

satisfaction ratings are most marked for bus, Tube and London Overground.

Transport for London – Older People 140


Older People

Overall satisfaction with transport types – all customers (2014/15) [16]

Satisfaction score (0-100) All 65+

Bus services

Base (14,155) (2,586)

Satisfaction score 85 90

Bus stations

Base (3,626) (346)

Satisfaction score 78 81

Underground

Base (17,634) (1,243)

Satisfaction score 84 89

DLR

Base (13,398) (339)

Satisfaction score 89 93

Overground

Base (5,397) (118)

Satisfaction score 83 90

Dial-a-Ride

Base (2,572) (2,211)

Satisfaction score 92 93

Tram

Base (4,329) (905)

Satisfaction score 89 93

Victoria Coach Station

Base (1,204) (110)

Satisfaction score 82 85

London River Services

Base (2,106) (190)

Satisfaction score 90 93

Taxis

Base (569) (50)

Satisfaction score 83 88

Woolwich Ferry

Base (1,056) (78)

Satisfaction score 79 85

Satisfaction is not shown for Private Hire Vehicles and Night buses due to small base sizes.

Transport for London – Older People 141


Score out of 100

Older People

Bus

Overall satisfaction among bus users aged 65 and over is rated very good or high

at 90 out of 100 (compared to 85 out of 100 for customers overall) [16].

Overall satisfaction with buses over time is consistently high among customers

aged 65 and over, and satisfaction levels are higher than those given by customers

overall [16].

Overall satisfaction with buses over time [16]

100

90

80

70

86

82 83 85 84 84 85

87 85 87 88 89 90

76 77 78 78 77

79 80 79 80 80 82 83

85

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

All customers Customers aged 65+

Transport for London – Older People 142


Score out of 100

Older People

Satisfaction with value for money of bus services is also high among older

customers, with a score of 87 out of 100 compared with 72 out of 100 from all

customers [16]. It is worth noting that older Londoners are generally entitled to

free travel on the bus and as such the base size for satisfaction with value for

money scores is lower than for overall satisfaction.

Satisfaction with value for money with bus over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

84

87

78 77

84 86 87

80

82

73

72 72 71

74 74 73

85

69

75

90

66 68

85 87

71 72

All customers

There are some differences with other elements concerning buses. Customers aged 65 and over are

more satisfied with safety and security at the stop (a score of 90 out of 100 for 65 year olds and over

compared with 86 out of 100 for all customers) and time waited and journey time (89 out of 100 for

those aged 65 and over compared with 85 out of 100 for all customers) [16].

Transport for London – Older People 143


Score out of 100

Older People

Drivers of satisfaction

Overall satisfaction with bus services amongst customers aged 65 and over is

influenced by the ease of making journeys and the reliability of the bus. Driver

behaviour and attitude is also one of the top five factors that affect satisfaction for

older customers [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for bus users [16]

All customers 65+

Journey time

Ease of making journey

Ease of making journey

Comfort inside the bus

Satisfaction with info on delays at stop

Time waited to catch bus

Reliability of bus

Journey time

Time waited to catch bus

Driver's behaviour and attitude

Tube

Customers aged 65 and over who use the Tube rate it as very good or high for

overall satisfaction (89 out of 100), a result which is higher than for customers

overall (84 out of 100) [16].

Overall satisfaction scores for the last 10 years show that people aged 65 and over

are consistently more satisfied with the Tube than customers overall [16].

Overall satisfaction with the Tube over time [16]

100

90

84

87

89

87 85

83

87 87 86 85

90

87

89

80

70

60

75 76 78 78 76 77

79 79 79 80

83 83 84

50

40

30

20

10

0

All customers Customers aged 65+

Transport for London – Older People 144


Score out of 100

Older People

As with overall satisfaction, satisfaction with value for money is consistently

higher among customers aged 65 and over than customers overall (in the latest

year this was 91 out of 100 among 65 year olds and over compared with 69 out of

100 for all customers) [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with the Tube over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

88 89 89 87 88 87

90 89 89 90 91 90 91

63 64 62 62 61 63 65 67 65 66 67 69

62

All customers Customers aged 65+

Drivers of satisfaction

Our analysis of the factors that drive satisfaction among Tube users shows that for

customers aged 65 and over comfort of journeys, ease of making journeys and

length of journey are all important. These factors are very similar to the drivers for

all Londoners. The table below shows the top drivers of satisfaction for customers

overall and customers aged 65 and over [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for Tube users [16]

All customers 65+

Ease of making journey

Length of journey time

Comfort of journey

Length of time waited for train

Personal safety on train

Comfort of journey

Ease of making journey

Length of journey time

Train crowding

Smoothness of journey

Transport for London – Older People 145


Older People

Overground

As with other types of transport, customers aged 65 and over rate the Overground

as very good/high on average (90 out of 100). This is higher than the proportion of

customers overall (83 out of 100) [16].

Overall satisfaction with London Overground over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All 65+

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (5,397) (118)

2009/10 73 82

2010/11 80 86

2011/12 82 85

2012/13 82 90

2013/14 82 89

2014/15 83 90

Older customers are more satisfied with value for money on the Overground than

customers overall (92 out of 100 among customers aged 65 or over compared with

73 out of 100 all customers) [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with London Overground over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All 65+

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (5,182) (111)

2011/12 72 88

2012/13 71 90

2013/14 70 93

2014/15 73 92

Drivers of satisfaction

Analysis of what leads to satisfaction among Overground users shows that for

customers aged 65 and over, condition and state of repair, cleanliness and

freedom from graffiti, and information about service disruptions are important

factors. Ease of making the journey, condition and state of repair and feeling

valued are the main factors among all Londoners [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for Overground users [16]

All customers 65+

Ease of making your journey

Condition and state of repair

Feel valued as a customer

Comfort of the train

Information about service disruptions on the

train

Condition and state of repair

Cleanliness and freedom from graffiti

Information about service disruptions given at

the station

The number of trains an hour on this route

Personal safety on the station

Transport for London – Older People 146


Older People

Docklands Light Railway (DLR)

Overall satisfaction with the DLR is rated very high among customers aged 65 and

over and is higher than with customers overall (93 out of 100 among customers

aged 65 and over compared with 89 out of 100 for all customers) [16].

Overall satisfaction with DLR over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All 65+

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (13,398) (339)

2009/10 81 88

2010/11 81 90

2011/12 82 89

2012/13 87 92

2013/14 87 93

2014/15 89 93

Older customers are more satisfied with value for money on the DLR than

customers overall (91 out of 100 among customers aged 65 and over compared

with 77 out of 100 all customers) [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with DLR over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All 65+

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (12,839) (316)

2011/12 72 89

2012/13 74 91

2013/14 75 93

2014/15 77 91

Drivers of satisfaction

Comfort inside the train, ease of getting on the train and length of waiting time

are key drivers of overall satisfaction amongst DLR users aged 65 and over [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for DLR users [16]

All customers 65+

Ease of making your journey

Comfort inside the train

Comfort of the train

Length of journey time

Reliability of trains

Feel valued as a customer

Ease of getting on the train

Length of time waited for the train

Reliability of trains

Freedom from graffiti inside the train

Transport for London – Older People 147


Older People

Dial-a-Ride

Older customers who use the Dial-a-Ride service rate it as excellent, giving the

service an overall satisfaction score of 93 out of 100 [16].

Overall satisfaction with Dial-a-Ride over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score 65+ 65-69 70-79 80-89 90+

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (2,211) (134) (606) (1,080) (391)

2009/10 92 90 91 92 93

2010/11 92 87 90 93 93

2011/12 91 87 90 92 92

2012/13 93 89 92 94 93

2013/14 93 91 92 93 94

2014/15 93 90 92 93 94

Satisfaction with various measures relating to Dial-a-Ride are also excellent, with

cleanliness of the interior and helpfulness and courtesy of the driver scoring 94 out

of 100 [16].

Trams

Overall satisfaction with trams is high among customers at 89 out of 100. This is

higher among older users (93 out of 100 for 65 year olds) [16].

Overall satisfaction with trams over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All 65+

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (4,329) (905)

2009/10 86 91

2010/11 85 92

2011/12 86 93

2012/13 89 91

2013/14 89 94

2014/15 89 93

Transport for London – Older People 148


Older People

Streets

Although older Londoners give higher satisfaction ratings than all Londoners on

the various types of transport, older Londoners are less satisfied when it comes to

their last walking journey made on London’s streets. Fifty-seven per cent of

Londoners aged 65 and over were satisfied with the streets and pavements after

their last journey made on foot compared to 68 per cent of all Londoners. A similar

pattern is observed for car users; 55 per cent of Londoners aged 65 or over are

satisfied with their last car journey compared with 60 per cent of all Londoners

[34].

Overall satisfaction with streets and pavement after last journey over time – walking

journey [34]

Net fairly

All 65+

satisfied/very satisfied

(%)

Base 2014/15 (957) (255)

2011 64 56

2012 68 53

2013 69 64

2014 68 59

2015 68 57

Overall satisfaction with streets and pavements after last journey over time - car journey

[34]

Net fairly

All 65+

satisfied/very satisfied

(%)

Base 2014/15 (830) (224)

2011 54 55

2012 62 63

2013 57 55

2014 61 52

2015 60 55

Overall satisfaction with streets and pavement after last journey over time - cycling

journey [34]

Net fairly

All 65+

satisfied/very satisfied

(%)

Base 2014/15 (357) (63)

2014 54 45

2015 46 29

Transport for London – Older People 149


Older People

Transport for London Road Network (TRLN)

Satisfaction with the TLRN is reasonable to fairly good. Older users of the TLRN

give a score of 80 out of 100 for walking, 74 out of 100 for travelling by bus on red

routes and 70 out of 100 for driving. Satisfaction levels tend to be slightly higher

among 65 year olds and over for the TLRN than for all customers [16].

Overall satisfaction – general impression of red routes over time [16]

Satisfaction score (0-100) All 65+

Walking

Base 2014-15 (1,254) (72)

2013/14 70 71

2014/15 68 80

Travelling by bus

Base 2014-15 (4,620) (411)

2013/14 69 72

2014/15 71 74

Driving

Base 2014-15 (3,605) (390)

2013/14 67 70

2014/15 67 70

Transport for London – Older People 150


Older People

Access to information

Access to the internet

Londoners aged 65 and over are less likely to access the internet than all

Londoners (64 per cent compared with 92 per cent). The proportion of Londoners

accessing the internet drops considerably as people get older, with only 42 per

cent of 80 year olds and over accessing the internet [15].

Sixty-three per cent of older Londoners aged 65 or over access the internet at

home, 15 per cent access it ‘on the move’ and six per cent at work [15].

Use of the internet (Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

% All

65+ 65-69 70-79 80+

Londoners

Base (2,001) (640) (212) (278) (150)

Any access 92 64 82 62 42

Access at home 89 63 80 61 41

Access ‘on the move’ 61 15 24 14 5

Access at work 56 6 12 3 1

The top reasons for using the internet are broadly the same for older Londoners

and all Londoners, although usage is slightly lower. The main reasons for use are:

Email (92 per cent Londoners aged 65 or over compared with 94 per cent

Londoners overall)

Finding and sourcing information (87 per cent compared with 89 per cent

overall)

Accessing live travel information (70 per cent compared with 78 per cent

overall)

Maps and directions (76 per cent compared with 84 per cent overall)

Buying goods and services (70 per cent compared with 79 per cent overall) [15]

Londoners aged 65 and over who use the internet are less likely to use social

media than all Londoners (30 per cent compared with 70 per cent all Londoners),

and they’re less likely to use the internet for banking (46 per cent compared with

68 per cent all Londoners) or for watching any video content (38 per cent

compared with 63 per cent) [15].

Transport for London – Older People 151


Older People

Device usage and behaviour

Only twenty-five per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over use a smartphone

compared with 77 per cent of all Londoners. Thirty-nine per cent of 65 to 69 year

olds use a smartphone, dropping to six per cent among Londoners aged 80 and

over [15].

Proportion of Londoners who use a smartphone (iPhone, BlackBerry, Android, other)

(Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

% All 65+ 65-69 70-79 80+

Base (2,001) (640) (212) (278) (150)

Uses a smartphone 77 25 39 24 6

Ownership of mobile devices is generally lower among Londoners aged 65 and

over than all Londoners with the exception of standard mobile phones (55 per cent

of 65 year olds or over use one compared with 20 per cent of all Londoners).



Sixteen per cent use a tablet computer (compared to 37 per cent of all

Londoners)

Use of apps is lower among Londoners aged 65 and over who have a mobile

device compared to younger age groups (73 per cent compared with 94 per

cent of 16 to 24 year olds) [15]

Using the TfL website

Use of the TfL website is lower among older Londoners than all Londoners. Fortyseven

per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over use the TfL website, compared with

78 per cent of all Londoners. As with internet access statistics, the proportion of 65

t0 69 year olds accessing the site is higher than Londoners from older age groups

(67 per cent of those aged 65-69 compared with 44 per cent of 70 t0 79 year olds

compared with 26 per cent of 80 year olds and over) [15].

Proportion of Londoners who use www.tfl.gov.uk (Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

% All 65+ 65-69 70-79 80+

Base (2,001) (640) (212) (278) (150)

Uses TfL website 78 47 67 44 26

Transport for London – Older People 152


Older People

In line with the lower use of the TfL website among older Londoners, users aged

65 and over tend to visit the website less frequently than all users. Only 13 per cent

of Londoners aged 65 or over use the TfL website three to four times a week or

daily, compared with 30 per cent of all Londoners [15].

Frequency of visiting the TfL website (Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

% All 65+

Base (2,001) (640)

Use the TfL website

78 47

Daily 9 2

Up to 3-4 times a week 21 11

Up to 3-4 times a month 20 13

About once a month 17 11

Less than once a month 11 11

Never 20 49

Don’t know/ refused 2 4

Older users of the TfL website are less likely than all users to use the website to

plan a journey (65 per cent of website visitors aged 65 and over compared with 70

per cent of all website visitors), do something in relation to Oyster cards (12 per

cent of website visitors aged 65 and over compared with 20 per cent of all website

visitors) or find out about cycling (one per cent of website visitors aged 65 and

over compared with three per cent of all website visitors) [37].

Main purpose of today’s visit to the TfL website (2013) [37]

% All 65+

Base (28,278) (2,177)

Using Journey Planner to plan a route 68 63

Finding out live travel information 30 32

Finding out about planned works or closures 24 30

Doing something related to Oyster cards or other tickets 20 12

Finding a map 15 16

Doing something related to Congestion Charge 4 5

Finding out about cycling 3 1

Finding out about roads or driving 2 3

Other 4 5

Transport for London – Older People 153


Older People

Accessing travel information in the event of travel disruption

Older Londoners are less likely than all Londoners to obtain real-time London

transport information (77 per cent of Londoners aged 65 and over would do this

compared with 89 per cent all Londoners) [15].

Older Londoners are less likely than all Londoners to access real-time London

transport information on the TfL website (49 per cent of Londoners aged 65 or

over, compared with 64 per cent of all Londoners) [15].

Transport for London – Older People 154


Older People

Working together

Sub-regional mobility forums (SRMF)

Building on the Mayor’s Transport Strategy and Accessibility Implementation Plan and

TfL’s Single Equality Scheme (published in 2012), TfL has established sub-regional mobility

forums in each of the five sub-regions laid out in the Mayor’s transport plan.

To test the feasibility of such forums, we set up pilot schemes in two of the sub-regions

(South and Central) and ran them on a pilot basis throughout 2013.

The boroughs helped to identify older and disabled representatives to participate in their

nearest SRMF, each of which is chaired by a member of TfL’s Independent Disability

Advisory Group (IDAG).

The purpose of the forums is to establish an effective working relationship that will meet

the needs and aspirations of disabled and older people who attend the meetings, as well as

borough representatives and TfL. They also provide a platform for dialogue on strategic

travel and the transport issues that affect older and disabled people across each sub-region.

We do not intend for the sub-regional mobility forums to replace local mobility forums

where they exist, or to replace any formal consultation that we should undertake across the

TfL business. Instead, they provide us with an opportunity to seek the views of older and

disabled Londoners on many travel and transport initiatives that we have planned across

the network.

The pilots were a success and we are now rolling out the forums to the remaining subregions

(North, East and West).

Key issues that have emerged so far from the South and Central regions include:










Pedestrian environment - for example, crossings, roads, pavements

How investment in cycling infrastructure is having a negative impact on the needs of

pedestrians

Signage and Legible London way-finding

Step-free access on the Underground and Overground

Staff training (bus and rail station staff)

Intergenerational issues

Travel information ‘on the move’

Bus and bus stop design

Wheelchair priority area on buses

Transport for London – Older People 155


Younger People

Summary: Younger people

Key findings

Younger Londoners under the age of 25 make up 32 per cent of the Capital’s population.

Among BAME Londoners, 41 per cent are under 25 [2]

Londoners aged under 25 make fewer weekday trips than Londoners overall (2.4

compared with 2.7 for all Londoners) [12]

Walking is the most commonly used type of transport by younger Londoners (99 per

cent aged 24 and under walk at least once a week compared with 96 per cent all

Londoners) [12]

Younger Londoners cite the same main barriers to greater public transport use as all

Londoners: overcrowding, slow journey times and cost [14]

Londoners aged 16-24 are slightly more likely than average to have experienced a


recent worrying episode on public transport [14]

Younger Londoners’ satisfaction with public transport is in line with that given by

Londoners as a whole [16]

Younger Londoners are more likely to own a smartphone than Londoners overall (96

per cent compared with 77 per cent) [15]

Research with younger people

The research that we present in this chapter includes a range of age groups, and

we have noted the specific age ranges covered for each data source.

This chapter focuses on Londoners under the age of 25. However, travel patterns

and priorities vary considerably within this age group as school stage and the

desire for independence changes [56].

Profile of younger Londoners

Londoners aged under 25 make up 32 per cent of the population. Twenty per cent

are aged 15 or under, and 12 per cent are aged between 16 and 24 [2].

Within this younger age group (under 25) the proportion of boys/men and

girls/women is practically equal; 49 per cent are girls/women [2].

Younger Londoners are more likely to be from a BAME group than all Londoners.

Fifty-four per cent of 0 to 15 year olds and 48 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds are

from a BAME group [2].

Younger people are more likely to be in education (54 per cent of 16 to 24 year

olds) and less likely to be in full or part-time employment than all Londoners (32

per cent of 16 to 24 year olds are in work compared with 58 per cent of all

Londoners) [12].

Transport for London – Younger People 156


Younger People

Transport behaviour

Younger Londoners tend to make fewer trips than all Londoners on an average

weekday (2.4 among Londoners under 25 compared with 2.7 all Londoners) [12].








Walking is the most commonly used type of transport for younger Londoners,

with 99 per cent aged 24 and under walking at least once a week [12]

The bus is the next most commonly used transport type for younger

Londoners. Among Londoners aged 11-15, 81 per cent use the bus at least once

a week, compared with 61 per cent of all Londoners [12]

Travelling as a car passenger is a frequently used method of transport for

younger Londoners, especially for under 16 year olds (77 per cent of 5 to 10

year olds and 75 per cent of 11 to 15 year olds are car passengers at least once a

week) [12]

Londoners under the age of 25 are less likely than Londoners overall to use the

Tube (33 per cent under 25 compared with 39 per cent all Londoners) and

National Rail (13 per cent compared with 17 per cent) at least once a week.

However among 16 to 24 year olds, use of the Tube (52 per cent) and National

Rail (21 per cent) is higher than across all under 25 year olds [12]

Forty-two per cent of journeys made by Londoners under the age of 25 are for

education compared with 19 per cent for Londoners overall [12]

Among 16 to 24 year olds the proportion making journeys for work-related

reasons is lower than the proportion of all Londoners making these trips (21

per cent compared with 28 per cent for all Londoners) [12]

Younger Londoners are much more likely than all Londoners to possess a pass

or card that entitles them to free or reduced travel (32 per cent aged under 25

possess a free bus travel pass compared with nine per cent of all Londoners).

This is particularly high for people aged 11-15 (83 per cent possess a free travel

bus pass) [12]

The most common way to travel to school is to walk. Forty-four per cent of people

aged under 16 walk as their main mode to school. This rises to 54 per cent for

young people aged 10 and under [12]. Younger age groups tend to live closer to

school, with 5 to 10 year olds travelling 1.6 miles on average to reach school,

compared with 3.7 miles for 11 to 16 year olds [54].

Barriers

Overcrowding, slow journeys and cost are the three most common barriers to

greater public transport use cited by younger Londoners. This is in common with

all Londoners (65 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds say overcrowded services are a

barrier, 50 per cent slow journeys and 49 per cent cost of tickets) [14].

