Sensitive Area

sensiblegebiete.at

Sensitive Area

Pilotstudy

Transport and

Sensitive Areas

on Example of the

Lake Neusiedl Region

Contribution to the Implementation

of the UNECE Vienna Declaration on

Transport and Environment and

the CEI Declaration Towards

Sustainable Transport

Summary

1


Pilotstudy

Transport and Sensitive Areas

on Example of the

Lake Neusiedl Region

Contribution to the Implementation of the

UNECE Vienna Declaration on

Transport and Environment

and the CEI Declaration Torwards

Sustainable Transport

Summary

on behalf of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture,

Forestry, Environment and Watermanagement

Project Management in the Federal Ministry of Agriculture,

Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW):

Robert Thaler

in collaboration with Eva Gleissenberger and Renate Nagy,

Division Transport, Mobility, Regional Planning and Noise

Project Management - Contractor:

Sibylla Zech, stadtland

Project Team:

Alfred Eichberger, Wolfgang Holzner, Ingo Korner, Franz Leutgeb,

Romain Molitor, Hannes Schaffer

jointly with experts of BMLFUW, BMVIT, State Burgenland and representatives of

interested municipalities of the region as well as of regional institutions in the field

of nature protection, agriculture, transport, tourism, regional planning, regional

economy and regional development

Vienna, October 2001

3


4

Editorial

This Pilot study and its summery published in this brochure was elaborated on

behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water

Management (BMLFUW), Division I/5U, as Austrian contribution to the implementation

of the UNECE Vienna Declaration on Transport and Environment and

the CEI Declaration Towards Sustrinable Transport.

Project Management in the BMLFUW:

Robert THALER, Dipl.-Ing., in collaboration with

Eva GLEISSENBERGER, Mag. and Renate NAGY,

all Div. I/5U Transport, Mobility, Regional Planning and Noise

Stubenbastei 5, A-1010 Vienna

phone +43 1 51522-1208, fax +43 1 51522-7208,

renate.nagy@bmu.gv.at

Project Management - Contractor:

Sibylla ZECH, Dipl.-Ing., stadtland, Ing.kons. für Raumplanung und

Raumordnung, Landschaftsplaner, Landschaftsökologen,

Theobaldgasse 16/4, A-1060 Vienna, phone +43 1 5862877-12, fax +43 1

5862877-9, wien@stadtland.at

Project Core-Team:

Alfred EICHBERGER, Dipl.-Ing., Raumplaner, stadtland, Wien, Wolfgang

HOLZNER, Univ. Prof. Dr., Ökologe, ZUN (Universität für Bodenkultur Wien),

Ingo KORNER, Dr., Ökologe, AVL, Arge Vegetationsökologie und Landschaftsplanung,

Wien, Franz LEUTGEB, Dipl.-Ing., Umweltchemiker, Mannersdorf

a.d. March, Romain MOLITOR, Dipl.-Ing. Dr., Verkehrsplaner, TRA-

FICO, Wien, Hannes SCHAFFER, Dipl.-Ing. Dr., Landschaftsplaner, mecca,

Umweltconsulting, Wien

Organisation: Stefan KLINGLER, Dipl.-Ing., stadtlan

Graphics, Technology: Annemarie FUCHS, stadtland

The study is based on the contributions of experts of the Federal Ministry of

Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the

Federal Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT), the State

Burgenland and representatives of interested municipalities of the region as

well as of regional institutions in the field of nature protection, agriculture, transport,

tourism, regional planning, regional economy and regional development

in the frame of three regional workshops as well as on the results of the international

conference

Sensitive Areas - a Key Challenge for Environment and Transport in Europe“,

Eisenstadt, Esterhazy Castle, 14-15 March 2001, and the

UNECE Special Meeting „Sensitive Areas“,

Eisenstadt, Esterhazy Castle, 16 March 2001

We thank all experts and institutions for their support in organising and holding

the regional workshops in particular those experts who have been actively participating.