Young Londoners are slightly more likely to have experienced a worrying event

whilst travelling on public transport in London, in the last three months (20 per

cent of 16 to 24 year olds compared with 17 per cent of all Londoners) [14].

Transport for London – Younger People 157


Younger People

Younger Londoners who have experienced a worrying incident in the three

months prior to being surveyed were much more likely to have experienced this

during night-time (71 per cent of the most recent episodes of worry were

experienced at night compared with 58 per cent among all Londoners who have

experienced a worrying incident) [14].

Customer satisfaction

Levels of satisfaction among 16 to 24 year old customers on the transport network

are in line with all customers’ scores, with very few differences in the satisfaction

levels that we observed [16].




Overall satisfaction with buses is good at 84 out 100. The key drivers of overall

satisfaction with buses are how long the journey took, ease of making journeys

and the comfort inside the bus [16]

Tube satisfaction is fairly high at 85 out of 100. Satisfaction among Tube users

is driven largely by ease of making journeys, comfort and journey time [16]

Satisfaction with value for money is consistently lower than overall satisfaction

for all transport types [16]

Access to information

Access to the internet is almost universal among young Londoners (99 per cent of

16 to 24 year olds access the internet compared with 92 per cent of all Londoners).

The use of smartphones among Londoners aged 16-24 is very high (96 per cent

compared with 77 per cent all Londoners) [15].

Among Londoners aged 16-24, 83 per cent claim to access the TfL website

compared to 78 per cent of all Londoners [15].

Transport for London – Younger People 158


Younger People

Introduction

For many younger people, travel represents a gateway to adulthood, enabling

independence, socialisation and a recognition of maturity. Children may be

accessing transport with an adult, but as Londoners get older they start to travel

more with friends and on their own [56].

Combined with the high proportion of younger people in education rather than

employment, this means that travel patterns can differ from the wider London

population.

Throughout this chapter, we focus on Londoners under the age of 25. Where

possible, we have broken data down to reveal differences by those aged 5-10, 11-

15 and 16-24. In some cases, data is not available to provide this breakdown and

therefore age groups are shown as close to this breakdown as possible.

Note that the differences highlighted between young people in this chapter may

well be influenced by a number of factors other than age, with gender, income,

working status and education all affecting perceptions towards travel in London

and travel behaviour.

Market research best practice imposes a number of limitations when interviewing

people under the age of 16. While some surveys do include this audience (after

parental permission is gained) many limit themselves to those aged 16 or over.



Throughout the report, we have noted the ages covered by each data point

Please note that LTDS data reported in this document does not include results

from children under five years old

Transport for London – Younger People 159


Younger People

Profile of younger Londoners

Thirty-two per cent of the London population is aged 24 years old or under, 20 per

cent are 15 years old and under, and 12 per cent are aged between 16 and 24 years

old [2].

Age profile of Londoners (2011 Census) [2]

% 2011 Census

Proportion who are

girls/

women

0-4 7 49

5-9 6 49

10-15 7 49

16-24 12 50

25-64 57 50

65+ 11 56

While for Londoners in older age groups there is a higher proportion of women

than men, in younger age groups the proportions are more even, with 49 per cent

of Londoners aged under 25 being girls or women and 51 per cent being boys or

men [2].

The main differences between all Londoners and younger Londoners relate to

ethnicity, working status and disability levels. Among younger Londoners (aged

under 25), 51 per cent are BAME Londoners compared with 40 per cent of all

Londoners. With each progressively younger age group, the proportion of BAME

Londoners increases [2].

While 11 per cent of all Londoners define themselves as disabled, the figure for

Londoners aged under 25 is four per cent [12].

Within this document there are two main sources of demographic data: the Office

for National Statistics 2011 Census and the London Travel Demand Survey. The

following table shows the demographic breakdown of Londoners recorded in the

LTDS. Data from both sources are in line with each other. However there may be

differences to specific reported numbers or proportions between sources due to

methodological and timing differences.

Transport for London – Younger People 160


Younger People

LTDS demographic profile of younger Londoners (2013/14) [12]

% All Aged 24 & 5-10 11-15 16-24

Londoners under

Base (15,700) (4,220) (1,417) (954) (1,849)

Gender

Men 49 51 52 52 50

Women 51 49 48 48 50

Ethnicity

White 62 52 47 52 55

BAME 37 47 52 47 44

Household income

Less than £10,000 17 20 21 19 20

£10,000–£19,999 19 21 22 22 20

£20,000–£34,999 20 20 20 19 21

£35,000–£49,999 13 12 12 12 12

£50,000–£74,999 15 14 13 14 14

£75,000+ 16 13 13 14 13

Working status*

Working full-time 47 24

Working part-time 11 8

Student 10 54

Retired 15 -

Not working 16 12

Disabled

Yes 11 4 3 3 4

No 89 96 97 97 96

Impairment affects travel

Yes 10 3 3 3 3

No 90 97 97 97 97

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five and working status does not include under 16s.

All TfL surveys use the Equality Act 2010 to define disabled people as those who define themselves as having a long-term physical or mental

disability or health issue that impacts on their daily activities, the work they can do, or limits their ability to travel

Transport for London – Younger People 161


Younger People

Ethnicity

One of the largest differences in the profile of younger Londoners compared with

all Londoners is in terms of ethnicity. This is particularly evident for Londoners

under 16; 54 per cent of this age group are BAME Londoners [2].

Children aged 0-15 are considerably more likely to be from the African ethnic

group than all Londoners; 11 per cent of children aged 0-15 living in London are

from the African ethnic group compared with seven per cent of all Londoners [2].

Ethnicity by age [2]

Age group

Ethnic group % All 0-15 16-24 0-24

White: total 60 46 53 49

English/Welsh/Scottish/Northern Irish/British 45 36 41 38

Irish 2 1 1 1

Gypsy or Irish Traveller - - - -

Other white 13 9 11 10

Black/African/Caribbean/black British: total 13 19 15 17

African 7 11 8 10

Caribbean 4 4 4 4

Other black 2 4 2 3

Asian/Asian British: total 18 20 22 21

Indian 7 5 7 6

Pakistani 3 4 4 4

Bangladeshi 3 4 4 4

Chinese 2 1 3 2

Other Asian 5 5 5 5

Mixed/multiple ethnic group: total 5 11 7 9

White and black Caribbean 1 3 2 3

White and black African 1 2 1 1

White and Asian 1 3 2 2

Other Mixed 1 3 2 2

Other ethnic group: total 3 4 4 4

Arab 1 2 2 2

Any other ethnic group 2 2 2 2

Transport for London – Younger People 162


Younger People

Employment and income

According to the LTDS, 54 per cent of 16 to 24 year old Londoners are students, 24

per cent are employed full-time and eight per cent are employed part-time [12].

Data from the Census shows that a similar proportion of younger Londoners are

employed full-time. However, the Census indicates more part-time and

economically inactive Londoners than the data from LTDS [2]. This is likely to be

due to the different definitions of employment status and economic activity

between the two datasets.

Census economic activity among Londoners aged 16+ [2]

% All Londoners 16-24

Full-time employment 46 26

Part-time employment 16 18

Unemployed 6 12

Economically inactive 33 44

Younger Londoners are marginally more likely to have a lower household income

than all Londoners. Among Londoners aged under 25, 41 per cent have household

income less than £20,000, compared to 36 per cent of all Londoners [12].

London boroughs

The boroughs with the highest proportion of younger residents are:

London boroughs with the highest proportion of younger residents [12]

Borough

% of younger residents

Barking and Dagenham 36

Newham 32

Tower Hamlets 32

Islington 31

Camden 31

Enfield 31

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Younger People 163


Younger People

The boroughs with the lowest proportion of younger residents are:

London boroughs with the lowest proportion of younger residents [12]

Borough

% of younger residents

City of London 6

Merton 24

Wandsworth 24

Kensington and Chelsea 24

Sutton 25

Bromley 25

Richmond upon Thames 25

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Younger People 164


Younger People

Travel behaviour

Younger Londoners tend to make fewer trips per weekday than Londoners overall.

Londoners aged under 25 make an average of 2.4 weekday trips compared to 2.7

trips per weekday made by all Londoners.

Average number of weekday trips (2013/14) [12]

Average number of

weekday trips

Londoners aged 5-10 2.4

Londoners aged 11-15 2.3

Londoners aged 16-24 2.4

Londoners aged 5-24 2.4

All Londoners 2.7

Transport types used

Walking is the most common type of transport used by younger Londoners (aged

under 25); almost all (99 per cent) walk at least once a week [12].

After walking, travelling by bus is the most common transport option for all

Londoners and for younger Londoners; 61 per cent of all Londoners use the bus at

least once a week compared with 71 per cent of Londoners aged under 25. Bus use

among 16 to 24 year olds is higher, with 80 per cent using the bus each week [12].

Travelling by car as a passenger decreases as younger Londoners achieve greater

independence. Around three-quarters of Londoners aged under 16 (76 per cent)

travel by car as a passenger each week compared with 55 per cent of Londoners

between the age of 16 and 24 [12].

For both National Rail and the Underground, higher proportions of people aged

16-24 use these types of transport at least once a week than all Londoners. For

National Rail, 17 per cent of all Londoners use the service at least once week

compared to 21 per cent for Londoners aged 16-24. For the Underground, 39 per

cent of all Londoners use the service at least once a week compared to 52 per cent

of Londoners aged 16-24 [12].

Transport for London – Younger People 165


Younger People

Proportion of Londoners using types of transport at least once a week (2013/14) [12]

% All

Aged 24 &

under

5-10 11-15 16-24

Base (15,700) (4,220) (1,417) (954) (1,849)

Walking 96 99 99 99 98

Bus 61 71 48 81 80

Car (as a passenger) 48 66 77 75 55

Car (as a driver) 39 8 - - 17

Tube 39 33 11 17 52

National Rail 17 13 3 6 21

Overground 9 8 4 6 12

Other taxi/minicab (PHV) 6 6 4 2 8

London taxi/black cab 5 2 1 1 4

DLR 4 4 2 2 7

Tram (London Tramlink) 2 2 1 3 2

Motorbike 1 - - - 1

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Where there is more detailed information on individual types of transport, we

have included a sub-section below.

Walking

Almost all Londoners walk at least once a week. Younger Londoners are more

likely to walk almost every day (5+ days a week) with 92 per cent of Londoners

aged under 25 stating this compared with 83 per cent of all Londoners [12].

Frequency of walking (2013/14) [12]

% All

Aged 24 &

under

5-10 11-15 16-24

Base (15,700) (4,220) (1,417) (954) (1,849)

5 or more days a week 83 92 91 95 90

3 or 4 days a week 6 3 3 2 4

2 days a week 4 2 3 2 2

1 day a week 3 1 2 1 1

At least once a fortnight 1 - - - -

At least once a month 1 - - - -

At least once a year 1 - - - 1

Not used in last year 1 - - - -

Never used - - - - -

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Younger People 166


Younger People

We asked Londoners how often they walk for various purposes. The table below

compares the proportions of all Londoners and 16 to 24 year old Londoners

making each type of walking journey at least once a week. A higher proportion of

16 to 24 year olds make every type of journey at least once a week, except running

errands [19].

Walking at least once a week by purpose of journey (2015) [19]

% who walk at least once a week to… All 16-24

Base (1,000) (69)

Walk…

As part of a longer journey 77 84

To complete small errands such as getting a

newspaper or posting a letter

86 81

To get to work/school/college 52 78

To visit friends and relatives 49 58

To visit pubs/restaurants/cinemas and other

social places

53 53

To take a child to school 18 25

Bus

Regular bus use is common among younger Londoners. Seventy-one per cent of

Londoners under 25 years old use the bus at least once a week and 40 per cent use

the bus almost every day (5+ times a week) [12]. For some young people in

London, the bus offers a more social form of transport (while not being as

expensive as other social types of transport such as the Tube) [56].

‘We like to get the bus because you can catch up and have a good chat.’ (Girl, 15

years old)

‘We just like hanging out with our friends on the back of the bus.’ (Boy, 15 years

old) [56]

Frequency of travelling by bus (2013/14) [12]

% All

Aged 24 &

under

5-10 11-15 16-24

Base (15,700) (4,220) (1,417) (954) (1,849)

5 or more days a week 28 40 17 53 47

3 or 4 days a week 12 11 6 10 14

2 days a week 11 10 12 9 10

1 day a week 10 10 13 9 8

At least once a fortnight 5 4 6 3 3

At least once a month 10 9 15 6 6

At least once a year 14 12 24 8 7

Not used in last year 7 3 4 2 3

Never used 2 1 3 1 1

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Younger People 167


Younger People

Londoners aged 16-19 are more likely to travel by bus for school or education and

to visit friends and relatives both during the day and at night, compared to all bus

users. However, they are less likely to travel by bus for work purposes than bus

users overall [28].

Purpose of bus journey by age and time of day (2014) [28]

During the day

At night

% All Aged 16-19 All Aged 16-19

Base (weighted) (37,585) (3,574) (9,121) (862)

To/from or for work 53 22 53 28

To/from

school/education

7 36 4 13

To/from shopping 11 8 1 2

Visiting

friends/relatives

9 13 13 20

Leisure 9 11 21 23

Personal business 7 5 2 6

Other purpose 3 5 6 10

Car

Travelling as a passenger in a car is common among younger Londoners. Two

thirds (66 per cent) travel this way at least once a week. Travelling by car as a

passenger is much more frequent among Londoners under the age of 16; 76 per

cent of Londoners aged between five and 15 are car passengers at least once a

week [12].

Thirty-four per cent of Londoners aged 17-24 hold a full driving licence; this

compares to 64 per cent of all Londoners [12].

Proportion of Londoners aged 17 and over with a full car driving licence (2013/14) [12]

% All 17-24 25+

Base (13,127) (1,647) (11,480)

Holds a full car driving licence 64 34 69

Transport for London – Younger People 168


Younger People

Londoners aged 16-24 are marginally less likely to live in a household with access

to a car than all Londoners (59 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds compared with 66 per

cent of all Londoners). Younger Londoners however - those aged between 5 and

16 years old - are more likely to have access to car [12].

Proportion of Londoners in a household with access to a car (2013/14) [12]

% All 5-16 16-24

Base (15,700) (2,371) (1,849)

0 cars 35 29 41

1 car 46 53 35

2+ cars 20 17 24

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Tube

Thirty-three per cent of younger Londoners use the Tube at least once a week,

which is lower than the proportion for all Londoners (39 per cent). Broadly, the

propensity to use the TTube at least once a week among younger Londoners

increases with age; 16 to 24 year olds are the most likely to use the Tube at least

once a week (52 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds use the Tube at least once a week

compared with 17 per cent of 11 to 15 year olds and 11 per cent of 5 to 10 year olds)

[12].

Frequency of travelling by Tube (2013/14) [12]

% All

Aged 24 &

under

5-10 11-15 16-24

Base (15,700) (4,220) (1,417) (954) (1,849)

5 or more days a week 15 11 - 3 21

3 or 4 days a week 7 6 1 1 11

2 days a week 8 6 2 5 9

1 day a week 9 9 8 8 10

At least once a fortnight 8 7 7 6 7

At least once a month 15 17 18 19 15

At least once a year 25 31 44 43 19

Not used in last year 11 8 11 10 5

Never used 3 4 8 4 2

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Younger People 169


Younger People

Cycling

The same proportion of younger Londoners (aged 16-24) as all Londoners

sometimes cycle in London; 18 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds sometimes use a

bicycle to get around London. Fourteen per cent of younger Londoners cycle

regularly (at least once a week) in London [17].

Proportion of Londoners who cycle (November 2014) [17]

% All 16-24

Base (2,192) (281)

Cyclist (sometimes uses a bike to get around

London)

Non-cyclist (never uses a bike to get around

London)

17

83

18

82

The frequency of cycling among 16 to 24 year old Londoners is in line with the

frequency among all Londoners [17].

Frequency of travelling by bicycle (November 2014) [17]

% All 16-24

Base (2,192) (281)

5 or more days a week 4 4

3 or 4 days a week 5 3

2 days a week 3 3

1 day a week 2 3

At least once a fortnight 1 -

At least once a month 1 1

At least once a year 2 3

Not used in last year - -

Never used 83 82

Most Londoners know how to ride a bike (83 per cent of all Londoners can ride a

bicycle). The proportion is even higher among younger Londoners aged 16-24 (88

per cent of 16 to 24 year olds can ride a bicycle) [17].

Proportion of Londoners able to ride a bike (November 2014) [17]

% All 16-24

Base (2,192) (281)

Can ride a bike 83 88

Cannot ride a bike 17 12

Transport for London – Younger People 170


Younger People

TfL has developed a behavioural change model to look at Londoners’ readiness to

cycle or cycle more. Sixty-nine per cent of Londoners classified themselves as

being in the ‘pre-contemplation’ category (defined in the table below). Younger

Londoners are equally likely to be in the ‘pre-contemplation’ stage as the all

Londoners average (64 per cent among 16 to 24 year olds and 69 per cent among

all Londoners) [17].

A slightly higher proportion of younger Londoners are in the ‘contemplation’

phase (15 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds compared with 10 per cent of all

Londoners); this phase relates to thinking about cycling soon.

A similar proportion of 16-24 year olds to all Londoners (nine per cent compared

with 10 per cent all Londoners) are classified as being in the ‘sustained change’

category, meaning that they started cycling a while ago and are still doing it

occasionally or regularly [17].

Behaviour change model of cycling (November 2014) [17]

% All 16-24

Base (all) (2,192) (281)

Pre-contemplation:

‘You have never thought about it, but would be unlikely to start in the future’

‘You have thought about it, but don’t intend starting in the future’

‘You have never thought about it, but could be open to it in the future’

Contemplation:

‘You are thinking about starting soon’

Preparation:

‘You have decided to start soon’

Change:

‘You have tried to start recently, but am finding it difficult’

‘You have started recently and am finding it quite easy so far’

Sustained change:

‘You started a while ago and am still doing it occasionally’

‘You started a while ago and am still doing it regularly’

Lapsed:

‘You started doing this but couldn’t stick to it’

69 64

10 15

3 3

2 3

10 9

6 7

Among younger people who do not cycle, there are several perceived barriers. For

some people aged 16-19, cycling is strongly associated with childhood and

therefore they are keen to distance themselves from this youthful association. For

others, using a bike to travel can limit spontaneity and is less sociable than other

transport types such as the bus. Other possible barriers focus on the cost of buying

and maintaining a bike, and the possibility of getting dirty/messing up clothing

and hair through cycling [57].

A key barrier to younger Londoners cycling, particularly younger children, is the

perceived safety of the cycling environment by parents. This remains a strong

barrier, even when the parent perceives their child to be a skilful cyclist [63].

Transport for London – Younger People 171


Younger People

Cycling schemes

Most Londoners aged between 16 and 24 are aware of Cycle Hire (85 per cent), but

this is a little bit lower than the proportion of all Londoners (91 per cent) [17].

Thirty-two per cent of casual Cycle Hire users (defined as not having a Cycle Hire

key) are aged between 16 and 24 but only three per cent of members are aged 16-

24 [58].

Thirty-eight per cent of younger Londoners say that they are likely to use Cycle

Hire in the future, a higher proportion than Londoners overall (27 per cent) [17].

Expected use of Cycle Hire in future (November 2014) [17]

% All 16-24

Base (1,180) (148)

Yes, definitely/ probably 27 38

Yes, definitely 9 12

Yes, probably 18 26

No, probably not 30 30

No, definitely not 33 22

Not sure 10 10

Awareness of Cycle Superhighways among younger Londoners is lower than

among all Londoners; 42 per cent of Londoners aged 16-24 are aware of the

scheme, compared with 61 per cent of all Londoners [17].

Expected future use of Cycle Superhighways is similar for younger Londoners

(aged 16-24) as for all Londoners; 17 per cent say that they are likely to use Cycle

Superhighways in the future compared to 23 per cent of all Londoners [17].

Expected use of Cycle Superhighways (November 2014) [17]

% All 16-24

Base (1,180) (148)

Yes, definitely/ probably 23 17

Yes, definitely 6 5

Yes, probably 17 12

No, probably not 28 38

No, definitely not 31 23

Not sure 17 22

Transport for London – Younger People 172


Younger People

Cycling education

We manage a number of initiatives that are aimed at encouraging cycling,

particularly for younger Londoners. These include direct support for education

resources such as the Children’s Traffic Club, as well as supporting cycling

initiatives within schools and colleges such as the Junior Travel Ambassadors

programme.

At least 95 per cent of London’s schools have established school travel plans.

These set out how the school can encourage safe sustainable travel among the

whole school community. Around half of London’s schools have signed up to

STAR, the School Travel Accredited and Recognised scheme, which recognises

schools that actively address the challenges of their travel plan. Seventy-one per

cent of participating STAR schools reported that cycling had increased since they

participated in the scheme and 86 per cent said that walking had increased. Most

schools put this down to the STAR programme at least in part [59].

Since 2006, TfL has funded Bike It, an initiative to encourage cycling within the

school environment. Bike It officers now work in more than 100 schools. In Bike It

schools, six per cent of journeys to and from school are made by bike compared

with three per cent at non-Bike It schools [60].

Journey purpose

Travel choices are thought to change through two key stages in younger people’s

lives. The first transition occurs with the shift from primary to secondary

education. Key determinants of travel choices at this stage are to do with

independence and peer influence. For many young people, travel enables

independence, socialisation and recognition of maturity. Younger Londoners aged

between 11 and 15 increasingly travel independently, although they may have

limited knowledge of public transport [56].

When people reach the age of 16 to 18, travel becomes less orientated around

having fun and is perceived as a means to an end, at which point practicalities

(such as cost and speed of journey) become more important in determining travel

choices [56].

Three-fifths of the journeys made by Londoners aged between five and 15 are for

education-related reasons. Shopping and personal business trips are more

common among Londoners aged 16-24 than those under 16 [12].

Among Londoners aged 16-24, 15 per cent of weekday journeys are to travel to

and from a usual place of work and a further six per cent are for other work-related

reasons [12].

Transport for London – Younger People 173


Younger People

Weekday journey purpose (2013/14) [12]

% All Aged 24 &

under

Base – all trips by Londoners

5-10 11-15 16-24

Shopping/personal business 24 16 13 13 20

Usual workplace 20 7 - - 15

Leisure 23 26 22 24 29

Education 19 42 59 60 25

Other work-related 8 3 - - 6

Other 6 5 5 4 5

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Travel to/from school

The most common form of transport to and from school among Londoners aged

under 16 is walking. Forty-four per cent of school journeys are made on foot [12].

Walking is more common among children aged between 5 and 10 than those aged

between 11 and 15 (54 per cent among 5 to 10 year olds compared with 31 per cent

among 11 to 15 year olds) [12].

The proportion of younger Londoners using the bus to get to and from school also

changes between children aged 5-10 and 11-15; 14 per cent of 5 to 10 year old

Londoners use the bus to travel to and from school compared with 45 per cent of

11 to 15 year olds [12].

The next most common form of transport to and from school is the car (as a

passenger). Travelling by car is more common for younger children (28 per cent of

5 to 10 year old Londoners compared with 14 per cent of 11 to 15 year olds) [12].

Main types of travel to school (2013/14) [12]

% 5-15 5-10 11-15

Base (2,371) (1,417) (954)

Walking 44 54 31

Bus 27 14 45

Car (as a passenger) 22 28 14

Tube 1 - 2

National Rail/Overground 1 - 1

Cycling 1 1 2

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

The average length of a journey to school increases from 1.6 miles among 5 to 10

year olds to 3.7 miles among 11 to 16 year olds [54].

Transport for London – Younger People 174


Younger People

Average length of journey to/from school for Londoners (2013) [54]

Miles 5-10 11-16

Average length of trip 1.6 3.7

Ticket types

Younger Londoners have a variety of ticket options available to them:








Under five years old – travel free with a paying adult

Five to 10 year olds – travel free with a paying adult or free with a 5-10 Zip

Oyster photocard. Fares are applied on most National Rail services. However, a

5-10 Oyster photocard can be obtained that enables a discounted child rate

which is cheaper than paying cash

Eleven to 15 year olds – free travel on buses and trams and pay child fares on

the Tube, DLR, Overground and some National Rail services with an 11-15 Zip

Oyster photocard. Eleven to 15 year olds can also travel free on Tube, DLR and

London Overground services at any time as long as they are accompanied by

an adult using a valid Visitor Oyster card or Travelcard ticket

Children aged 5-15 pay child rate fares on the Emirates Air Line

Sixteen to 18 year olds who live in a London borough can travel free on buses

and trams, and also use pay as you go at half the adult rate on all other TfL

services (subject to specific age and full-time education status criteria)

Students aged 18 years old and over receive a reduction of 30 per cent against

adult rate Travelcards, bus and tram passes

Apprentices receive a reduction of 30 per cent against adult rate Travelcards,

bus and tram passes

The proportion of 16 to 24 year olds with an Oyster card is 75 per cent – higher

than all Londoners (60 per cent of all Londoners have an Oyster card). Young

people under 16 are considerably less likely to have an Oyster card (30 per cent of

11 to 15 year olds have one), reflecting the greater opportunities for free or

reduced travel for this age group [12].

Londoners aged 16-24 are more likely than all Londoners to use an Oyster pay as

you go card (67 per cent compared with 58 per cent) [32].

Tickets and passes used on public transport (January 2015) [32]

% All 16-24

Base: Public transport users: (975) (110)

Oyster PAYG 58 67

Oyster Season ticket 20 26

Contactless payment 16 15

Cash/single/return 10 7

Any other Travelcard 7 5

Freedom Pass 21 2

Transport for London – Younger People 175


Younger People

Possession of an Oyster card (2013/14) [12]

% All

Aged 24 &

under

5-10 11-15 16-24

Base (15,700) (4,220) (1,417) (954) (1,849)

Have an Oyster card 60 44 1 30 75

Do not have an Oyster card 40 56 99 70 25

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Note that Oyster card ownership excludes Freedom Passes, Oyster photocards and Zip cards.

Possession of passes/cards entitling the holder to free or reduced travel is higher

among under 25 year olds than all Londoners; it is particularly elevated for 11 to 15

year olds with 83 per cent in possession of a free bus travel pass [12].

This data reflects possession, rather than use of passes/cards for free or reduced

travel.

Possession of pass/card entitling free travel/reduced fares (2013/14) [12]

% All

Aged 24 &

under

5-10 11-15 16-24

Base (15,700) (4,220) (1,417) (954) (1,849)

Free bus travel pass 9 32 7 83 25

Free Tube/rail travel pass 1 2 2 2 1

Reduced bus travel pass 3 6 - 2 11

Reduced Tube/rail travel

pass

9 21 2 32 28

*Note that LTDS data excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Younger People 176


Younger People

Barriers

Barriers to greater public transport use

For younger Londoners aged between 16 and 24 years old the issue that they most

commonly say prevents them from using public transport more often is

overcrowded services. This is also the most commonly mentioned barrier for all

Londoners (65 per cent of 16 to 24 year old Londoners compared with 59 per cent

all Londoners) [14].

Following overcrowded services, the second most mentioned issue is slow journey

times. Fifty per cent of younger Londoners say that slow journey times stop them

from using public transport more often, compared with 41 per cent of all

Londoners. Other areas where a greater proportion of younger Londoners report

barriers than all Londoners are:

Unreliable services (46 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds compared with 37 per

cent of all Londoners)

Dirty environment on the bus/train (37 per cent compared with 28 per cent)

Dirty environment getting to the bus/train (24 per cent compared with 18

per cent)

Risk of accidents (14 per cent compared with 9 per cent) [14].

Barriers to using public transport more often (prompted) (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All 16-24

Base (4,005) (299)

Overcrowded services 59 65

Cost of tickets 45 49

Slow journey times 41 50

Concern about antisocial behaviour 34 28

Unreliable services 37 46

Dirty environment on the bus/train 28 37

Fear of crime getting to/ waiting for the

bus/train

24 28

Fear of crime on the bus/train 23 24

Fear about knife crime 20 23

Dirty environment getting to the bus/train 18 24

Fear of terrorist attacks 12 16

Graffiti 10 9

Lack of information on how to use public

transport

10 8

Risk of accidents 9 14

Don’t understand how to buy bus tickets 5 5

None of these 17 9

Transport for London – Younger People 177


Younger People

Safety and security

We use a typology of worry to monitor the perceptions of Londoners with regard

to their personal security while using public transport in London. The typology

classifies people into:






Unworried – reports no general worry and no episodes of recent worry

Unexpressed fear – reports no general worry, but specific recent episodes

Anxious – reports general worry, but no specific recent episodes

Worried – reports general worry, and specific recent episodes

Don’t know

The majority of Londoners fall into the ‘unworried’ category which means that

they are generally unworried about their personal security in London, and have

experienced no incidents that made them feel worried in the last three months.

The proportion of younger Londoners (16-24) who are ‘unworried’ is in line with

the average across all Londoners (73 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds compared with

75 per cent all Londoners) [14].

Typology of worry (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All 16-24

Base (4,005) (299)

Unworried 75 73

Unexpressed 11 14

Anxious 6 5

Worried 6 6

Don’t know 2 2

A similar pattern is observed for each typology of worry with younger Londoners

(16-24) in line with all Londoners [14].

We observed very little difference between the levels of concern about personal

security when using public transport in London between those aged 16-24 and all

Londoners [14].

Levels of concern about personal security when using public transport in London (Jan/

Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All 16-24

Base (4,005) (299)

Not at all worried 42 45

A little bit worried 45 43

Quite a bit worried 9 9

Very worried 3 2

Don’t know 1 2

Transport for London – Younger People 178


Younger People

A similar proportion of younger Londoners and all Londoners take precautions

against crime when using public transport (36 per cent aged 16-24 compared with

38 per cent all Londoners). [14]

The most common precaution for both younger and all Londoners is to sit by other

people (47 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds compared with 34 per cent of all

Londoners). Younger Londoners are more likely to say that they travel with

someone else as a precaution against crime (43 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds

compared with 23 per cent of all Londoners), that they use a different route to

travel (28 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds compared with 15 per cent of all

Londoners) and that they avoid using specific types of transport (20 per cent of 16

to 24 year olds compared with 12 per cent of all Londoners). Younger Londoners

are also less likely than all Londoners to say that they look after their belongings

(17 per cent aged of 16 to 24 year olds compared with 29 per cent of all Londoners)

or stay aware and vigilant when travelling (four per cent of 16 to 24 year olds

compared with 15 per cent of all Londoners) [14].

Precautions taken (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All 16-24

Base (all who take precautions) (1,507) (110)

Sat near to other people 34 47

Look after my belongings 29 17

Travelled with someone else 23 43

Travel at a different time of day 16 23

Used a different route 15 28

Stay aware/vigilant 15 4

Avoided using that transport type 12 20

Only take necessities with me 3 2

Carry a personal alarm 3 -

Note responses 2% or below among all Londoners not shown.

In terms of actual experiences, the proportion of younger Londoners who have felt

worried about their personal security when using public transport in the past three

months is higher than the average across all Londoners (20 per cent of 16 to 24

year olds compared with 17 per cent all Londoners). Younger Londoners who have

experienced a worrying incident in the three months prior to being surveyed were

much more likely to have experienced this during night-time (71 per cent of the

most recent episodes of worry were experienced in the night-time compared with

58 per cent among all Londoners who have experienced a worrying incident) [14].

Those who have felt worried about their personal security when using public

transport in the last three months were asked on which type of transport they

experienced this event. Younger Londoners are more likely than all Londoners to

have experienced the last worrying incident on a bus (65 per cent of those aged

16-24 experiencing a worry event compared with 48 per cent all Londoners) [14].

Transport for London – Younger People 179


Younger People

Crime and antisocial behaviour concerns affect frequency of travel on the Tube, bus or

National Rail ‘a little’ or ‘a lot’ for slightly more than half of Londoners (53 per cent). The

frequency of public transport use being affected ‘a little’ or ‘a lot’ among 16 to 24 year olds

is higher, with 65 per cent saying that their frequency of use is affected a little or a lot [14].

Proportion of Londoners for whom concerns over crime/antisocial behaviour affect the

frequency of their public transport use ‘a lot/a little’ (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All 16-24

Base (4,005) (299)

Overall: During the day/after dark

Underground/buses/National Rail 53 65

During the day:

Underground/buses/National Rail 22 30

Underground 16 22

Buses 17 25

National Rail 11 16

After dark:

Underground/buses/National Rail 49 62

Underground 37 46

Buses 42 55

National Rail 29 31

Transport for London – Younger People 180


Younger People

The use of illegal (unbooked) minicabs

We have run the Safer Travel at Night (STaN) campaign since 2003, aiming to

reduce the use of illegal (unbooked) minicabs. We target our communication

campaigns in this area particularly at young women aged between 16 and 34 [36].

We conduct research every year to monitor the use of unbooked minicabs among

our target audience and we also evaluate the communications campaign to

determine its effectiveness.

One per cent of those aged 16-24 used an illegal (unbooked) minicab to reach their

onward destination on the night that we interviewed them. This is the same

proportion as all of those we interviewed 7 [36].

The future likelihood of using an unbooked minicab stands at 19 per cent for 16 to

24 year olds [36].

The use of illegal (unbooked) minicabs (2015) [36]

% All 16-34

Use of illegal minicabs

Base (651) (554)

Used an illegal minicab to reach onward

destination on night of interview

1 1

Likely to use illegal minicab in future 19 19

Unlikely to use illegal minicab in future 80 79

We have included more information on STaN in the chapter on women.

Road traffic injuries

Despite a spike in the number of children reported killed or seriously injured in

London in 2012, the most up-to-date figures show a return to the declining trend

(from 331 in 2007 to 187 in 2013) [18].

Number of reported killed or seriously injured child road casualties in London over time

[18]

Number 0-15 16-24

2007 331 696

2008 310 665

2009 263 598

2010 250 515

2011 230 510

2012 270 496

2013 187 385

7 The sample for this study comprises people recruited in the queues of popular London late night venues, and

is therefore not necessarily reflective of the London population as a whole.

Transport for London – Younger People 181


Younger People

We have run a number of successful Teen Road Safety campaigns where recall and

awareness of our communications is high. However, the campaigns appear to

have more impact on knowledge than behaviour [61]. Eighty-eight per cent of 11

to 15 year olds recognise that ‘It’s important to stop and think before crossing the

road’, and yet there are some residual attitudes among younger Londoners which

reveal a potentially unsafe approach to road safety. Forty-four per cent agree they

take no notice of road safety, 40 per cent say that they cross the road anywhere

rather than going out of their way to use a crossing and 37 per cent run across the

road [62].

This is confirmed in other research which suggests that young people can often be

distracted by their friends and their belongings (such as phones and headphones)

when crossing the road [61].

The proportion of those aged 11-15 who agree that they are always/usually careful

when crossing the road with friends stands at 73 per cent. However, 36 per cent

say they always/usually look at their phones while crossing the road [62].

Transport for London – Younger People 182


Younger People

Changing behaviours

We have run several campaigns to encourage safer travel behaviours, conducting

research while we developed of these communications. Our research showed us

that to encourage safer behaviour among younger people when crossing roads,

any communications campaigns that we create need an emotional motivator

alongside a directional reminder. Friendship is considered to be a strong

emotional motivator. Our directional reminders focus on road safety lessons from

childhood (for example, Stop, Look, Listen, Think.) [61].

In 2014, we trialled ‘Children’s Traffic Club’ (CTC), a new initiative to improve

awareness and understanding of road safety among younger children. CTC

included a series of DVDs and interactive exercises. Engagement was high, with

94 per cent of parents who were sent the books using at least one of the materials

and 75 per cent using all the materials. At least 70 per cent of parents found these

materials easy to use or interesting for their children [64].

CTC had a positive impact on children’s attitudes and behaviour. Eighty-seven per

cent of parents agreed that their child seemed ‘more aware of road safety and

potential dangers’ as a result of CTC. Furthermore, the majority of parents noticed

an improvement in their child’s actual behaviour when crossing roads. Over 70 per

cent of parents agreed that their child stopped at the kerb to look and listen more,

waited until the safe to cross light went green at pelican crossings before crossing

or pressed the button for the green light more often. Sixty-eight per cent reported

that their child stopped walking or running near roads more when they were told

to [64].

Transport for London – Younger People 183


Younger People

Customer satisfaction

Overall satisfaction

We measure overall satisfaction with various transport types in London on an 11-

point scale, with 10 representing extremely satisfied and zero representing

extremely dissatisfied. We then scale this up to 100).

We have standardised satisfaction ratings which we have laid out in the table

below. This allows us to apply consistent analysis across a wide range of

satisfaction research.

Average rating

Level of satisfaction

Under 50

Very low/weak/poor

50-54 Low/weak/poor

55-64 Fairly/relatively/quite low/weak/poor

65-69 Fair/reasonable

70-79 Fairly/relatively/quite good

80-84 Good or fairly high

85-90 Very good or high

90+ Excellent or very high

We do not collect customer satisfaction data from people aged under 16.

There is very little difference between the satisfaction levels of younger people

and those of all Londoners.

Transport for London – Younger People 184


Younger People

Overall satisfaction with transport types (2014/15) [16]

Satisfaction score (0-100) All 16-24 16-19 20-24

Bus services

Base (14,155) (2,802) (1,501) (1,301)

Satisfaction score 85 84 84 84

Bus stations

Base (3,626) (935) (388) (547)

Satisfaction score 78 78 79 78

Night bus

Base (910) (266) (76) (190)

Satisfaction score 81 80 80 80

Underground

Base (17,634) (3,657) (904) (2,753)

Satisfaction score 84 85 85 85

Overground

Base (5,397) (1,216) (290) (926)

Satisfaction score 83 83 84 83

DLR

Base (13,398) (3,231) (790) (2,441)

Satisfaction score 89 88 88 88

Trams

Base (4,329) (709) (400) (309)

Satisfaction score 89 88 88 88

Victoria Coach Station

Base (1,204) (448) (129) (319)

Satisfaction score 82 81 84 81

London River Services

Base (2,106) (192) (35*) (157)

Satisfaction score 90 89 - 89

* Denotes small base size (percentages not shown in this report for base sizes of less than 50).

Satisfaction is not shown for Dial-a-Ride, black cabs, minicabs and Woolwich Ferry due to small base sizes.

Transport for London – Younger People 185


Score out of 100

Younger People

Bus

Satisfaction among bus users is good/fairly high at 85 out of 100. Satisfaction

among younger customers aged 16-24 is in line with customers overall (84 out of

100 among 16 to 24 year olds compared with 85 out of 100 of all customers) [16].

Satisfaction with safety and security at the bus stop/shelter and safety and

security on board buses is also the same between younger and all customers (86

out of 100 for both younger and all customers for safety and security at bus

stop/shelter, and 89 out of 100 for both younger and all customers for safety and

security on board the bus) [16].

Overall satisfaction with buses has increased over time for younger customers –

from 73 out of 100 in 2002/03 to 84 in 2014/15. This is in line with trends seen

among all customers [16].

Overall satisfaction with buses over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

76 77 78 78 77 79 80 79 80 80 82 83 85

73 74 75 74 75 78 77 78 78 78 81 81 84

All customers

16 to 24 year old customers

Transport for London – Younger People 186


Score out of 100

Younger People

Younger customers’ satisfaction with the value for money of bus services is also in

line with the average for all customers (70 out of 100 among 16 to 24 year olds

compared with 72 out of 100 all customers) [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with buses over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

78 77

75 73

72 72 71

68

66 66

74 74 73

72 71 72

69

67

66 68

65 66

71 72

70 70

50

40

30

20

10

0

Drivers of satisfaction

All customers

16 to 24 year old customers

Ease of making journeys, journey time and comfort inside the bus are key factors

for younger people in terms of bus customer satisfaction scores. Satisfaction

among 16 to 19 year olds is also driven by safety and security at stops and shelters,

while for slightly older customers (20 to 24 year olds), interior information is a

driver of satisfaction [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for bus users [16]

All customers 16-19 20-24

Journey time Ease of making journey Journey time

Ease of making journey Comfort inside the bus Ease of making journey

Comfort inside the bus

Safety and security at stops

and shelters

Interior information

Satisfaction with info on delays

at stop

Time waited to catch bus

Journey time

Time waited to catch bus

Comfort inside the bus

Driver approachability and

helpfulness

Transport for London – Younger People 187


Score out of 100

Younger People

Tube

Satisfaction with the Tube among younger customers (16 to 24 year olds) is

almost the same as for all customers, (85 out of 100 compared with 84 out of 100

all customers) [16].

Satisfaction with safety and security in the station scores fairly highly at 86 out of

100 for both young people and all customers, and safety on the train also scores

highly (88 out of 100 for young people and 87 out of 100 for all customers) [16].