Speakers at the Regional Workshops:

Sandor BÉKÉSI, Dr., Historiker, Wien, Bürgermeister Peter BRANDAUER,

Werfenweng und Obmann des Gemeindeverbandes ÖPNV-Pongau, Stephan

BRÜCKL, Dipl.-Ökonom, Süddeutsches Institut für nachhaltiges Wirtschaften

und Oeko-Logistik, Augsburg, Attila CSEMEZ, Szent Istvan Universität,

Budapest, Max HERRY, Verkehrsplaner, Wien, Bürgermeisterin Irene

IZMENY, Pöttsching, Helmuth KOCH, Dipl.-Ing., Amt der Bgld. Lreg., Abt.

8, Straßenbau/Verkehrs-planung, Thomas PERLAKY, Dipl.-Ing., Amt der

Bgld. Lreg., Verkehrskoordinator, Robert THALER, Dipl.-Ing., BMLFUW, Leiter

der Abt. Verkehr, Mobilität, Raumordnung und Lärm, Barbara TOBLER,

Literaturhaus Mattersburg

Involved Experts - Participants of the Workshops:

Gerda BAUER, Amt der Bgld. Lreg., Hauptreferat Fremdenverkehr, Matthias

BEITL, Ethnographisches Museum, Kittsee, Andrea BERGER, Dr., Volksbildungswerk,

Halbturn, Bernhard DILLHOFF, Wirtschaftskammer Burgenland,

Ingeborg FIALA, Mag., BMLFUW, Hermann FRÜHSTÜCK, Mag., Naturschutzbund

Burgenland, Karl FUHRMANN, Dipl.-Ing., Bgld. Landwirtschaftskammer,

Helfried GARTNER, Dipl.-Ing., BMLFUW, Rosi GROSZ, Plattform

B50, Christian GRUBITS, Dipl.-Ing., Beratender Ingenieur für Verkehrswesen

und Infrastrukturplanung, Eisenstadt, Hans HASIEBER, GR Donnerskirchen,

Wolfgang HASLEHNER, Amt der Bgld. Lreg., Abt. 4b - Güterwegebau,

Agrar- und Forsttechnik, Helmut HAUSER, ÖBB, Personennahverkehr,

Eisenstadt, Helmut HERLICSKA, Dipl.-Ing. Dr., Amt der Bgld. Lreg., Abt. 9 -

Wasser und Abfallwirtschaft, Bürgermeister Richard HERMANN, Ing., Purbach,

Max HERRY, Dr., Verkehrsplaner, Wien, Ernst HOFER, GR Schützen/Gebirge,

Vizebürgermeister Walter HOFHERR, Schützen/Gebirge, Richard

HÖBAUSZ, Amt der Bgld. LReg., Abt. 4a - Agrar- und Veterinärwesen,

Hubert IBY, Amt der Bgld. LReg., Abt. 4b - Güterwegebau, Hauptreferat Forsttechnik,

Robert JELLER, Mag., Neusiedler See Tourismus GmbH, Neusiedl

am See, Wolfgang KAITNA, Dipl.-Ing., Architekt, Purbach am Neusiedlersee

und Wien, Johann KÖLLNER, Dr., Biologische Station Illmitz, Krisztina

KOVACS, Dipl.-Ing., Szent Istvan Universität, Budapest, Michael LAMPL,

Raab-Ödenburg-Ebenfurter-Eisenbahnen, Wulkaprodersdorf, Alois LANG,

Nationalpark Neusiedler See Seewinkel Informationszentrum, Illmitz, Ernst

LUNG, Dipl.-Ing., BMVIT, Hans LUNZER, Dr., Volksbildungswerk, Eisenstadt,

Aysegül MALISSA, Österreichische Postbus AG, Karl MARACEK, Dipl.-Ing.,

Amt der Bgld. Lreg., Referat Hydrografie, Viktor RAUCH, Dipl.-Ing., Amt der

Bgld. Lreg., Abt. 4b - Güterwegebau, Helmut RINGEL, Dipl.-Ing., Bgld. Landesjagdverband,