Overall, satisfaction with the Tube has risen considerably among younger

customers and all customers in recent years. Among 16 to 24 year olds,

satisfaction has risen from 74 out of 100 in 2002/03 to 85 out of 100 in 2014/15 [16].

Overall satisfaction with the Tube over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

75 76 78 78 76 77

74 76 77 77 76 77

79 79 79 80

79 80 78 80

83 83 85

83 82

84

50

40

30

20

10

0

All customers

16 to 24 year old customers

Transport for London – Younger People 188


Score out of 100

Younger People

Satisfaction with value for money of the Tube is lower than overall satisfaction.

Customers aged 16-24 give the Tube a score of 67 out of 100, which is slightly

lower than the score given by all customers of 69 out of 100 [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with the Tube over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

50

63 64 62 62 61 63

60 61 59 58 58

61

65 67

63

67

65

62

62

60

66 67

64 64

69

67

40

30

20

10

0

Drivers of satisfaction

All customers

16 to 24 year old customers

Ease of making journeys, comfort and length of journey are the three main drivers

of customer satisfaction among younger Tube users. These factors are also the

top three drivers of all Tube customer satisfaction [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for Tube users [16]

All customers 16-19 20-24

Ease of making journey Ease of making journey Ease of making journey

Length of journey time Comfort of journey Length of journey time

Comfort of journey Length of journey time Comfort of journey

Length of time waiting for train Train driver announcements Personal safety on train

Personal safety on train Helpfulness of PA Smoothness of journey

Transport for London – Younger People 189


Younger People

Overground

Overall satisfaction with the Overground is good/fairly high among younger

customers at 83 out 100. This is the same score given by all customers [16].

Overall satisfaction with London Overground over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All 16-24 16-19 20-24

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (5,397) (1,216) (290) (926)

2009/10 73 74 76 73

2010/11 80 79 79 80

2011/12 82 81 80 81

2012/13 82 82 80 82

2013/14 82 81 80 81

2014/15 83 83 84 83

As seen in our research results for the Tube and buses, value for money

satisfaction scores for the Overground are lower than the overall satisfaction

score. Younger customers rate overall satisfaction with value for money with the

Overground at 72 out of 100, and this is in line with all customers who rate value

for money at 73 out of 100. There has been little change in people’s perception of

value for money over the past three years, except among 16 to 19 year olds, whose

level of satisfaction has risen by 10 points from 67 to 77 out of 100 [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with London Overground over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All 16-24 16-19 20-24

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (5,182) (1,180) (287) (893)

2011/12 72 70 67 70

2012/13 71 70 68 70

2013/14 70 68 71 67

2014/15 73 72 77 71

Transport for London – Younger People 190


Younger People

Drivers of satisfaction

Customer satisfaction among younger Overground users is driven by similar

factors to all customers. However, younger users tend to be more focused on

information at stations than all customers [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for Overground users [16]

All customers Aged 16-24

Ease of making journey

Condition and state of repair of the train

Feel valued as a customer

Comfort of the train

Information about service disruption on the

train

Condition and state of repair of the train

Information about service disruptions at the

station

Ease of making journey

Comfort while waiting for the train

Information about service disruption on the

train

Docklands Light Railway (DLR)

Overall satisfaction with the DLR is rated ‘fairly high’ among younger customers at

88 out of 100. This is in line with the average given by all customers (89 out 100).

The last three years have seen much higher satisfaction with the DLR amongst

both younger and all customers [16].

Overall satisfaction with DLR over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All 16-24 16-19 20-24

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (13,398) (3,231) (790) (2,441)

2009/10 81 80 79 80

2010/11 81 81 78 82

2011/12 82 82 82 82

2012/13 87 87 86 87

2013/14 87 87 86 87

2014/15 89 88 88 88

Value for money satisfaction with the DLR among younger customers is in line

with customers overall (77 out of 100 for both 16 to 24 year old customers and all

customers). Satisfaction with value for money amongst younger customers

returns to a higher level after a drop in 2013/14 [16].

Transport for London – Younger People 191


Younger People

Satisfaction with value for money with DLR over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All 16-24 16-19 20-24

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (12,839) (3,103) (756) (2,347)

2011/12 72 70 71 70

2012/13 74 71 72 71

2013/14 75 73 75 72

2014/15 77 77 79 76

Drivers of satisfaction

The key drivers of satisfaction for the DLR are very similar for young people (16-

24) and DLR customers, namely ease of making journeys, reliability of the service,

length of the journey time and feeling valued as a customer [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for DLR users [16]

All customers 16-24

Ease of making journey

Comfort of the train

Length of journey time

Reliability of trains

Feel valued as a customer

Ease of making journey

Reliability of trains

Length of journey time

Feel valued as a customer

Length of time waited for the train

Transport for London – Younger People 192


Younger People

Trams

Overall satisfaction with London’s trams is high among customers at 89 out of

100. This is very similar among younger users (88 out of 100). Satisfaction

amongst younger customers has been catching up with all customer satisfaction,

having been slightly lower over the past few years [16].

Overall satisfaction with trams over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All 16-24 16-19 20-24

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (4,329) (709) (400) (309)

2009/10 86 83 83 84

2010/11 85 80 79 81

2011/12 86 81 81 80

2012/13 89 86 85 88

2013/14 89 86 85 88

2014/15 89 88 88 88

Overall satisfaction with value for money on tram services is quite good (78 out of

100 for all customers and 81 out of 100 for 16 to 24 year olds). Those in their teens

are generally more satisfied with value for money of trams than those in their early

twenties [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with trams over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score All 16-24 16-19 20-24

(0-100)

Base 2014/15 (2,824) (1,801) (1,175) (487)

2011/12 73 75 81 66

2012/13 77 77 82 70

2013/14 78 79 86 72

2014/15 78 81 86 75

Transport for London – Younger People 193


Younger People

Streets

Three quarters (76 per cent) of the younger Londoners we asked about their last

walking journey in London were satisfied with the streets and pavements; the

figure amongst all Londoners is 68 per cent. However, the difference between

these data points is not statistically significant due to the limited sample size of

younger Londoners in the survey [34].

Overall satisfaction with streets and pavement after last journey over time – walking

journey [34]

Net fairly satisfied/very

All 16-24

satisfied (%)

Base 2014/15 (957) (57)

2011 64 75

2012 68 79

2013 69 77

2014 68 86

2015 68 76

There is insufficient sample to detail satisfaction results with car journey and cycling.

Transport for London Road Network (TRLN)

Satisfaction with the TRLN is reasonable to fairly good. Younger users of the

TLRN give a score of 70 out of 100 for walking, 72 out of 100 for travelling by bus

on red routes and 67 out of 100 for driving. Results are similar for younger and all

Londoners [16].

Overall satisfaction – general impression of red routes over time 2014/15 [16]

Satisfaction score (0-100) All 16-24

Walking

Base 2014-15 (1,254) (125)

2013/14 70 72

2014/15 68 70

Travelling by bus

Base 2014-15 (4,620) (483)

2013/14 69 *

2014/15 71 72

Driving

Base 2014-15 (3,605) (169)

2013/14 67 *

2014/15 67 67

Cycling

Base 2014-15 (1,838) (211)

2013/14 69 *

Transport for London – Younger People 194


Younger People

2014/15 70 72

* Denotes small base size (data is not shown in this report for base sizes of less than 50).

Access to information

Access to the internet

Younger Londoners aged 16-24 are significantly more likely to access the internet

than all Londoners (99 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds access the internet compared

with 92 per cent of all Londoners). Ninety-six per cent of younger Londoners

access the internet at home, 76 per cent ‘on the move’ and 49 per cent at work.

Internet access on the move is considerably higher among younger Londoners

than Londoners overall [15].

Internet access (Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

% All Londoners 16-24

Base (2,001) (139)

Any access 92 99

Access at home 89 96

Access ‘on the move’ 61 76

Access at work 56 49

The reasons why younger Londoners use the internet are broadly in line with all

London internet users, but there are some notable differences.

The largest difference in percentage points between younger Londoners and all

Londoners in terms of internet use is for:

Playing games (59 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds do this compared with 36 per

cent of all Londoners, a 23 point difference)

Social media and networking (91 per cent compared with 70 per cent)

Watching video content (81 per cent compared with 63 per cent)

Apps for mobile devices (81 per cent compared with 63 per cent) [15].

Transport for London – Younger People 195


Younger People

Reasons for using the internet (Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

% All 16-24

Base (1,679) (138)

Email 94 92

Social media and networking 70 91

Finding information 89 86

Watching video content 63 81

Apps for mobile devices 63 81

Maps and directions 84 80

Accessing live public transport information 78 77

Buying goods/services 79 73

Education related 64 73

Sharing photos 58 68

Making day-to-day travel plans 67 59

Playing games 36 59

Banking 68 58

Work-related 65 51

Contacting companies for customer service 53 37

Device usage and behaviour

Ninety-six per cent of 16 to 24 year olds use a smartphone, which is a significantly

higher proportion than Londoners overall (77 per cent) [15].

Proportion of Londoners who use a smartphone (iPhone, BlackBerry, other) (Apr/ Oct

2014) [15]

% Base Smartphone ownership

All Londoners (2,001) 77

16 to 24 year old Londoners (139) 96

16 to 24 year old white

Londoners

16 to 24 year old BAME

Londoners

(70) 94

(64) 100

Fifty-five per cent of Londoners aged 16-24 use an iPhone and 37 per cent use an

Android phone [15].

A key reason that those from younger age groups use these devices is to stay connected to

their friends. Thirty-eight per cent of 8 to 17 year olds use devices ‘so they know what

others are doing,’ and 30 per cent use sites for ‘fear of missing out.’[71]

Transport for London – Younger People 196


Younger People

Using the TfL website

Younger Londoners (aged 16-24) are more likely than all Londoners to use the TfL

website, with 83 per cent doing so compared with 78 per cent of all Londoners

[15].

Younger users of the TfL website are more likely to visit the site on a frequent

basis than all users. Among the 16-24 age group, 21 per cent visit www.tfl.gov.uk

on a daily basis compared with ten per cent of all users [15].

Proportion of Londoners who use www.tfl.gov.uk (Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

% All 16-24

Base (2,001) (139)

Use the TfL website 78 83

Daily 10 21

Up to 3-4 times a week 21 20

Up to 3-4 times a month 20 20

About once a month 17 12

Less than once a month 11 10

Never 20 15

Don’t know/ refused 2 2

Higher proportions of users aged 16-24 (compared to all other users) visit the TfL

website to use Journey Planner (77 per cent compared with 68 per cent), to find

out about live travel information (35 per cent compared with 30 per cent) and to

find out about planned works or closures (29 per cent compared with 24 per cent)

[37].

Main purpose of today’s visit to the TfL website (2013) [37]

% All 16-24

Base (28,278) (3,460)

Using Journey Planner to plan a route 68 77

Finding out live travel information 30 35

Finding out about planned works or closures 24 29

Doing something related to Oyster cards or

other tickets

20 25

Finding a map 15 16

Doing something related to Congestion Charge 4 5

Finding out about cycling 3 3

Finding out about roads or driving 2 2

Other 4 5

Transport for London – Younger People 197


Younger People

Accessing information in the event of travel disruption

Younger Londoners are more likely to seek real-time travel information than all

Londoners (87 per cent compared with 82 per cent). Although they use them

more, they look for similar information sources as all Londoners. The most

commonly used source of travel information by 16 to 24 year olds is the TfL

website (used by 53 per cent compared with 43 per cent of all Londoners), along

with non-TfL apps which are used by 30 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds and 19 per

cent of all Londoners. Staff, announcements or displays at stations are not so

popular among younger Londoners in comparison to all Londoners (47 per cent of

16 to 24 year olds compared with 54 per cent of all Londoners) [15].

Transport for London – Younger People 198


Younger People

Working together

Understanding young Londoners’ travel needs through youth involvement

Our Schools and Young Person Delivery Plan sets out our commitment to engage with

young people and the organisations representing them, to communicate and develop our

programmes.

We engage with more than 30 organisations that work with children and young people

across the Capital. In 2009 we introduced a Youth Panel to include a group of young

Londoners aged between 13 and 25 in our policy-making process.

The Youth Panel runs an annual Youth Participation Day for young people from stakeholder

organisations and we invite them to have their say on TfL’s programmes for young people.

Through interactive workshops, the participants explore the travel needs of young

Londoners and share their views directly with TfL staff.

The Youth Participation Day in November 2013 highlighted the need to continue to

encourage young people to stay safe and act responsibly on London’s roads. It also raised

the importance of travel to young Londoners’ independence, particularly for young

disabled people. This has informed the priorities of the Youth Panel’s 2014 term. The panel

is informing the development of TfL’s Teen Road Safety campaign and meeting with youth

representatives from accessibility stakeholders.

Transport for London – Younger People 199


Disabled People

Summary: Disabled People

Key findings









Fourteen per cent of Londoners consider themselves to have a disability that impacts

their day to day activities ‘a lot’ or ‘a little’ [2]

Ninety per cent of disabled Londoners report that their disability limits their ability to

travel [12]

Disabled Londoners travel less often than non-disabled Londoners (1.9 compared with

2.8 trips on an average weekday) [12]

The most commonly used types of transport by disabled Londoners are walking (78 per

cent of disabled Londoners walk at least once a week), the bus (56 per cent) and car as

the passenger (47 per cent) [12]

The main barriers that disabled Londoners experience and which have an impact upon

their ability to make public transport journeys as often as they would like are often the

same as those expressed by non-disabled Londoners, namely overcrowding and

concerns about the antisocial behaviour of other customers. Disabled customers also

see accessibility-related issues, cost and comfort as barriers to travel [14, 65]

Freedom Passes are the most common ticket type used on TfL services by disabled

Londoners (66 per cent). Twenty-seven per cent of disabled Londoners use Oyster pay

as you go (PAYG), a considerably smaller figure than non-disabled Londoners where

Oyster PAYG is used by 61 per cent [32]

Internet use is lower among disabled Londoners (76 per cent compared with 93 per

cent of non-disabled Londoners) and disabled people are also less likely to use the TfL

website (54 per cent for disabled Londoners compared with 81 per cent for nondisabled

Londoners) [15]

Disabled Londoners are less likely to own a smartphone than non-disabled Londoners

(44 per cent compared with 80 per cent) [15]

Note:

Throughout this report, data relating to disabled people are based on survey and Census

results where respondents have self-defined based on standard questions.

Transport for London – Disabled People 200


Disabled People

Profile of disabled Londoners

There are several sources which aim to quantify the number of disabled people in

London. The primary benchmark source is the 2011 Census, conducted by the

Office for National Statistics. According to the Census, 14 per cent of Londoners

consider themselves to have a long-term health problem or disability that limits

their day-to-day activities ‘a lot’ or ‘a little’, which has lasted, or is expected to last

at least 12 months [2].

TfL also undertakes measurement of the number of disabled people in London on

an ongoing basis as part of our London Travel Demand Survey. This survey uses

slightly different questions (due to the different purpose of the research). Data

from 2013/14 shows that 11 per cent of Londoners consider that they have a longterm

physical or mental disability or health issue that limits their daily activities,

the work they can do and their ability to travel (this includes issues experienced by

older customers) [12].

Fifty-eight per cent of disabled Londoners state that their disability affects their

mobility, 21 per cent have a serious long-term illness and 11 per cent have a

mental health condition [12]. It is important to note, however, that many disabled

people experience multiple impairments.

The profile of disabled Londoners identified in the LTDS varies from that of nondisabled

people and Londoners overall.






Fifty-six per cent of disabled Londoners are women, compared to 50 per cent

of non-disabled Londoners

Forty-four per cent of disabled Londoners are aged 65 or over compared to

nine per cent of non-disabled Londoners. This older age profile of disabled

Londoners has an influence upon many of the findings covered in this report

Sixty-nine per cent of disabled Londoners are white, compared to 61 per cent

of non-disabled Londoners

Eighty-three per cent of disabled Londoners are retired or not working

compared with 24 per cent of non-disabled Londoners

Forty-one per cent of disabled Londoners have household income of less than

£10,000 compared with 15 per cent of non-disabled Londoners [12]

Transport for London – Disabled People 201


Disabled People

Transport behaviour

Disabled Londoners travel less frequently than non-disabled Londoners (1.9

journeys per weekday compared with 2.8 for non-disabled Londoners). While the

main transport types used by disabled Londoners are the same as those used by

non-disabled Londoners (namely walking, bus, and car both as a driver and a

passenger), lower proportions of disabled people use each type of transport at

least once a week than non-disabled Londoners (with the exception of the car as a

passenger where the same proportion of disabled and non-disabled Londoners

travel this way at least once a week) [12].

Disabled Londoners are more likely to walk (78 per cent) and use buses (56 per

cent) at least once a week than other types of transport [12]

Lower proportions of disabled Londoners travel by Tube (16 per cent) and

National Rail (eight per cent). The proportion is considerably lower than for

non-disabled Londoners (41 per cent and 18 per cent respectively) [12]

Disabled Londoners are most likely to use public transport for the purposes of

shopping, personal business and leisure (these trips make up 73 per cent of

journeys by disabled Londoners, compared with 45 per cent for non-disabled

Londoners)

Members of Dial-a-Ride tend to be older than the average disabled Londoner –

81 per cent of Dial-a-Ride members are aged 65 and over, compared to 41 per

cent of all disabled Londoners [30, AB]

Disabled Londoners are more likely to hold an older person’s Freedom Pass (43 per

cent compared with 12 per cent of non-disabled Londoners) and less likely than

non-disabled Londoners to hold an Oyster card (23 per cent compared with 64 per

cent of non-disabled Londoners). Seventeen per cent of disabled people hold a

disabled person’s Freedom Pass [12].

Barriers

We conducted a survey in 2014 to further understand some of the key issues faced

by disabled people travelling on the network. The results show that the majority of

disabled Londoners (61 per cent) would travel more often than they currently do if

they did not experience barriers such as accessibility or cost constraints [65].

Additional journeys that would be made more often without these barriers would

be for leisure and social activities such as visiting friends and family (49 per cent),

entertainment and exercise (41 per cent), social activities such as going to the pub

or to a restaurant (40 per cent) and shopping (34 per cent) [65].

The main issues that affect the ability of disabled Londoners to make public

transport journeys as often as they would like can be summarised as:

Accessibility related (44 per cent)

Cost (21 per cent)

Comfort – incorporating issues such as overcrowding, unsuitable or unavailable

seating (20 per cent)

Availability and reliability (16 per cent) [65]

Transport for London – Disabled People 202


Disabled People

Disabled and non-disabled Londoners alike recognise that TfL has made

improvements to the accessibility of public transport, and 43 per cent of disabled

people think that travelling in London has become more accessible over the past

year [65].

We use a typology of worry to monitor the perceptions of Londoners with regard

to their personal security while using public transport in London. The majority of

Londoners fall into the ‘unworried’ category which means that they are generally

unworried about their personal security in London, and have experienced no

incidents that made them feel worried in the last three months. A lower

proportion of disabled Londoners consider themselves to be ‘unworried’ than nondisabled

Londoners (68 per cent compared with 76 per cent) [14].

In terms of general worry, the disabled people we surveyed felt slightly more

worried than non-disabled people about their personal security when using public

transport in London in the past three months (15 per cent compared with 11 per

cent). Furthermore, among disabled Londoners who have experienced worry,

more disabled people report experiencing such events on a regular basis – 29 per

cent say that they experienced a worrying event five times or more in the past

three months, compared with 17 per cent of non-disabled people who have

experienced worrying events with this frequency [14].

Customer satisfaction





Disabled Londoners’ satisfaction with public transport tends to be in line with

the satisfaction of all Londoners. Disabled and non-disabled bus users are very

satisfied overall (85 out of 100) [16]

Tube satisfaction is also high among disabled users (84 out of 100 compared

with 84 out of 100 for non-disabled Londoners) [16]

Satisfaction with value for money is often higher among disabled Londoners

than non-disabled Londoners [16]. This may be linked to the higher proportion

of disabled Londoners having access to a Freedom Pass [12]

Disabled Londoners are less satisfied with the streets and pavements on their

last walking journey compared with non-disabled Londoners (51 per cent

compared with 71 per cent) [34]

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Disabled People

Access to information

A significantly lower proportion of disabled Londoners access the internet

compared with non-disabled Londoners (76 per cent compared with 93 per cent).

This is true for all age groups, although not to the same extent. Older disabled

Londoners are considerably less likely to access the internet than younger disabled

Londoners (53% of disabled Londoners aged 65 years old or over access the

internet compared with 90% of disabled Londoners aged 16 to 64) [15].

Among disabled Londoners, 54 per cent use the TfL website. This compares to 81

per cent of non-disabled Londoners [15].

Disabled customers use maps and timetables widely, referring to them both at

home and on the journey, and using the ‘disabled sign’ as a quick reference to

confirm whether or not the station will be accessible [66]. Our research indicates

that disabled customers have a higher reliance on paper-based sources than nondisabled

customers. However, this may be due to the older profile of disabled

customers than non-disabled customers [48].

Disabled customers have concerns about disruptions that non-disabled customers

experience too; however, disruptions can have a greater impact upon disabled

customers because they can face greater difficulties overcoming their effects.

Disabled customers report that they can experience anxiety during disruptions and

that access to reliable, live information is crucial to minimise this [66].

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Introduction

Many disabled people and those with a long-term health conditions face a number

of barriers to travelling. While many issues are the same for disabled and nondisabled

Londoners, some barriers relate specifically to the physical infrastructure

of public transport, as well as less tangible issues such as reduced confidence in

travelling independently [47].

The Mayor’s Transport Strategy (MTS) sets out the Mayor’s transport vision over

the next 20 years and describes how TfL and its partners will deliver this vision. TfL

is committed to delivering transport services that are accessible to all Londoners

and we continue to invest in improving transport accessibility for disabled people

who live in, work in, or visit London.

To support the MTS, the TfL Business Plan for the next decade includes activities

for infrastructure improvements to make information and advice clearer and

simpler, improvements to staff training, and further engagement with disabled

customers [67]. A major part of this investment includes making a third of

London’s Tube stations fully accessible with step-free access to platforms and

trains by 2021 and better signage. Both our Single Equality Scheme 2012–2015

and our ‘Your Accessible Transport Network’ document highlight detailed activity

to address and mitigate many of the issues over the coming years that our

research has uncovered [69, 70].

Throughout this chapter, we show data for disabled Londoners in comparison to

data for non-disabled Londoners and all Londoners. All TfL surveys use the

Equality Act 2010 to define a disabled person as someone who defines themselves

as having a long-term physical or mental disability or health issue that impacts on

their daily activities, the work they can do, or limits their ability to travel. This

differs slightly to the Census, where the question asked is: ‘Are your day-to-day

activities limited because of a health problem or disability which has lasted, or is

expected to last, at least 12 months?’ [2].

Please note that the differences highlighted between disabled and non-disabled

people in this chapter may be influenced by a number of factors other than

disability, with age, income and education all affecting perceptions towards travel

in London and travel behaviour.

It is also important to be aware that disability is not homogeneous and the effects

of having a physical impairment, mental health condition or experiencing other

barriers relating to the use of public transport are therefore diverse.

Transport for London – Disabled People 205


Disabled People

As part of our work to understand the needs and opinions of disabled customers,

we conduct a range of research programmes, including an accessibility mystery

traveller survey (AMTS). AMTS works with disabled people to assess objectively

and monitor the whole journey experience of travelling around London. It

produces insights which help us to monitor and gain a deeper understanding of

the experiences of disabled people, enabling us to take action, plan improvements

and ultimately improve accessibility. We have included data from this research

into this chapter where appropriate.

Profile of disabled Londoners

There are several sources which aim to quantify the number of disabled people in

London. The primary benchmark source is the 2011 Census, conducted by the

Office for National Statistics. According to the Census, 14 per cent of Londoners

consider themselves to have a long-term health problem or disability that limits

their day-to-day activities, which has lasted, or is expected to last, at least 12

months (7 per cent consider this affects their activity ‘a lot’ and 7 per cent ‘a little’).

This is the lowest proportion recorded for any region of the UK, possibly due to the

lower average age of Londoners compared to those living in other regions [2].

We also monitor the number of disabled people in London on an ongoing basis as

part of our London Travel Demand Survey. This survey uses a slightly different set

of questions (due to the different purpose of the research). Data from 2013/14

shows that 11 per cent of Londoners (circa 833,000 excluding those aged under

five) consider that they have a long-term physical or mental disability or health

issue that limits their daily activities, the work they can do (including issues due to

old age) or their ability to travel [12].

Slightly less than two per cent of Londoners (16 per cent of disabled Londoners)

are wheelchair users (circa 133,000 excluding those aged under five years old) [12].

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Disabled People

Many disabled people have multiple impairments. The most frequently reported

impairments faced by disabled Londoners are related to mobility (58 per cent)

[12].

LTDS profile of disabled people in London (2013/14) [12]

% All Londoners All disabled Londoners

Base (15,700) (1,821)

Disabled 11 -

Non-disabled 89 -

Disability affects travel 10 90

Ever use a wheelchair 2 16

Mobility impairment 6 58

Serious long-term illness 2 21

Mental health condition 1 11

Visual impairment 1 6

Hearing impairment 1 5

Learning disability 1 7

Other 1 14

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Note that the table above refers to the impairments experienced by Londoners who

consider themselves to have a long-term physical or mental disability or health issue that

limits their daily activities, the work they can do (including issues due to old age) or their

ability to travel, and that there may be more people with the above impairments that do

not consider them to affect their activities.

The proportion of Londoners who are disabled increases with age. Four per cent of

16 to 24 year old Londoners are disabled compared with 37 per cent of Londoners

aged 65 or over. Age is an important factor behind other demographic differences

observed. For example, disabled Londoners are more likely to be women and less

likely to be BAME Londoners. However, both of these trends appear to be related

primarily to the age profile of disabled Londoners [12].

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Disabled People

LTDS demographic profile of disabled people in London (2013/14) [12]

% Proportion of

disabled Londoners

Proportion of

category who are

disabled

Proportion of nondisabled

Londoners

Base (1,821) (varies) (13,879)

Gender

Men 44 10 50

Women 56 12 50

Age

5-15 4 3 15

16-24 5 4 15

25-64 47 8 61

65+ 44 37 9

Ethnicity

White 69 12 61

BAME 30 9 38

Household income

Less than £10,000 41 25 15

£10,000–£19,999 28 16 18

£20,000–£34,999 15 8 20

£35,000–£49,999 6 5 14

£50,000–£74,999 5 3 16

£75,000+ 6 4 17

Working status*

Working full-time 8 2 52

Working part-time 5 5 12

Student 3 4 11

Retired 48 38 11

Not working 35 26 13

*Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five and working status does not include under 16s.

All TfL surveys use the Equality Act 2010 to define disabled people as those who define themselves as having a long-term physical or mental

disability or health issue that impacts on their daily activities, the work they can do, or limits their ability to travel

Transport for London – Disabled People 208


Disabled People

How to read the table

The table above shows:




The proportion of disabled Londoners who relate to each category – for

example, 44 per cent of disabled Londoners are men

The proportion of each category who are disabled – for example, ten per cent

of men in London are disabled

The proportion of non-disabled Londoners who relate to each category for

comparison – for example, 50 per cent of non-disabled Londoners are men

Gender

Disabled Londoners are more likely to be women than men; among all disabled

Londoners 56 per cent are women (compared to 50 per cent of the non-disabled

population) [12].

Gender profile of disabled people in London (2013/14) [12]

% All disabled

Londoners

All non-disabled

Londoners

Gender (1,821) (13,879)

Men 44 50

Women 56 50

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Men and women are equally likely to be disabled until they reach around 50 years

of age, after which women are more likely to be disabled than men at all ages [2].

Proportion of Londoners by age and gender who are disabled [2]

% Men Women

Age

0-15 4 3

16-24 5 4

25-34 5 5

35-49 11 12

50-64 22 25

65-74 38 41

75-84 57 63

85+ 78 83

This data is based o self-assessment of activity limitations.

Base size not shown as data taken from the 2011 Census.

Transport for London – Disabled People 209


Disabled People

Ethnicity

Disabled Londoners are more likely to be white than non-disabled Londoners (69

per cent of disabled Londoners are white compared with 61 per cent of nondisabled

Londoners) [12].

Ethnicity profile of disabled Londoners (2013/14) [12]

% All disabled

Londoners

65+ disabled

Londoners

All nondisabled

Londoners

65+ nondisabled

Londoners

Base (1,821) (922) (13,879) (1,553)

Ethnicity

White 69 80 61 82

BAME 30 19 38 18

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

White Londoners are more likely than BAME Londoners to be disabled (12 per

cent of white Londoners are disabled compared with nine per cent of BAME

Londoners). This appears to be related to the older age profile of white Londoners,

as the difference in each specific age category is not significant [12].

Proportion of white and BAME Londoners who are disabled (2013/14) [12]

% White BAME

All Londoners 12 9

16-24 4 4

65+ 37 39

Base: All white Londoners (10,044), white 16 to 24 year old Londoners (1,049), white 65+ year old Londoners (2,004), all BAME

Londoners (5,563), BAME 16 to 24 year old Londoners (792), BAME 65+ year old Londoners (464).

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Disabled People 210


Disabled People

Employment and income

Disabled Londoners are more likely to live in a household with an annual income of

£20,000 or less than non-disabled Londoners (69 per cent of disabled Londoners

compared with 32 per cent of non-disabled Londoners). This pattern is observed

across all ages.

The difference is particularly clear in the mid-age groups; 62 per cent of disabled

Londoners who are aged 25 to 64 live in a low income household compared with

25 per cent of non-disabled Londoners of the same age. This is likely to be related

to the considerably lower proportion of disabled 25 to 64 year olds in full or parttime

employment (23 per cent compared with 79 per cent among non-disabled 25

to 64 year olds) [12].

Proportion of each age group living in households with an income of less than £20,000

(2013/14) [12]

%

Disabled

Londoners

Non-disabled

Londoners

Age

All 69 32

16-24 60 39

25-64 62 25

65+ 77 57

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Proportion of each age group working full or part-time (2013/14) [12]

% Disabled

Londoners

Non-disabled

Londoners

Age

16-24 3 33

25-64 23 79

65+ 3 16

Base: Disabled 16 to 24 year old Londoners (63), disabled 25 to 64 year old Londoners (769), disabled 65+year old Londoners

(922), non-disabled 16 to 24 year old Londoners (1,786), non-disabled 25 to 64 year-old Londoners (8,236), non-disabled 65+

year old Londoners (1,553).

Note that working status data excludes under 16s.

Transport for London – Disabled People 211


Disabled People

London boroughs

The London boroughs with the highest proportion of disabled residents are:

Highest proportion of disabled residents in London boroughs [2]

Borough

% of disabled residents

Havering 17

Barking and Dagenham 16

Bexley 16

Islington 16

Base size not shown as data taken from the ONS 2011 Census.

The London boroughs with the lowest proportion of disabled residents are:

Lowest proportion of disabled residents in London boroughs [2]

Borough

% of disabled residents

Wandsworth 11

Richmond upon Thames 11

City of London 11

Kensington and Chelsea 12

Kingston upon Thames 12

Merton 13

Base size not shown as data taken from ONS 2011 Census.

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Disabled People

Travel behaviour

The London transport network is one of the busiest in the world and on an average

weekday more than 1.3 million trips are made by disabled travellers [68]. The

average number of trips made per weekday by individual disabled Londoners is

1.9; this is below the average of 2.8 for non-disabled Londoners [12].

Transport types used

Disabled Londoners use a wide variety of transport to get around the Capital. The

most common types of transport used are walking (78 per cent at least once a

week), bus (56 per cent), car as a passenger (47 per cent) and car as a driver (26 per

cent). These are also the main types of transport used by non-disabled Londoners

but in different proportions [12].

Disabled Londoners are considerably less likely than non-disabled Londoners to

use the Tube at least once a week; 16% of disabled Londoners do so compared

with 41% of non-disabled Londoners [12].

Disabled Londoners use transport less frequently than non-disabled Londoners.

For each type of transport (with the exception of private hire vehicles) a lower

proportion of disabled Londoners use each type of transport at least once a week

compared with non-disabled Londoners [12].

Public transport generally is less commonly used by disabled Londoners than nondisabled

Londoners; 59 per cent of disabled Londoners have used any public

transport (excluding walking) in the last year compared with 73 per cent of nondisabled

Londoners [12].

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Disabled People

Proportion of Londoners using types of transport at least once a week (2013/14) [12]

%

Disabled

Disabled

16-64

Disabled

65+

Nondisabled

(All)

Nondisabled

65+

Base (1,821) (832) (922) (13,879) (1,553)

Walking 78 85 68 98 97

Bus 56 62 48 62 70

Car (as a passenger) 47 46 47 48 43

Car (as a driver) 26 28 26 41 56

Tube 16 22 10 41 31

National Rail 8 11 5 18 15

Overground 4 6 1 10 5

Other taxi/minicab (PHV) 8 9 7 6 4

London taxi/black cab 4 3 6 5 2

DLR 3 4 1 5 2

Tram (Croydon Tramlink) 1 2 1 2 2

Motorbike 1 1 - 1 -

Net: Any public transport (bus,

Tube, National Rail, DLR, London

Overground, tram)

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

59 67 49 73 75

Where more detailed information on individual types of transport is available, we

have included a sub-section below.

Transport for London – Disabled People 214


Disabled People

Walking

Walking is the most frequently used type of transport for both disabled and nondisabled

Londoners. Only 11 per cent of disabled Londoners say that they have not

made a journey by walking in the past year and three per cent say that they have

never made a walking journey [12].

Frequency of walking (2013/14) [12]

% Disabled Wheelchair user Non-disabled

Base (1,821) (317) (13,879)

5 or more days a week 51 20 86

3 or 4 days a week 12 8 5

2 days a week 9 6 4

1 day a week 6 7 3

At least once a fortnight 2 1 1

At least once a month 3 4 1

At least once a year 4 5 0

Not used in last 12 months 11 37 0

Never used 3 12 0

Net: Used in the last 12 months 87 51 100

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Seventy-eight per cent of disabled Londoners walk at least once a week compared

to 98 per cent of non-disabled Londoners and 51 per cent walk five or more times a

week compared with 86 per cent of non-disabled Londoners [12].

Our annual Attitude to Walking study establishes frequency of walking for specific journey

purposes. There are differences in walking behaviour between disabled and non-disabled

Londoners, particularly noticeable for walking at least once a week to visit social places (35

per cent of disabled Londoners compared with 56 per cent of non-disabled Londoners) and

to get to work/school/college (23 per cent of disabled Londoners compared with 56 per cent

of non-disabled Londoners) [19].

Walking at least once a week by purpose of journey (2015) [19]

% who walk at least once a week Disabled Non-disabled

Base (199) (785)

Walk…

To complete small errands such as getting a

73 88

newspaper or posting a letter

As part of a longer journey 57 80

To visit friends and relatives 42 50

To visit pubs/restaurants/cinemas and other

35 56

social places

To get to work/school/college 23 56

To take a child to school 13 19

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Disabled People

Among disabled Londoners who state that their travel is limited by being disabled, 64 per

cent consider it either impossible to walk without help (17 per cent) or difficult but not

impossible to do so (47 per cent) [12].

Bus

Buses are the most commonly used type of public transport (except walking) by

both disabled and non-disabled Londoners. However, disabled Londoners are less

likely to use buses than non-disabled Londoners (79 per cent of disabled

Londoners have used the bus in the past year compared with 92 per cent of nondisabled

Londoners) [12].

Frequency of travelling by bus (2013/14) [12]

% Disabled Wheelchair user Non-disabled

Base (1,821) (317) (13,879)

5 or more days a week 20 5 29

3 or 4 days a week 14 11 12

2 days a week 11 8 11

1 day a week 10 5 10

At least once a fortnight 4 1 6

At least once a month 8 7 10

At least once a year 12 15 14

Not used in last 12 months 18 41 6

Never used 3 8 2

Net: Used in the last 12 months 79 51 92

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

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Disabled People

The physical accessibility of buses is one of the main reasons why they are one of

the transport types most commonly used by disabled Londoners. All of TfL’s

buses, with the exception of heritage Routemasters, are low-floored [74], 75 per

cent of bus stops are now accessible and 95 per cent are scheduled to have been

made accessible by 2016 [22]. Our research also suggests that, due to the nature

of the bus network and the shorter distances required to reach bus stops than train

or Tube stations, approximately 90 per cent of Londoners live within 400 metres of

a bus stop [74].

Fifty-eight per cent of Londoners who report that their travel is limited because

they are disabled consider it either impossible to use the bus without help (23 per

cent) or difficult but not impossible to use the bus (35 per cent). Forty per cent say

that it is not difficult to use the bus and three per cent don’t know or never use it

[12].

Wheelchair users experience greater difficulties, despite all buses being equipped

with low flooring and wheelchair ramps. Fifty-seven per cent of wheelchair users

surveyed say that it is impossible to use the bus without help, and a further 25 per

cent say that it is difficult but not impossible. Ten per cent of wheelchair users use

the bus without difficulties, while seven per cent don’t know or never use it [12].

Wheelchair priority areas on buses

AMTS covers access to the wheelchair priority area (WPA) on buses. During our

2014/15 study period, 96 per cent of wheelchair accessibility mystery travellers

were able to get on the first bus that arrived and 97 per cent were able to reach the

WPA before the bus moved off.

On 27 per cent of journeys the assessors reported that the area was initially

blocked. Unfolded buggies were the main cause of the blockage, identified on 58

per cent of these observations.

In one in five cases (20 per cent) other passengers removed the blockage without

any action being required. In half the cases (49 per cent) the driver intervened

either by talking directly to passengers or by initiating an iBus announcement.

Other journeys were completed by the assessor asking for the space to be cleared

themselves (17 per cent of the time) or as a result of other reasons, mainly

involving sharing of the WPA.

‘There was a pram in the wheelchair space and I had to share.’

‘The passenger did not move their buggy but I managed to squeeze past it into the

wheelchair space.’

‘The wheelchair space was large enough for the buggy to remain where it was

whilst I manoeuvred in.’ [83]

We carried out research in 2012 to understand the key issues for buggy users,

wheelchair users and bus drivers to reduce conflict in the WPA, and how a

communications campaign could help. Our research showed that wheelchair users

experience logistical and interpersonal challenges around the space, with conflict

Transport for London – Disabled People 217


Disabled People

often being indirect before passengers get on the bus. Inconsistent and

unpredictable experiences are a major source of stress and tension.

‘I cannot physically get on a bus where I live because it’s a busy shopping area full

of buggies. What’s the point of a wheelchair ramp if we can never get on?’ [43]

The conflict in the WPA on buses is part of the wider experience of travelling by

bus for wheelchair users [43].

The WPA is a key consideration for wheelchair users when deciding to travel by

bus:

Does my wheelchair/scooter fit in the area?

Is there a buggy/pram already in the area? [72]

‘My experience taking the bus from Earls Court to Hammersmith was similarly

infuriating. The driver initially refused me entry because there was a buggy on

board. I pleaded with him, not only because I knew I could fit on board but because

it was pouring with rain.’ [72]

Wheelchair users on the whole feel that TfL recognises their needs and concerns.

An example of this is the campaign to inform drivers, wheelchair users and other

passengers on wheelchair priority area rules, and how wheelchair users need to

travel on buses [73].

Transport for London – Disabled People 218


Disabled People

Bus journey purpose

One of the reasons why disabled Londoners travel by bus during the day is to

travel for work purposes (28 per cent). The proportion of disabled Londoners who

do this is considerably lower than for non-disabled Londoners (57 per cent). Buses

are used more by disabled people during the day for shopping (22 per cent

compared with nine per cent for non-disabled people), to visit friends and relatives

(13 per cent compared with eight per cent for non-disabled) and for personal

business (14 per cent compared with six per cent for non-disabled). A similar

pattern is seen at night, although the differences between disabled and nondisabled

people at this time are smaller [28].

Purpose of bus journey by disability and time of day (2014) [28]

During the day

At night

Disabled Non-disabled Disabled Non-disabled

% (3,341) (28,680) (673) (7,068)

To/from or for work 28 57 37 53

To/from school/education 5 7 6 3

To/from shopping 22 9 3 1

Visiting friends/relatives 13 8 16 13

Leisure 10 10 20 22

Personal business 14 6 9 1

Other purpose 6 3 10 5

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Disabled People

Car

While a considerably lower proportion of disabled Londoners have driven a car to

get around London in the past year than non-disabled Londoners (30 per cent

compared with 47 per cent), the proportion who have used a car as a passenger in

the last year is very similar (85 per cent compared with 87 per cent) [12].