Eisenstadt, Helmut ROJACZ, Dipl.-Ing., Amt der Bgld. Lreg.,

Landeswasserbaubezirksamt Schützen am Gebirge, Neusiedler See Koordination,

Astrid SAMM, Mag., Wirtschaftsservice Burgenland AG (WIBAG),

Eisenstadt, Walter SATTLER, Amt der Bgld. Lreg., Abt. 4b - Güterwegebau,

Agrar- und Forsttechnik, Rupert SCHATOVICH, Amt der Bgld. Lreg., Hauptreferat

Raumordnung, Markus SCHUSTER, Dipl.-Ing., Verkehrsplanungsbüro

Dr. Herry, Wien, Herbert SZINOVATZ, Mag., Amt der Bgld. Lreg., Abt. 9 - Wasser

und Abfallwirtschaft, Referat Gewässeraufsicht, Alois TRUCKSITZ, AR,

Schützen/Gebirge


CONTENTS

Foreword 4

Background and Objectives 9

Guiding Principles: Sensitive Transport Solutions for Sensitive Areas 11

Sensitive Areas –

A Trademark for Environmentally Friendly and Sustainable Development 13

The Lake Neusiedl Region – A Particularly Sensitive Area 15

Sensitive Transport Solutions Create Potential for the Future of Sensitive Regions 17

Recommendation: Master Plan and Innovative Pilot Projects

for a Sustainable Regional and Transport Development 19

5


Sensitive Areas – a Challenge

for the Environment

and Transport in Europe

Sensitive areas – their value, their fragility and

above all, their future potential for sustainable

regional development – are an enormous challenge

not only as an environmental policy issue, but for all spheres of policymaking,

especially traffic and transportation policy and regional planning.

This challenge must be met by providing transport solutions adjusted

to individual needs, which pay due regard to the very special

situation of particularly sensitive areas and are designed to ensure the

sustainable regional development by exploiting their specific future

potentials. The objective is to minimise risks and to utilise existing

opportunities to the best advantage of the sensitive areas. The vehicles

to achieve this goal are innovations and intelligent solutions for transport,

tourism and the local economy.

The pilot study for the Lake Neusiedl region, the results of which are

summarised in this brochure, represents an important Austrian contribution

towards the implementation of the Vienna UNECE Declaration

on Transport and Environment and the Declaration Towards Sustainable

Transport of the Central European Initiative, which for the first time

acknowledged the need of protecting sensitive areas as a priority field

of environmental and transport policy action at the pan-European level.

The Lake Neusiedl region was selected for this pilot study because it is

one of Europe’s most outstanding landscapes. A rich variety of beautiful

landscapes and natural habitats, an old cultural and settlement

landscape, and the leisure time and recreation infrastructure of a tourist

region make the Lake Neusiedl region a sensitive area with extraordinary

opportunities for creating sustainable living spaces and sustainable

modes of economic activity – and this in an area located at the centre

of a highly dynamic economic region and exposed to the impact of

increasing east-west and north-south-bound traffic.

The pilot study is designed to serve as an exemplary project and provide

a model of how transport-related issues can be solved in sensitive

areas, while opening up and exploiting potentials for a sustainable and

environmentally compatible development of traffic and transport

systems.

Based on the excellent cooperation with the Federal Ministry of Transport,

Innovation and Technology, the Land Burgenland, interested

communities, regional players and, above all, with our Hungarian

neighbours, cross-border cooperation will now be taken up to develop

and implement a pilot project on sustainable transport and mobility

management in sensitive regions using the example of the Lake Neusiedl/

Fertö-tó region. The ultimate goal of our cooperation is to develop

sustainable transport solutions with a low impact on the environment

in this valuable Central European region.

I sincerely hope that the results summarized in this brochure will not

only provide a comprehensive source of information and the basis for

forward-looking decisions on transport and the environment in the

region, but will also give important impulses for developing and implementing

sensitive transport solutions in particularly sensitive European

regions.

Wilhelm Molterer

Federal Minister of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water

Management

7


Background and Objectives

The Vienna Declaration of the UNECE Conference on Transport

and the Environment (Vienna 1997) defined “sensitive

areas” as a field of action requiring sustainable transport development.

In these areas, special attention has to

Sensitive areas

be paid to reducing the adverse health and envi-

as a field of

action for transronmental impacts of transport to acceptable

port and

limits. Austria features as a lead country for the

environmental implementation of Chapter IV of the Declarati-

policy

on. The initiative is jointly supported by the

Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and

Water Management and the Federal Ministry of Transport,

Innovation and Technology.

The pilot study for the Lake Neusiedl Region constitutes an

important Austrian contribution to UNECE activities. It integrates

the principles set forth in the base study “Criteria for

Ecologically Particularly Sensitive Areas” drawn up and

published by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry,

Environment and Water Management and addresses the specific

development potential of sensitive areas: Sensitive areas

have the special features that promise sustainable future

development for the economy, ecology and society.

The Lake Neusiedl Region was selected for this pilot study

because it is one of Europe’s most outstanding landscapes.

Within a narrow space there is a rich variety of natural habitats,

an old cultural and settlement landscape, and the leisure

time and recreation infrastructure of a tourist

Model Region region. Its ecological and cultural features, but

Lake Neusiedl –

also its vulnerable balance of land use and eco-

Fertö-tó

systems, make the Lake Neusiedl Region a sensitive

area with extraordinary opportunities for creating

sustainable living spaces and modes of economic activity –

and this in an area located at the centre of a highly dynamic

economic region and exposed to the impact of increasing

east-west and north-south traffic.

The pilot study was prepared by an interdisciplinary team of

experts in close cooperation with experts from the region, the

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water

Management and the Ministry of Transport, Innovation and

Technology and specialised institutions of the Land Burgenland

as well as representatives of interested communities and

regional institutions in the field of nature protection, agriculture,

transport, tourism, the regional business community, spatial

planning and regional development.

The study is based above all on the findings

of three region workshops (in Neusiedl

at Lake Neusiedl, Purbach, Schützen

am Gebirge) and the results of the

International Conference on Transport

and the Environment in Europe, which,

organised by joint initiative of Austrian

authorities (the Ministry of Agriculture,

Forestry, Environment and Water Management,

the Ministry of Transport, Innovation

and Technology, Land Burgenland)

and the UNECE in cooperation

with the CEI, convened in Eisenstadt on 14–15 March 2001

and brought together over 200 experts from more than 25

countries.

Within the framework of this conference, the Austrian and the

Hungarian environmental ministers signed a letter of intent

regarding the implementation of a Cross-Border Pilot Project

on Sustainable Transport for Sensitive Areas on the Example

of the Austrian/Hungarian Neusiedler See/Fertö-tö Region.

9


The representatives of 25 states who participated at the

UNECE Workshop on 16 March 2001 in Eisen-

Model for transport stadt attributed a highly positive value to the

development in

objectives and the methodological approach of

sensitive areas

the study, evaluating it as a central basis for further

work on the issue of “sensitive areas” at the level of UNECE

activities.

10

The pilot study is designed to serve as an exemplary project

and provide a model of how transport-related issues can be

solved in sensitive areas, while opening up and exploiting potentials

for a sustainable and environmentally compatible transport

development in general, and in the region in particular.

… and brought together more than 200 experts from more than 25 countries

The International Eisenstadt Conference lead to important results for

sustainable transport in sensitive areas …


Guiding Principles:

Sensitive Transport Solutions for Sensitive Areas

Ecologically particularly sensitive areas constitute the weakest

links in the chain of ecosystems and landscapes, which

makes them a highly challenging issue for transport policy and

system development, above all with a view to the planning of

transport infrastructure.

Sensitive areas show a high variety: valuable shores …

International and

national Guidelines

International agreements and national framework

programmes call for individually

tailored solutions for sensitive areas:

• At the European level, the Vienna UNECE Declaration on

Transport and the Environment and the CEI (Central European

Initiative) Declaration “Towards Sustainable Transport in

the CEI Region” (both 1997) were the first initiatives to focus

on sensitive areas as a field of action for sustainable and environmentally

compatible transport policy.

• The Alpine Convention sets forth clearly defined objectives for

environmentally sustainable transport in the sensitive Alpine

Region.