Frequency of car use (2013/14) [12]

Car as driver

% Disabled Wheelchair

user

Disabled

Car as passenger

Wheelchair

user

Nondisabled

Nondisabled

Base (1,821) (317) (13,879) (1,821) (317) (13,879)

5 or more days a week 13 10 23 8 7 10

3 or 4 days a week 6 5 7 11 12 9

2 days a week 4 2 7 14 17 14

1 day a week 3 1 4 15 17 15

At least once a fortnight 1 0 1 7 5 7

At least once a month 1 1 2 11 11 12

At least once a year 2 2 3 20 17 20

Not used in last 12 months 18 24 8 12 10 8

Never used 52 54 44 3 3 5

Net: Used in the last 12

months

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

30 22 47 85 87 87

Disabled Londoners aged 17 and over are less likely to hold any type of driving

licence (including a provisional licence) than non-disabled Londoners (42 per cent

disabled Londoners aged 17 or over compared with 74 per cent non-disabled

Londoners aged 17 or over). A similar pattern is observed among both younger

and older disabled Londoners when compared to non-disabled Londoners of the

same ages [12].

Similarly, disabled Londoners are less likely to have household access to a car than

non-disabled Londoners. Just over half (52 per cent) of disabled Londoners do not

have household access to a car compared to 32 per cent of non-disabled

Londoners [12].

Proportion of Londoners in a household with access to a car (2013/14) [12]

% Disabled Non-disabled

Base (1,821) (13,879)

0 cars 52 32

1 car 38 46

2+ cars 10 21

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Disabled People 220


Disabled People

Tube

Disabled Londoners are considerably less likely to have used the Tube in the last

year than non-disabled Londoners (58 per cent compared with 89 per cent). The

difference is especially noticeable for more frequent Tube use, where only three

per cent of disabled Londoners use the Tube five or more days a week, compared

with 17 per cent of non-disabled Londoners. Sixteen per cent of disabled

Londoners use the Tube at least once a week compared with 41 per cent of nondisabled

Londoners [12].

Frequency of Tube use (2013/14) [12]

% Disabled Wheelchair Non-disabled

user

Base (1,821) (317) (13,879)

5 or more days a week 3 0 17

3 or 4 days a week 3 1 7

2 days a week 4 2 8

1 day a week 6 2 10

At least once a fortnight 6 3 8

At least once a month 11 7 15

At least once a year 24 13 25

Not used in last 12 months 35 60 8

Never used 7 12 3

Net: Used in the last 12 months 58 28 89

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

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Disabled People

Sixty-one per cent of Londoners who report their travel is limited because they are

disabled consider it either impossible to use the Tube without help (25 per cent) or

difficult but not impossible to use the Tube (36 per cent), while 28 per cent say it is

not difficult to use the Tube and 10 per cent don’t know or never use it [12].

Wheelchair users experience greater difficulties despite TfL’s investment in

making more stations accessible as part of our Tube upgrade programme. Fiftyeight

per cent of wheelchair users say that it is impossible to use the Tube without

help, and a further 21 per cent say that it is difficult but not impossible. Five per

cent of wheelchair users use the Tube without difficulties, while 17 per cent don’t

know or never use the Tube [12].

An increasing number of Tube stations are accessible, including lifts, tactile

platform edges and wide gates and we continue our work to increase accessibility

across the network [68].

An example of our ongoing work in this area is the recent trial of blue lighting in

the gap between the train and the platform at Baker Street. This lighting is

designed to make the gap between the train and platform more noticeable,

particularly for people with visual impairments. [97]

However, there are still many stations without full step-free access, and we have

planned improvements for a number of these over the next few years. By the end

of 2015/16 financial year, we expect almost a third of Tube stations to have either

step-free access from the street to all platforms (72 stations) or to at least one

platform (14 stations) [22].

Lifts open up many stations to a significant number of disabled people, which of

course creates a reliance on lifts being in service. Malfunctioning lifts can have a

significant impact on disabled people and where they are out of service there is a

need for us to communicate this clearly [76].

Improvements have also been made to trains on several Underground lines, so

that shortly 40 per cent of the Tube network will be served by trains with a high

standard of accessibility [22]. The new S class rolling stock has recently been

introduced, with all Circle line services using this stock from 10 February 2014 and

approximately 50% of the District Line by early 2015 [76].

We are also planning the introduction of the Tube for London, most probably

during the 2020s. The new Tube will have improved accessibility, including stepfree

access from the platform and more space for wheelchair users [76].

Our social media analysis shows that S class trains to have been well received by

disabled people, with comments such as:

‘If you have to be in a wheelchair one day… you’d be grateful for a train like this…’

[76]

Transport for London – Disabled People 222


Disabled People

Cycling

Fifteen per cent of disabled Londoners sometimes use a bike to get around

London, which is a smaller proportion than among non-disabled Londoners

(where 18 per cent sometimes use a bike in the Capital) [17].

Proportion of Londoners who cycle (November 2014) [17]

% Disabled Non-disabled

Base (507) (1,646)

Cyclist (sometimes uses a bike to get

15 18

around London)

Non-cyclist (never uses a bike to get

around London)

85 82

Disabled Londoners are more likely to say that they cannot ride a bicycle (22 per

cent of disabled Londoners cannot ride a bicycle) than non-disabled Londoners (15

per cent of non-disabled Londoners cannot ride a bicycle) [17].

Proportion of Londoners able to ride a bicycle (November 2014) [17]

% Disabled Non-disabled

Base (507) (1,646)

Can ride a bike 78 85

Cannot ride a bike 22 15

Disabled Londoners are slightly more likely to say that they never cycle around

London than non-disabled Londoners (85 per cent compared with 82 per cent)

[17].

% Disabled Non-disabled

Base (507) (1,646)

5 or more days a week 4 3

3 or 4 days a week 3 5

2 days a week 2 3

1 day a week 1 2

At least once a fortnight 1 1

At least once a month - 1

At least once a year 1 1

Not used in last 12 months - -

Never used - 1

Net: Used in the last 12

months

85 82

Transport for London – Disabled People 223


Disabled People

We have developed a behavioural change model to look at Londoners’ readiness

to cycle or cycle more. According to this model, 73 per cent of disabled Londoners

are in the ‘pre-contemplation’ phase, meaning that they have never thought about

cycling (more) or have thought about it but decided not to (higher than nondisabled

Londoners at 68 per cent) [17].

Behaviour change model of non-cyclists (November 2014) [17]

% Disabled Nondisabled

Base (all non-cyclists) (507) (1,646)

Pre-contemplation:

73 68

‘You have never thought about it, but would be unlikely

to start in the future’

‘You have thought about it, but don’t intend starting in

the future’

‘You have never thought about it, but could be open to it

in the future’

Contemplation:

7 11

‘You are thinking about starting soon’

Preparation:

2 3

‘You have decided to start soon’

Change:

2 2

‘You have tried to start recently, but are finding it

difficult’

‘You have started recently and are finding it quite easy

so far’

Sustained change:

8 11

‘You started a while ago and are still doing it

occasionally’

‘You started a while ago and are still doing it regularly’

Lapsed:

‘You had started doing this but couldn’t stick to it’

8 6

Transport for London – Disabled People 224


Disabled People

Cycling schemes

Awareness of Cycle Hire is very high, with 93 per cent of disabled Londoners and

92 per cent of non-disabled Londoners saying that they know about the scheme

[17].

Expected future use of Cycle Hire (people who say that they will probably or

definitely use the scheme) is lower among disabled Londoners (20 per cent) than

for non-disabled Londoners (29 per cent) [17].

Expected use of Cycle Hire (November 2014) [17]

% Disabled Non-disabled

Base (281) (875)

Yes, definitely/ probably 20 29

Yes, definitely 9 9

Yes, probably 11 20

No, probably not 27 31

No, definitely not 44 30

Not sure 9 10

Awareness of Cycle Superhighways is lower than awareness of Cycle Hire amongst

both disabled and non-disabled Londoners. Sixty-four per cent of disabled

Londoners and 61 per cent of non-disabled Londoners are aware of Cycle

Superhighways [17].

Disabled Londoners are almost as likely as non-disabled Londoners to say that

they probably or definitely expect to use Cycle Superhighways in the future (20

per cent compared with 23 per cent) [17].

Expected use of Cycle Superhighways (November 2014) [17]

% All Disabled Non-disabled

Base (1,180) (69) (362)

Yes, definitely/ probably 23 20 23

Yes, definitely 6 5 6

Yes, probably 17 15 17

No, probably not 28 23 30

No, definitely not 31 39 29

Not sure 17 17 17

Transport for London – Disabled People 225


Disabled People

Dial-a-Ride

In 2014/15, the Dial-a-Ride scheme was used to make 1.3 million journeys, the

highest level of usage recorded in its 30-year history [77]. Four per cent of disabled

Londoners are members of Dial-a-Ride 8 [12].

Members tend to be older than the average disabled Londoner – 82 per cent of

Dial-a-Ride members are 65 or over, compared to 41 per cent of all disabled

Londoners . Thirty-seven per cent of Dial-a-Ride members are 80 to 89 years old,

compared with eight per cent of all disabled Londoners, and 20 per cent of

members are 90 years old or over compared with eight per cent of all disabled

Londoners [30].

Dial-a-Ride (DaR) membership by age (2014) [2, 30]

%

All disabled Londoners

DaR members

(Census)

(41,451)

Under 19 7 1

20-34 9 2

35-49 19 5

50-64 25 11

65-79 25 25

80-89 8 37

90+ 8 20

Dial-a-Ride members are more likely to be women than the total population of

disabled Londoners. Seventy-four per cent of Dial-a-Ride members are women

compared to 56 per cent of all disabled Londoners [30, 12]. This is in part related to

the age profile of users. However, evidence suggests that women Dial-a-Ride

members are over represented in all age groups, except under 18 year olds [30].

Sixty-five per cent of Dial-a-Ride members are white Londoners and 35 per cent

are BAME Londoners [30]. There are some differences by borough, with Brent,

Harrow, Newham and Hackney having a higher proportion of BAME than white

Londoners who are Dial-a-Ride members [30]. This may be related to the profile of

people living in each borough.

Membership by inner and outer Londoners is broadly similar. Barnet, Enfield and

Ealing have the highest number of Dial-a-Ride members [30].

8 Not all Dial-a-Ride customers necessarily consider themselves to be disabled.

Transport for London – Disabled People 226


Disabled People

Door-to-door services (Taxicard)

Nine per cent of disabled Londoners and 26 per cent of London wheelchair users

hold a Taxicard [12].

Among those with a Taxicard there is a spread across frequency of use, with 29 per

cent using the card each week and 19 per cent having never used the card or not

used it within the last 12 months [12].

Frequency of use of Taxicard (2013/14) [12]

%

Taxicard

holders

Base (189)

At least once a week 29

At least once a fortnight 14

At least once a month 13

At least once a quarter 10

At least once a year 15

Not used in last 12 months 13

Never used 6

Net: Used in the last 12 months 81

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Private hire/taxi

Disabled Londoners are slightly less likely to have used a private hire/minicab in

the last year than non-disabled Londoners (49 per cent compared with 58 per

cent). Disabled Londoners are slightly more likely to use minicabs frequently

though when compared with non-disabled Londoners; eight per cent of disabled

Londoners use a mini-cab at least once a week compared with six per cent of nondisabled

Londoners [12].

Frequency of PHV use (2013/14) [12]

% Disabled

Wheelchair

user

Non-disabled

Base (1,821) (317) (13,879)

At least once a week 8 10 6

At least once a fortnight 4 3 5

At least once a month 7 5 11

At least once a year 30 24 37

Not used in last 12 months 32 39 21

Never used 19 18 21

Net: Used in the last 12

months

49 42 58

Note that LTDS data in this report excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Disabled People 227


Disabled People

The proportion of disabled and non-disabled Londoners using black cabs in the

last year is significantly different (25 per cent of disabled Londoners have used a

black cab in the past year, compared with 35 per cent of non-disabled Londoners).

Wheelchair users are more likely to use a black cab at least once a week than all

disabled Londoners or non-disabled Londoners (nine per cent of wheelchair users)

[12].

Frequency of black cab use (2013/14) [12]

% Disabled

Wheelchair

user

Non-disabled

Base (1,821) (317) (13,879)

At least once a week 4 9 5

At least once a fortnight 3 3 3

At least once a month 3 3 6

At least once a year 16 17 21

Not used in last 12 months 41 38 29

Never used 34 30 36

Net: Used in the last 12 months 25 32 35

*Note that LTDS data excludes children aged under five.

Journey purpose

The purpose of weekday journeys made by public transport varies between

disabled and non-disabled people. Forty-three per cent of weekday journeys made

by disabled Londoners are for the purpose of shopping/personal business,

compared with 23 per cent of journeys made by non-disabled Londoners. Thirty

per cent of journeys made by disabled Londoners are for leisure (compared with

22 per cent for non-disabled Londoners). Journeys made by disabled Londoners

are less likely than journeys made by non-disabled Londoners to be to a usual

workplace (five per cent compared with 21 per cent) [12].

Weekday journey purpose of trips (2013/14) [12]

% of trips Disabled Non-disabled

Base – all trips by Londoners (1,821) (13,879)

Shopping/personal business 43 23

Leisure 30 22

Education 10 19

Usual workplace 5 21

Other work-related 3 8

Other 9 6

*Note that LTDS data excludes children aged under five.

Transport for London – Disabled People 228


Disabled People

Ticket types

Oyster pay as you go is the most common ticket type used on public transport by

non-disabled Londoners. This is not the case for disabled Londoners, due to the

higher incidence of Freedom Passes [32].

Contactless cards are used by five per cent of disabled Londoners, considerably

lower than among non-disabled Londoners where 18 per cent use contactless

cards.

Tickets and passes used on public transport (January 2015) [32]

%

Base: Public transport users:

Disabled

(110)

Non-disabled

(842)

Freedom Pass 66 17

Oyster pay as you go 27 61

Cash/single/return 6 11

Any other Travelcard 8 7

Contactless payment 5 18

Oyster Season ticket 4 22

Travelcards

Disabled Londoners are more likely to hold an older person’s Freedom Pass and

are less likely to use an Oyster card than non-disabled Londoners.

Even when looking only at disabled Londoners aged under 65 (who are therefore

not eligible for the older person’s Freedom Pass), Oyster card ownership is lower

than among non-disabled Londoners [12]. This may be partly explained by the use

of disabled person’s Freedom Passes.

Ticket types held (2013/14) [12]

% Disabled

(all)

Disabled


Disabled People

Barriers

The majority of disabled Londoners (61 per cent) would travel more often than

they currently do if they did not experience barriers such as access or cost

constraints [65].

Additional journeys that would be made more often if there were no barriers

would be for leisure and social activities, such as visiting friends and family (49 per

cent), entertainment and exercise (41 per cent), social activities such as going to

the pub or to a restaurant (40 per cent) and shopping (34 per cent) [65].

Our research evidence suggests that Londoners with mental health conditions,

mobility impairments and long-term illnesses are the most likely to want to travel

more often (76 per cent, 73 per cent and 73 per cent respectively would like to

make more journeys if they did not face barriers) [65].

Barriers to greater public transport use

We have carried out several research programmes to investigate the barriers that

are faced by Londoners when using public transport. Findings from each of these

studies are in general agreement. However, it is worth noting that the issue of

barriers is complex and that the specific questions that we ask Londoners in our

research may have had an impact on the response provided. The impact of specific

barriers may also be much more significant for some Londoners than others.

Many of the issues faced by disabled Londoners when travelling by public

transport are common to both disabled and non-disabled Londoners, particularly

overcrowded services, which is the barrier that is mentioned most frequently by

both disabled and non-disabled Londoners [14].

Transport for London – Disabled People 230


Disabled People

Barriers to using public transport more often (prompted) (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% Disabled Non-disabled

Base (570) (3,385)

Overcrowded services 58 59

Concern about antisocial behaviour of others 38 34

Cost of tickets 36 46

Slow journey times 32 42

Unreliable services 31 37

Fear of crime getting to and waiting for the

29 23

bus/train (ie robbery, assault or pickpocketing)

Fear of crime on the bus/train (ie robbery, assault

27 22

or pickpocketing)

Fear about knife crime 25 20

Dirty environment on the bus/train 24 28

Dirty environment getting to the bus/train 17 18

Risk of accidents 15 8

Fear of terrorist attacks 15 12

Graffiti 14 10

Lack of information about how to use public

12 10

transport services

Don't understand how to buy bus tickets 5 5

None of these 19 17

Although cost of tickets (36 per cent), slow journey times (32 per cent) and

unreliable services (31 per cent) are among the most significant barriers

mentioned by disabled Londoners, the proportion who mention these factors is

significantly lower than the proportion of non-disabled Londoners affected by

these factors (46 per cent, 42 per cent and 37 per cent respectively for each of

these factors) [14].

For most other factors covered in the survey, disabled Londoners are more likely

to say that they are impacted by each barrier compared to non-disabled

Londoners [14].

It would be easy to presume that the older age profile of disabled Londoners has a

significant impact upon the barriers faced and that the increased barriers are

related to age. However, when comparing the responses of disabled Londoners to

all Londoners aged 65 years old or over this hypothesis does not hold true [14].

Disabled Londoners are more likely to mention all barriers more often than older

Londoners (65 or older). Thirty-three per cent of 65 year olds or over say that none

of the barriers covered in the survey apply to their increased use of public

transport, whereas amongst disabled Londoners the figure is 19 per cent [14].

Transport for London – Disabled People 231


Disabled People

We have carried out additional research among disabled customers to identify

specifically the barriers faced when using public transport in London. The main

issues that we have identified from this study which impact upon the ability of

disabled Londoners to make public transport journeys as often as they would like

can be summarised as [65]:









Accessibility-related (44 per cent)

Cost (21 per cent)

Comfort – incorporating issues such as overcrowding, unsuitable or unavailable

seating (20 per cent)

Availability and reliability (16 per cent)

Attitudes or behaviour of other customers (seven per cent)

Safety (six per cent)

Communication issues and attitude or behaviour of staff (five per cent)

Information (four per cent)

Although based upon a small number of interviews, it appears that visually

impaired and hearing-impaired Londoners are more likely than other disabled

Londoners to say that improvements to information would enable them to make

more journeys (26 per cent and 33 per cent respectively – although note that the

base size is relatively small) [65].

Many disabled Londoners find travelling by public transport stressful (45 per cent)

[65] and there is evidence that while many of the issues are common between

disabled and non-disabled Londoners, disabled Londoners are more likely to

experience worry or anxiety when problems occur [66, 14].

Among disabled Londoners who work, 46 per cent agree that the transport

network affects their ability to get to work. This could be improved if the disabled

customer were able to get a seat (43 per cent), if the system were less crowded (38

per cent) and if it were more affordable (29 per cent) [65].

Improvements

In 2014, 43 per cent of disabled people stated that ‘travelling in London has

become more accessible recently’ [65]. There has also been recognition by many

people on social media that improvements in the accessibility and information

that was provided to disabled Londoners during the London 2012 Olympic and

Paralympic Games has had a legacy effect [52].

‘To its credit, in the last decade, TfL has put a lot of investment into improving the

Underground and making it much more accessible…I feel that London hosting the

2012 Games focused energy into making London’s transport infrastructure fit for a

leading city. TfL’s work, combined with my experiences at Trailblazers, pushed me

into deciding to give the Underground a go.’

Muscular Dystrophy Campaign, Blog

Transport for London – Disabled People 232


Disabled People

TfL has also introduced a number of improvements to street infrastructure. More

than half (57 per cent) of disabled Londoners are aware of at least one of these

improvements [65].

Awareness of infrastructure changes (2013) [65]

% Disabled

Base (381)

Any one of the following 57

Improvements to road crossings including pedestrian

Countdown systems

33

Boarding ramps to allow access from platform to train at

Tube stations

31

Online information about accessibility 20

Real time information on transport service such as whether

lifts are in service

18

Travel mentoring schemes to equip people with the skills and

confidence to travel independently

11

Videos to show how to use various features of the transport

system such as bus boarding ramps

10

Physical accessibility as a barrier

Although there has been a real improvement in accessibility across public

transport in recent years, particularly in terms of the number of Tube stations

which are now accessible, 62 per cent of disabled Londoners 9 find it difficult to use

the Tube and 58 per cent find it hard to use the bus.

Difficulties accessing public transport (2013/ 2014) [12]

% Buses Tube DLR Tram

Disabled Impossible without help 23 25 19 18

Londoners Difficult (but not impossible) 35 36 25 21

(base = 1,654) Net: Impossible/difficult 58 62 43 39

Not difficult to use 40 28 29 28

Don't know/never use 3 10 27 33

Wheelchair

users

(base = 317)

Impossible without help 57 58 47 46

Difficult (but not impossible) 25 21 17 14

Net: Impossible/difficult 82 78 63 60

Not difficult to use 10 5 4 6

Don't know/never use 7 17 32 35

*Note that LTDS data excludes children aged under five.

Base: Londoners who report that travel is limited by being disabled.

Qualitatively, customers report needing a much greater number of stations to be

accessible before the network is opened up sufficiently for them to travel within

London by Tube [66].

9 Londoners who say that they have a long-term health problem/disability that limits travel.

Transport for London – Disabled People 233


Disabled People

Disabled customers also report issues when travelling by bus due to buses not

stopping or not being able to stop in a position for them to easily get off the bus

[65].

Buses not stopping to let customers on or off is an issue that both disabled and

non-disabled Londoners report through complaints. The impact upon disabled

Londoners can be greater than for non-disabled customers however, and can

cause anxiety and concern. There are many issues, including some that are specific

to the type of barriers individual disabled Londoners face:





Visually impaired customers may not see the bus coming, or may not realise

that there is a line of buses and that their bus is not stationed at the bus stop.

Visually impaired customers may also not know when to press the call bell to

stop the bus

Hearing impaired customers may not hear the bus arriving

Physically impaired customers may not be able to move quickly enough down

a line of buses

Wheelchair users may not be able to access the wheelchair priority area due to

use of other wheelchair users or customers with buggies/large luggage

Many disabled people and bus drivers report that the drivers ‘try to do the right

thing’, but this remains an area for more effective bus driver training [84].

Physical accessibility is also an issue for disabled Londoners when making journeys

by walking or when using mobility aids. Sixty-five per cent of disabled Londoners

say that they face issues relating to the condition of pavements and 43 per cent

obstacles on the pavement [65].

Differences among disabled people

The experience that disabled people have and their cited barriers related to public

transport vary. Barriers can be very specific and people have varied experiences

and attitudes when it comes to travelling in London [78].

While every customer’s individual situation makes a difference, we have found

variations according to the broad type of impairment that people are living with.

Londoners with a mental health condition tend to have the greatest latent

demand for travel, as 76 per cent of this group say they would make more journeys

if they did not experience barriers [65].

Transport for London – Disabled People 234


Disabled People

Differences between disabled people (2013) [65]

%

All disabled people

(base=381)

Mental health conditions

(base=55)

Long-term health conditions

(base=123)

Mobility

(base=265)

Wish to travel

more (if no

barriers)

Find

travelling

stressful

Believe

travelling has

got easier in

last year

61 45 43

76 51 33

72 54 33

62 46 41

Visually impaired and hearing impaired customer data breaks are not included in the above table due to limited sample sizes

NB the total figure for all disabled people is lower than each category listed in the table. This is because the survey included a

wide range of impairments, and a number of respondents recorded multiple impairments.

Customers with a hearing impairment tend to be the most likely to experience

stress while travelling, but are also the most likely to recognise improvements

made by TfL to the transport system over the past year [65]. Qualitative feedback

from hearing-impaired customers provides further evidence of the high stress

levels among these customers who often report being worried that they will be the

last to know of changes to the service [66].

Factors that can have physical symptoms (such as discomfort, pain or tiredness) or

emotional impacts (lowered confidence, anxiety or frustration) are often perceived

as barriers to greater public transport use among disabled Londoners. Barriers can

affect transport use in a number of ways, such as affecting choice of transport, the

time of day at which journeys are made and how journeys are planned [79].

Travelling by bus for mobility scooter users

Mobility scooter users face unique challenges when using public transport. We

carried out research to develop a policy on travelling by bus for mobility scooter

users. Our research results identified the minimum space requirements needed for

a range of mobility scooters. We also found that users differ in their ability to

manoeuvre their scooter and therefore this may affect the amount of space

required. Due to the need for users to drive into and out of the bus while facing

forwards, it is important that enough space is available within the bus for scooters

to be turned 360 degrees [80].

We have introduced a mobility aid recognition scheme. The scheme is primarily

aimed at customers with mobility scooters, but may also be used by people with

manual or powered wheelchairs, mobility walkers or shopping trolleys, where

these are used as a mobility aid. People who apply for the scheme receive a home

visit to assess their mobility aid and are then given a Mobility Aid Card. This can be

shown to the bus driver to let them know that the device is suitable to travel on a

bus.

Transport for London – Disabled People 235


Disabled People

Most users (85 per cent) are happy with the Mobility Aid Card and say that it has

increased their confidence while using the bus (72 per cent) [81].

‘By giving me the Mobility Aid Card I knew full well I was going to be okay and I

had the proof by having the card.’

‘It gets me out a bit further than I would normally get out because of my disability.

I can travel a bit further.’ [81]

Disabled teenagers

Our research with disabled teenagers identified that many of their perceived

barriers to greater public transport use are also experienced by disabled adults and

the wider London population [87]. However, using public transport is seen as part

of teenage life and therefore it is both practically and symbolically significant to

younger disabled Londoners. It is thought that personality, in many cases, more so

than impairments, is important in determining attitudes and behaviour towards

public transport use among disabled teenagers [82].

As part of this research, many of the disabled teenagers acknowledged that some

solutions to increase transport accessibility are harder to implement than others

(such as ensuring that the Tube is 100 per cent accessible). Solutions that we

believe to be more achievable include staff training to ensure that staff

acknowledge (and enforce) policies, promotion of travel planning services and

ensuring that information on accessibility is kept up-to-date [82].

Safety and security

We use a typology of worry to monitor the perceptions of Londoners with regard

to their personal security while using public transport in London. The typology

classifies people into:






Unworried – reports no general worry and no episodes of recent worry

Unexpressed fear – reports no general worry, but specific recent episodes

Anxious – reports general worry, but no specific recent episodes

Worried – reports general worry, and specific recent episodes

Don’t know

The majority of Londoners fall into the ‘unworried’ category, which means that

they are generally unworried about their personal security in London, and have

experienced no incidents that made them feel worried in the last three months. A

lower proportion of disabled Londoners are considered ‘unworried’ than nondisabled

Londoners (68 per cent compared with 76 per cent) [14].

Transport for London – Disabled People 236


Disabled People

Typology of worry (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% Disabled Non-disabled

Base 570 3,385

Unworried 68 76

Unexpressed 13 11

Anxious 8 6

Worried 7 5

Don’t know 5 2

Disabled Londoners are less likely than non-disabled Londoners to say that they

are ‘not at all worried’ about personal security while using public transport in

London, although they are no more likely to report that they are ‘very worried’

[14].

When combining very and quite a bit worried, disabled people felt slightly more

worried than non-disabled people about their personal security when using public

transport in London in the past three months (15 per cent compared with 11 per

cent). Furthermore, among disabled Londoners who have felt worried, more

disabled people report experiencing such worry on a regular basis - 30 per cent say

that they experienced a worrying event five times or more in the past three

months, compared with 16 per cent of non-disabled people who have experienced

worrying events experiencing them with this frequency [14].

Levels of concern about personal security when using public transport in London

(Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct2014) [14]

% Disabled

Nondisabled

Base (570) (3,385)

Not at all worried 36 43

A little bit worried 46 45

Quite worried 11 8

Very worried 4 3

Don’t know 4 1

Those who have felt worried about their personal security when using public

transport in the last three months were asked on which type of transport they

experienced this event. Disabled Londoners are much more likely to have

experienced their last worrying event on the bus than non-disabled Londoners (63

per cent compared with 46 per cent) and are less likely to have experienced it on

the Tube (24 per cent compared with 31 per cent) or train (9 per cent compared

with 20 per cent). It is important to note that this reflects the considerably higher

use of buses by disabled Londoners compared with Tube or train [14].

Transport for London – Disabled People 237


Disabled People

Crime and antisocial behaviour concerns affect the frequency of travel during the

day ‘a lot/a little’ for disabled and non-disabled Londoners. During the daytime

this is more the case for disabled Londoners than non-disabled Londoners (23 per

cent disabled Londoners using the bus during the day compared with 17 per cent

for non-disabled Londoners). However, concern among these two groups

becomes similar when travelling at night (40 per cent compared with 43 per cent

for non-disabled Londoners travelling by bus at night) [14].

Proportion of Londoners for whom concerns over crime/antisocial behaviour affect the

frequency of their public transport use ‘a lot/a little’ (Jan/ Apr/ Jul/ Oct 2014) [14]

% All Disabled Nondisabled

Base (4,005) (570) (3,385)

Overall: During the day/after dark

Underground/buses/National Rail 53 51 53

During the day:

Underground/buses/National Rail 23 31 22

Underground 16 22 15

Buses 17 23 17

National Rail 11 15 11

After dark:

Underground/buses/National Rail 48 44 49

Underground 37 32 37

Buses 42 40 43

National Rail 29 27 30

Transport for London – Disabled People 238


Disabled People

Customer satisfaction

We measure overall satisfaction with various transport types in London on an 11-

point scale, with 10 representing extremely satisfied and zero representing

extremely dissatisfied. We then scale this up to 100.

We have standardised satisfaction ratings, as laid out in the table below. This

allows us to apply consistent analysis across a wide range of satisfaction research.

Average rating Level of satisfaction

Under 50

Very low/weak/poor

50-54 Low/weak/poor

55-64 Fairly/relatively/quite low/weak/poor

65-69 Fair/reasonable

70-79 Fairly/relatively/quite good

80-84 Good or fairly high

85-90 Very good or high

90+ Excellent or very high

Levels of satisfaction with public transport among disabled customers are

relatively good, with the lowest mean rating being 77 out of 100 for black

cabs/taxis. Dial-a-Ride is rated particularly highly by disabled customers, receiving

an overall satisfaction rating of 92 out of 100, as well as trams receiving a rating of

91 out of 100 [16].

In general, the average satisfaction ratings across various transport types are tje

same for disabled customers as non-disabled customers.

Satisfaction with buses and bus stations has gradually improved over recent years

[16].

Transport for London – Disabled People 239


Disabled People

Overall satisfaction with transport types (2014/15) [16]

Satisfaction score (0-100)

Bus services:

All transport

users

Disabled

transport

users

Non-disabled

transport

users

Base (14,155) (1,319) (12,574)

Satisfaction score 85 85 85

Bus stations:

Base (3,626) (164) (2,801)

Satisfaction score 78 84 79

Underground:

Base (17,634) (726) (16,813)

Satisfaction score 84 84 84

Dial-a-Ride:

Base n/a (2,572) n/a

Satisfaction score n/a 92 n/a

DLR:

Base (13,398) (258) (12,532)

Satisfaction score 89 89 89

Overground:

Base (5,397) (81) (4,981)

Satisfaction score 83 84 83

Trams:

Base (4,329) (361) (3,967)

Satisfaction score 89 91 89

Black cabs/taxi:

Base (569) (63) (501)

Satisfaction score 83 77 85

Private hire vehicle:

Base (439) (71) (355)

Satisfaction score 80 84 80

Woolwich Ferry:

Base (1,056) (63) (993)

Satisfaction score 79 82 79

Victoria Coach Station:

Base (1,204) (79) (1,125)

Satisfaction score 82 86 81

Satisfaction not shown for London River Services and Night buses due to small base sizes.

Transport for London – Disabled People 240


Score out of 100

Disabled People

Bus

Among disabled people who use the bus, satisfaction is fairly high at 85 out of 100;

this is the same level that we have recorded for non-disabled bus users [16].

Specific elements of bus services are also rated fairly highly by disabled bus users;

for example, satisfaction with safety and security on the bus (87 out of 100) and

the driver’s behaviour and attitude (87 out of 100) [16].

Over time, satisfaction with buses is generally consistent among disabled users

[16].

Overall satisfaction with buses over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

78 78

81 83 82 81 81 82 81 82 82 83 85

76 77 78 78 78 80 80 79 80 80 82 83 85

Disabled

Transport for London – Disabled People 241


Score out of 100

Disabled People

As with other types of transport, satisfaction with value for money is lower among

both disabled and non-disabled customers than satisfaction with other aspects of

bus travel (74 out of 100 for disabled Londoners compared with 72 out of 100 for

non-disabled Londoners), compared with over 80 out of 100 for many other

aspects. [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with buses over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

80 81

78 78

75 73

76 76 76 75

71 69 70

72 72 71

74 74 73

69 66 68

Disabled Non-disabled

71

74

71 72

Drivers of satisfaction

From our key driver analysis we have found that the drivers of satisfaction with

buses among disabled customers are somewhat different to those for nondisabled

customers, with the level of crowding playing a more important role

among disabled bus users than non-disabled customers [16].

Satisfaction among bus users is driven by:

Drivers of satisfaction for bus users [16]

Disabled customers

Ease of making journey

Non-disabled customers

Journey time

Level of crowding on bus

Journey time

Time waited to catch bus

Availability of seats on bus

Ease of making journey

Comfort inside the bus

Time waited to catch bus

Satisfaction with info on delays at stop

Transport for London – Disabled People 242


Score out of 100

Disabled People

Tube

Among disabled Tube users, satisfaction is fairly high at 84 out of 100. This is the

same level as for non-disabled Londoners [16].

Customer satisfaction research shows that satisfaction with various parts of the

Tube experience among disabled Tube users is fairly high. For example, personal

safety in the station (84 out of 100) and on the train (85 out of 100) [16].

Overall satisfaction with the Tube over time [16]

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

80 81

78 80

84 83 84

83 83 84

Disabled

Satisfaction with value for money is higher among disabled users than nondisabled

users (77 out of 100 compared with 68 out of 100) [16].

Drivers of satisfaction

Satisfaction with the Tube is driven by a number of factors that are focused

primarily upon ease, comfort and journey length. There are very few differences in

the top three drivers of satisfaction between disabled and non-disabled Tube users

[16]:

Drivers of satisfaction for Tube users [16]

Disabled customers

Ease of making journey

Non-disabled customers

Ease of making journey

Comfort of journey

Length of journey time

Smoothness of journey

Train crowding

Length of journey time

Comfort of journey

Length of time waited for train

Personal safety on train

Transport for London – Disabled People 243


Disabled People

Tube accessibility mystery travellers

We carry out mystery traveller accessibility assessments on the Tube. Our

research from Q3 2014/15 found that almost all (96 per cent) of assessments

resulted in no issues with anything blocking the mystery travellers’ way or

impeding them at the entrance or the exit of a Tube station. Small proportions

reported an escalator not working (six per cent). No lifts were found to be out-ofuse

during the quarter’s assessments [83].

This research also measures the availablity and support of staff at stations. Thirtyfour

per cent of physically or visually impaired assessors were approached and

offered assistance in the ticket hall area by a member of staff and 87 per cent of

the assessments found staff politeness to be excellent or good and 82 per cent,

helpful at the same standard [83].

Transport for London – Disabled People 244


Disabled People

Overground

Overall satisfaction among disabled Overground customers is fairly high at 84 out of 100

and is higher than that of non-disabled users (83 out of 100) [16].

Overall satisfaction with London Overground over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score

(0-100)

All Disabled Nondisabled

Base 2014/15 (5,397) (81) (4,981)

2009/10 73 75 73

2010/11 80 84 80

2011/12 82 85 81

2012/13 82 85 82

2013/14 82 87 82

2014/15 83 84 83

Satisfaction with value for money, although not being a top five influencing factor

on overall satisfaction, is also fairly high among disabled users (75 out of 100

compared with 73 out of 100 for non-disabled users) [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with London Overground over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score

(0-100)

All Disabled Nondisabled

Base 2014/15 (5,182) (82) (4,926)

2011/12 72 83 71

2012/13 71 80 71

2013/14 70 81 70

2014/15 73 75 73

Drivers of satisfaction

For disabled users of the Overground, satisfaction is mainly driven by feeling

valued, value for money and ease of making a journey. Most of these elements are

also main drivers for non-disabled Londoners [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for Overground users [16]

Disabled customers

Feel valued as a customer

Non-disabled customers

Ease of making your journey

Train journey in terms of value for money

Ease of making journey

Comfort of this train

Condition and state of repair of the train

Condition and state of repair of the train

Feel valued as a customer

Comfort of this train

Information about service disruptions on

the train

Transport for London – Disabled People 245


Disabled People

Docklands Light Railway (DLR)

Disabled DLR users are very satisfied with the service overall, giving a mean score

of 89 out of 100, which is the same as the satisfaction level seen for non-disabled

users (89 out of 100) [16].

Overall satisfaction with DLR over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score

(0-100)

All Disabled Nondisabled

Base 2014/15 (13,398) (258) (12,532)

2009/10 81 83 81

2010/11 81 85 81

2011/12 82 84 83

2012/13 87 87 87

2013/14 87 90 87

2014/15 89 89 89

Satisfaction with value for money is higher among disabled users than nondisabled

users (81 and 77 out of 100 respectively). However, it is generally lower

than overall satisfaction, as with all types of transport [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with DLR over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score

(0-100)

All Disabled Nondisabled

Base 2014/15 (12,839) (254) (12,327)

2011/12 72 78 72

2012/13 74 82 74

2013/14 75 85 75

2014/15 77 81 77

Drivers of satisfaction

Satisfaction among disabled users of the DLR is driven by a number of factors such

as feeling valued as a customer, journey length and ease of making a journey.

Comfort inside the train is a bigger factor for non-disabled customers [16].

Drivers of satisfaction for DLR users [16]

Disabled

Feel valued as a customer

Non-disabled

Ease of making your journey

Journey length

Ease of making your journey

Reliability of trains

Cleanliness and freedom from litter inside the train

Comfort inside the train

Reliability of trains

Journey length

Feel valued as a customer

Transport for London – Disabled People 246


Disabled People

Dial-a-Ride

Overall user satisfaction with Dial-a-Ride is very high at 92 out of 100.

Satisfaction levels among disabled users are considered excellent across various

aspects of the Dial-a-Ride service. The highest level of satisfaction is with the

helpfulness and courtesy of Dial-a-Ride drivers and cleanliness of interior (mean

rating of 94 out of 100) [16].

Satisfaction with Dial-a-Ride (2014/15) [16]

Mean rating (0-100)

All

Base 2,075-2,572

Satisfaction with…

Overall 92

Driver 94

Interior vehicle cleanliness 94

Exterior vehicle cleanliness 93

Ease of getting on and off the

91

bus

We organise regular local area meetings across London with users of the Dial-a-

Ride service to understand their needs better, receive feedback and make

improvements to the service. In late 2013/early 2014, we carried out research

among Dial-a-Ride customers who attended a feedback meeting to understand

how the service meets their needs and how useful the meetings are.

Overall, the meetings were found to be useful and scored highly across many key

measures, including overall satisfaction and usefulness. Ninety-five per cent of

attendees stated that they were satisfied overall with the meeting format and 89

per cent agreed that the meetings met their needs.

Most are satisfied with the service that Dial-a-Ride provides. However, there are

some suggested improvements in the booking process [89].

Transport for London – Disabled People 247


Disabled People

Trams

Overall satisfaction with trams is high among both disabled customers (91 out of

100) and non-disabled customers (89 out of 100) [16].

Overall satisfaction with trams over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score

(0-100)

All Disabled Nondisabled

Base 2014/15 (4,329) (361) (3,697)

2009/10 86 89 86

2010/11 85 88 85

2011/12 86 90 85

2012/13 89 92 89

2013/14 89 90 89

2014/15 89 91 89

Overall satisfaction with value for money on the tram network is quite good (78

out of 100). There are no differences in the satisfaction with value for money

scores given by disabled and non-disabled customers [16].

Satisfaction with value for money with trams over time – all customers [16]

Satisfaction score

(0-100)

All Disabled Nondisabled

Base 2014/15 (2,824) (84) (2,649)

2011/12 73 * 73

2012/13 77 79 77

2013/14 78 81 78

2014/15 78 78 78

* Denotes small base size (percentages not shown in this report for base sizes of less than 50).

Transport for London – Disabled People 248


Disabled People

Streets

Disabled Londoners are less satisfied with streets and pavements in London than

non-disabled Londoners. Disabled Londoners are significantly less likely to have

been satisfied on their last walking journey than non-disabled Londoners, with 51

per cent of disabled Londoners satisfied compared to 71 per cent of non-disabled

Londoners. Disabled Londoners are also slightly less satisfied with streets and

pavements on their last car journey than non-disabled Londoners (51 per cent and

61 per cent respectively) [34].

Sixty-five per cent of disabled Londoners consider the condition of pavements to

be a barrier to walking, and 43 per cent report that obstacles on pavements are a

barrier to walking more [65].

Overall satisfaction with streets and pavement after last journey over time – walking

journey [34]

Net fairly

satisfied/very

satisfied (%)

All Disabled Nondisabled

Base 2014/15 (957) (155) (786)

2011 64 51 65

2012 68 50 70

2013 69 59 70

2014 68 49 70

2015 68 51 71

Overall satisfaction with streets and pavements after last journey over time - car journey

[34]

Net fairly

satisfied/very

satisfied (%)

All Disabled Nondisabled

Base 2014/15 (830) (147) (669)

2011 54 56 55

2012 62 59 63

2013 57 51 58

2014 61 54 61

2015 60 51 61

Sixty-two per cent of disabled Londoners are satisfied with the ease of crossing

the road on foot (compared to 79 per cent of non-disabled Londoners) [85].

Please note that satisfaction for streets is calculated as a combination of ‘very

satisfied’ and ‘fairly satisfied’, and therefore it cannot be directly compared with

other customer satisfaction scores that we have presented in this document.

Transport for London – Disabled People 249


Disabled People

Transport for London Road Network (TRLN)

Satisfaction with the general impression of the TLRN is reasonable to fairly good. Disabled

customers give a score of 67 out of 100 for walking and driving, 70 out of 100 for travelling

by bus and 71 for cycling on the TLRN [16].

Overall satisfaction – general impression of red routes over time [16]

Satisfaction score (0-100) All Disabled Nondisabled

Walking

Base 2014-15 (1,254) (197) (1,037)

2013/14 70 70 70

2014/15 68 67 68

Travelling by bus

Base 2014-15 (4,620) (795) (3,744)

2013/14 69 70 69

2014/15 71 70 71

Driving

Base 2014-15 (3,605) (553) (3,005)

2013/14 67 70 67

2014/15 67 67 67

Cycling

Base 2014-15 (1,838) (239) (1,575)

2013/14 69 * 69

2014/15 70 71 70

* Denotes small base size (data not shown in this report for base sizes of less than 50).

Transport for London – Disabled People 250


Disabled People

Access to information

All customers using our transport network need information. Disabled customers

have many of the same information needs as non-disabled Londoners; however,

where customers have specific impairments these can have a substantial effect

upon their travel information needs, particularly around accessibility [86].

Following the success of our information provision during the 2012 Games, we

undertook a number of research programmes among different groups, including

disabled Londoners. The focus was upon how our work during the Olympics can

be developed further to best meet customers’ needs and maximise the legacy

from the Games in this area.

Some disabled people plan their journeys meticulously and seek reassurance that

at each step along their route they know what to do and where to go, researching

suitable, accurate and up-to-date accessibility information for each station and

stop that they plan to use. This takes time and can become a barrier for some,

especially when alternative travel options are available such as a car. Information

is therefore a key element of the service provided for many disabled customers.

[87].

Customer service centre

Providing excellent customer service is very important to TfL and it is currently

reviewing its processes to make it easier for all customers to use the network. For

example, contact centres have assigned accessibility champions and we ensuring

that bus drivers are receiving updated training which has been developed with the

input of disabled customers [22].

Our accessibility mystery traveller surveys are conducted by disabled assessors

who evaluate live information sources, use of the transport network and the

service that TfL provides. Assessors also evaluate telephone and email

information advice services. These services are used by many Londoners for

planning their journeys and gaining information. In qualitative research, disabled

Londoners often report that they rely heavily on customer service centres for

journey information [66].

Staff interaction scores (a mix of helpfulness, politeness and patience indicators)

are high among assessors (96 per cent) and 99 per cent of calls were answered

within five minutes [83, 88].

Information received is generally felt to be of good quality and helpful by assessors

who used the telephone service (85 per cent) [88].

Transport for London – Disabled People 251


Disabled People

Access to the internet

Most information provided by TfL, including accessibility-related information, is

available online, often in addition to various offline sources.

A significantly lower proportion of disabled Londoners access the internet

compared with non-disabled Londoners (76 per cent compared with 93 per cent).

This is due primarily to the older age profile of disabled Londoners. However, even

accounting for this there are significant differences:



Internet access among disabled people aged under 65 is 90 per cent compared

with 97 per cent for non-disabled Londoners of the same age

Fifty-three per cent of disabled Londoners aged 65 and over access the

internet compared with 67 per cent of non-disabled Londoners of the same

age

Disabled Londoners who access the internet use fewer online facilities than nondisabled

internet users – with the exception of ‘playing games’ which is on a par

for disabled and non-disabled Londoners (both 36%). All aspects of internet use

covered in the research are less commonly used by disabled internet users than

non-disabled users. As with internet access, this is likely to be related to the older

age profile of disabled people, as older people tend to access fewer online

facilities.

Access to the internet (Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

%

All

Disabled

Disabled

16-64

Disabled

65+

Nondisabled

Nondisabled

16-64

Nondisabled

65+

Base (2,001) (268) (1,688) (115) (1,209) (153) (479)

Any access 92 76 93 90 97 53 67

Access at home 89 75 91 89 94 51 66

Access at work 56 14 60 22 67 2 7

Access ‘on the

move’

61 23 65 31 71 10 16

None 8 24 7 10 3 47 33

Device usage and behaviour

Disabled Londoners are significantly less likely than non-disabled Londoners to

have a smartphone (44 per cent compared with 80 per cent), a pattern which is

seen across age groups. Disabled mobile users are also considerably less likely to

access the internet on their mobile device (42 per cent compared with 81 per cent)

[15].

Transport for London – Disabled People 252


Disabled People

Proportion of Londoners who use a smartphone (iPhone, BlackBerry, other) (Apr/ Oct

2014) [15]

Disabled

16-64

Disabled

65+

% All Disabled Nondisabled

Nondisabled

16-64

Nondisabled

65+

Base (2,001) (268) (1,688) (115) (1,209) (153) (479)

Uses a

smartphone

77 44 80 61 87 15 28

Proportion of mobile phone owners who have ever accessed the internet on their mobile

device (Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

Disabled

16-64

Disabled

65+

% All Disabled Nondisabled

Nondisabled

16-64

Nondisabled

65+

Base (1,802) (225) (1,539) (109) (1,150) (116) (389)

Ever accessed

the internet on

their mobile

device

78 42 81 55 87 13 32

Apps

Many of the specific information needs expressed by disabled customers may be

well suited to an app. Customers with cognititve impairments also suggest that

facilities such as drop-down menus and visual cues, which are often part of apps,

can help them to find the route that they need in an easier way than some

websites [66].

App usage has increased considerably in the last few years, particularly amongst

disabled Londoners [15].

Among both disabled and non-disabled Londoners who have a mobile device

capable of accessing apps, the majority have now downloaded at least one app -

either free or paid for. There is now little difference in app usage between

disabled and non-disabled smartphone users (87 per cent and 88 per cent

respectively), which is in stark contrast to 2012/2013 when far fewer disabled

Londoners had downloaded at least one app than non-disabled Londoners (39 per

cent compared with 72 per cent respectively) [15].

Transport for London – Disabled People 253


Disabled People

Preference towards using apps or websites (Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

% Disabled Non-disabled

Base (all who

download apps)

Always prefer to use

apps

Sometimes prefer to

use apps, sometimes

prefer to use websites

Always prefer to use

websites

(61) (894)

51 46

22 34

26 20

Although small sample sizes don't allow robust comparison, it appears that among

those who use both websites and apps, disabled Londoners are more likely to have

a preference for one or the other than non-disabled Londoners [15].

Use of the TfL website

The TfL website contains a wealth of information that answers many of the needs

that disabled customers raised during our qualitative research. Disabled

customers who use the TfL site tend to agree that it is ‘best in class’ and that it

contains most of the information that they need. The key barrier that TfL faces to

ensure that we get our information to people who need it is that disabled

customers are not always using the site or are not currently using it in an

optimised way [66].

Among all disabled Londoners, 54 per cent make use of the TfL website. This

compares to 81 per cent of non-disabled Londoners [15].

Disabled Londoners are less likely to visit the TfL website at least three to four

times a week than non-disabled users (13 per cent compared with33 per cent) [15].

Proportion of Londoners who visit www.tfl.gov.uk (Apr/ Oct 2014) [15]

% All Disabled Non-disabled

Base (2,001) (268) (1,688)

Daily 9 3 11

Up to 3-4 times a week 21 10 22

Up to 3-4 times a month 20 12 21

About once a month 17 12 17

Less than once a month 11 18 11

Never 20 43 17

Don’t know/ refused 2 3 2

Transport for London – Disabled People 254


Disabled People

The most common reason for both disabled and non-disabled Londoners to visit

the TfL website is to use Journey Planner. However, compared to non-disabled

users, disabled users are slightly less likely to visit the TfL website to use Journey

Planner (63 per cent of disabled users claimed this to be their main reason for

visiting compared with 68 per cent of non-disabled users). Instead, they are

slightly more likely to visit for the purposes of finding out live travel information

(32 per cent compared with 30 per cent for non-disabled Londoners) and finding a

map (18 per cent compared with 15 per cent) [37].

Main purpose of today’s visit to the TfL website (2013) [37]

%

Nondisabled

All Disabled

Base (28,278) (2,180) (25,562)

Using Journey Planner to plan a route 68 63 68

Finding out live travel information 30 32 30

Finding out about planned works or

24 24 24

closures

Doing something related to Oyster cards or 20 19 20

other tickets

Finding a map 15 18 15

Doing something related to Congestion

4 5 4

Charge

Finding out about cycling 2 3 2

Finding out about roads or driving 2 3 2

Other 4 7 4

Social media

Use of social media by disabled people in London is growing with several feeds

gaining traction. Common Twitter feeds include:





@transportforall

@everydayableism

@TfLaccess

@Tubelifts

Social media offers many opportunities for disabled people to be informed and

share experiences [76]. Social media comments made about accessibility fall into

two main categories: general access concerns and lifts and ramps, indicating that

day-to-day problems concern commentators more than bigger issues [95].

Transport for London – Disabled People 255


Disabled People

A small-scale survey of @TfLaccess users asked what improvements would be

welcomed. Responses show how users like to engage with the feed and are

seeking greater content:

‘Tweets about out of service lifts are great and very important. Especially where

they are the only one to a line’

‘Images demonstrating what is being discussed’

‘Take simple complaints and follow up’

‘Timely info’

‘More tweets just discovered feed and looking forward to more content’

‘Pics’

‘At least you are human - and you get a response (unlike @TFLofficial). but you

could be even MORE human. Be more chatty’ [91]

Paper-based maps and timetables

Maps and timetables are widely used by disabled customers, referring to them

both at home and on the journey. The ‘disabled sign’ is used as a quick reference

to whether the station will be accessible [66]. There is evidence that disabled

customers have a higher reliance on paper-based sources than non-disabled

customers. However, this may be due to the higher proportion of disabled

customers who are older than among non-disabled customers [48].

Many disabled customers consider paper maps and timetables to be easy to use,

read and understand and offer reassurance while on the journey, especially in the

case of a disruption. They also provide customers with time to digest the

information in a tangible way [66].

We discussed a number of paper-based information sources with disabled

Londoners. Reflecting other research and wider findings, disabled Londoners were

generally very positive about each of the resources shown to them. However,

awareness that the information was provided in this format was often very low.





Tube map with accessibility icons – found to be very useful and to provide

instant accessibility information at a glance. There was, however, some

confusion about exactly what the accessibility icons mean, particularly the icon

referring to step-free access from street to platform; some customers were

unsure whether they could actually board the train at these stations

Toilet guide – felt to be very useful as several customers pre-plan journeys

around toilet availability

Getting Around London, A4-sized accessibility guide – liked as a reference

document for the home; some did feel this provided too much information to

digest when travelling

Enlarged Tube map – felt to be clear to read and understand

Transport for London – Disabled People 256


Disabled People



Audio Tube map – hearing-impaired customers included in the research said

this was a great way to obtain this information

Tube map in black and white – although recognised as a useful resource, there

were some specific improvements suggested around the labelling of lines [66]

We also carried out research to investigate the viability for the addition of

accessibility icons and the ATOC London rail and Tube Services map. Disabled

people, both wheelchair users and Londoners with other mobility impairments,

generally think that the inclusion of accessibility information on this map would be

a good development. However, our research also identified the need for any

additional information to be clear and concise, as maps can already be confusing

to some Londoners due to the volume of information portrayed. Accessibility

symbols therefore need to be consistent and intuitive [86].

Tube information products

Many disabled Londoners are impressed with the suite of materials that TfL has

produced to help customers plan and complete their journeys, once they become

aware of the range of information available. Our information products encourage

a sense of inclusion and help to reassure people about their Tube travel. However,

awareness of these information products was low, and beyond an explicit

assumption that ‘some accessibility information’ would exist, very few people

knew of their availability [13].

In 2014 we ran a communication campaign to increase awareness of the range of

accessibility information that we provide.

As well as targeting user information, the campaign also sparked discussion on

social media around the Turn-up-and-go service that we have introduced on the

Tube [76].

Transport for London – Disabled People 257


Disabled People

Step-free Tube guide

The standard Tube map contains information on whether a station has step-free

access from street to train, or street to platform. This is generally well received

and commonly referred to by disabled Londoners [66].

A key piece of information that we have provided to help people - particularly

wheelchair users - to navigate the Underground network is the Step-free Tube

guide. This guide provides much more detail on the accessibility of specific

stations. Disabled customers whom we asked about the guide felt it to be useful,

once they understand it [66]. Among disabled Londoners who use the Tube and

who were shown an image of the step-free Tube map, 55 per cent were aware of

the guide and 36 per cent said that they had used it [48].

The Step-free Tube guide provides a large amount of information about the

detailed accessibility parameters of Underground stations. Once people had

studied the guide, they said that they felt it was highly useful and the information

empowering. The guide actually encouraged some disabled customers to consider

using the network more and with greater confidence and reassurance. However,

initially the guide can be seen as overwhelming due to the amount of information

it contains [66].

Signage

We have developed a new signage strategy based on the principles that we used

during the 2012 Games [22].

We have carried out research among passengers with reduced mobility (which

includes disabled people as well as people encumbered by luggage or using

pushchairs). The results identified that customers found it difficult to understand

complex signs that are constructed entirely of symbols, and that text is needed to

clarify the meaning in some cases. Designers need to include sufficient

information to make a sign useful, without providing so much information that it

becomes confusing.

For example, the sign on the left below was clearly understood to indicate the

direction of the lifts, but did not communicate to customers which parts of the

station could be accessed by using the lifts. On the other hand, the sign on the

right was confusing to many due to its complexity, and in some cases it raised

more questions; for example, many concluded (incorrectly) that the Victoria line

was not accessible by using the lifts.

Transport for London – Disabled People 258


Disabled People

Symbols can become attached to particular meanings which render them

ineffective at communicating different messages. For example, the wheelchair

symbol was interpreted to mean that step-free facilities were for the use of

wheelchair users, rather than anyone who could benefit from them [90].

It is clearest to customers where lifts will take them if directional arrows are

accompanied by text. Without written information, many customers can be

uncertain which parts of the station can be accessed by using the lifts. Here is an

example of the most successful signage option that we covered in the research

[92]:

During accompanied journeys made with disabled customers, some made the

suggestion that signage should indicate the distance between points within the

station [92].

Legible London

Feedback from disabled Londoners in our development of the Legible London

wayfinding system showed that the style of maps was well received and that in

general, the wayfinding system was popular. There was some acknowledgement

that maps and signs cannot meet the needs of all disabled people with, for

example, the maps needing to be a different height for wheelchair users as

opposed to Londoners with visual impairments [93].

iBus display

The iBus information system on buses is welcomed by bus users, not just disabled

Londoners.

One area for potential improvement would be for one iBus display to face the

front of the bus on the lower level as the current location is not visible by

wheelchair users [66]. This is the case on the New Bus for London (NBFL) and is

noted as a positive by the wheelchair user mystery travellers [94].

Our AMTS bus survey showed us that the audio announcements on the bus are

clear to the majority of assessors (95 per cent) [83].

‘The iBus was clear and I heard my stop announced in good time.’

(Visually impaired assessor) [83]

‘The big improvement for me was having an iBus display positioned at the rear of

the bus for rear-facing passengers.’

(Wheelchair user using NBfL) [94]

Transport for London – Disabled People 259


Disabled People

Customer satisfaction data provides a score of 84 out of 100 for interior bus

information among disabled customers, compared with 85 out of 100 given by

non-disabled customers [16].

For passengers with partial or full hearing loss, bus travel is often the preferred

way to travel as it provides access to the driver and the iBus display [73]. Hearingimpaired

customers also report making full use of the ability to see where they are

through the windows and this is cited as another reason to prefer the bus over

other types of transport [66].

Pedestrian Countdown

Pedestrian Countdown has been introduced at pedestrian crossings to show the

time counting down after the ‘green for pedestrians’ phase ends and before the

‘green for vehicles’ phase begins. Shortly after the introduction of pedestrian

crossing countdowns, 50 per cent of disabled Londoners reported seeing it around

the Capital and 40 per cent of disabled Londoners had used it; almost everyone

who had used the system found it useful [48].

New technology is now being tested which will further aid Londoners when using

pedestrian crossings. The technology will adjust the light phasing when a lot of

people are waiting to cross, thus allowing greater time for pedestrians to cross at

busy times.

Disruptions

Information is particularly important to customers in the event of a disruption.

While many disabled Londoners are confident travellers, many also recognise that

the impact of disruptions can be greater for them, and they have a concern that

they could easily get stuck [87].

Disabled customers have concerns about disruptions. These concerns are also

experienced by non-disabled customers; however, disruptions can be more

impactful for disabled customers because they can face greater difficulties

overcoming their effects. Disabled customers report that they can experience

anxiety during disruptions and that access to reliable, live information is key to

minimising this [66].

Disabled customers want to know:


How long the disruption will last

- Some disabled customers say they would prefer to stay with their original plan if

the disruption is not likely to last too long, so this information can help them

decide whether it is absolutely necessary to change their travel plan

- This information is also needed to control anxiety for some customers and

maintain a sense of control during the journey

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Disabled People



How they can reach their destination if their original route is disrupted

- Customers seek information to tell them what to do next, and they look to TfL

to inform them of a new route or to signpost them towards where they can find

information about this

- Disabled customers do not want to be the last to know – this is especially true

for hearing-impaired customers who can feel excluded by audio announcements

Whether the new route will be accessible

- This is particularly important for customers who experience barriers due to a

mobility or visual impairment

- Distances to and location of alternative transport types – how far they will need

to walk and where to

- Customers also seek information about the station that they have arrived into

unexpectedly

The presence of staff during disruptions provides much reassurance for disabled

customers as they expect them to be experts in advising on new accessible routes

and providing live up-to-date information.

Some disabled customers also suggest that apps and interactive information points at

stations or stops would be useful to communicate disruption-related information as this can

be accessed during the journey [66].

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Disabled People

Accessibility information case study

The public transport information needs of disabled Londoners are served through a variety

of online and offline resources. TfL has a wealth of information and data available which we

can present to disabled customers to assist their journey planning and ongoing system

experience.

Our current information sources, such as the Step-free Tube guide, provide customers with

a lot of data, and we have been developed them over time to meet the infrastructure

changes made to the system and evolving needs of customers.

Following the 2012 Games, during which TfL was highly commended for our information

provision to customers, particularly disabled customers, we commissioned a large-scale

qualitative research programme to understand:




What disabled customers want to know when making a familiar or unfamiliar journey

How disabled customers would like to receive this information

Where disabled customers expect to find this information

Factors found to impact on our customers’ need for information included:

An individual’s attitude towards planning a journey can sometimes play a more

important role than the barrier that a customer is living with. Disabled people who

experience greater accessibility barriers but have a ‘planner’ attitude may find getting

around London using TfL easier than a ‘non-planner’ who experiences fewer barriers

The longer a customer has been disabled the more likely they are to have developed

their knowledge and strategies for using TfL most effectively, and they tend therefore

to seek less information from TfL

Age can also play a role in the level of information required. Sometimes older

customers can become less confident about using TfL services and can require

information as a result. A similar pattern exists with non-disabled older Londoners

It is important to note that not all disabled customers feel that they have specific

information needs above and beyond other customers due to the barriers they face

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Disabled People

Disabled customers can benefit from a wide range of information in order to make full use

of the transport network across London. Much of their information requirements match

those of non-disabled customers, and reflect other research that we have taken and

commissioned from other organisations into the provision of pre-, during and post-journey

information.

Disabled customers’ information requirements fit around their journey needs into four

interlocking categories:





Access – disabled customers can benefit from detailed and up-to-date information on

all access points

Reassurance – a critical element of the information mix for disabled customers.

Knowledge that the journey will run as smoothly as possible. Access, navigation and

comfort also play a key role in reassurance

‘A lot of the time customers just want us to reassure them. Most know their routes and

journey, but they may want us to check things, like if lifts are working for example.’

(London Underground Customer Care Assistant)

Navigation – information to help customers find their way, parti