• At the EU level, the issue of specific regulations for sensitive

areas has also been shifting into the foreground (e.g. EU Directive

on fuel quality).

• The Austrian National Environmental Plan also defines principles

and requirements of sustainable transport planning that

are of major relevance for transport concepts for ecologicaly

particularly sensitive areas.

... vulnerable wetlands ...

The guiding principles for sensitive transport solutions

in sensitive areas can be derived from the three basic pillars

of sustainable development:

Guiding transport:

• Ecologically compatible by complying with ecologically, eco-

environmental quality and health targets;

nomically and

• Economically profitable by providing for effi- socially sustainable

cient transport systems and good accessibility;

• Socially just due to safe traffic and transport systems and

balanced mobility opportunities.

Based on the programmes and agreements drawn up at the

international and national level and with a view to the basic

criteria characterising sensitive

areas – value, fragility and

potential – the following principal

requirements can be defined

for traffic and transport

systems in general and the highly

important issue of infrastructure

requirements of ecologically

sensitive areas in parti- … sensitive mountains and lake districts.

cular:

Developing a perspective for a sustainable and environmentally

compatible transport development taking into

account the requirements of sensitive areas:

The framework concept on which to base a transport

development plan should start out from predefined environ-

11


12

mental and health quality targets qualified with respect to the

specific degree of ecological sensitivity. With a view to sustainable

development and transport integration, these environmental

and health targets should be treated equal in ranking

with economic and social goals.

Sensitive areas call for sensitive transport solutions: innovative

and flexible public transport ...

Determining transport development options and a suitable

mix of measures for transport development in

sensitive areas:

Transport systems in sensitive areas should be conceived to

meet regional accessibility and mobility needs, and therefore

should be restricted to providing the infrastructure to serve inand

outgoing traffic and mobility within the respective area.

Supra-regional transit routes and transport corridors – especially

road-based transport and transnational connections

(highways, high-speed roads, high-speed railway lines, major

airports) – should not be routed through sensitive areas.

Generally, environmentally compatible means of transport like

railway and public transport should be actively prioritised

against transport options with a pronounced impact on the

environment, e.g. truck and individual automobile traffic.

... shifting freight from road to rail …

Particular requirements on infrastructures in sensitive

areas:

In ecologically particularly sensitive areas, priority must be

given to promoting the use of eco-friendly means of transport

combined in the so-called Umweltverbund, while at the same

time improving the road infrastructure and road transport conditions

so as to enhance environmentally compatible transportation.

… landscape saving roads

The principles that govern all planning and implementation of

infrastructure projects are to avoid immissions, keep land consumption

low and protect the landscape. Land consumption

and impairments of landscapes should be reduced to a minimum.


Sensitive areas provide the environment for execptional “red listed” animals and flowers

Sensitive Area – A Trademark for Environmental –

friendly and Sustainable Development

Particularly sensitive areas are valuable

These areas include rare landscapes and habitats, unspoiled

(near-natural) areas, intact old cultural landscapes and nature

protection zones. These areas are valuable

Sensitive areas

…are valuable because of their material advantages (e.g.

…easily

purification of water and air, bio-diversity, pro-

…vulnerable tection against dangers, alleviation of climatic

…have future impacts, etc.) and immaterial benefits (e.g.

stress reduction, leisure time recreation and enjoyment of

nature, sense of identity and home, etc.) for the individual and

society as a whole.

Particularly sensitive areas are vulnerable

Sensitive” in the general sense of the word means “quick to

receive impressions, able to record even minor changes, easily

hurt”. Therefore, areas and/or the individuals inhabiting

these areas are to be defined as sensitive if even slight changes

in the ecological or economic system produce a pronounced

impact and/or lead to far reaching consequences. Fragile

areas, for example, are

Sensitive areas provide the environment for exceptional

“red listed” animals and flowers

… sensitive coastal landscapes … … vulnerable mountains areas …

• areas with a low buffer capacity – in spatial and/or ecological

terms;

• areas boasting nature reserves that need to be protected or

• areas that show conditions under which impacts are aggravated.

13


Ecologically particularly sensitive areas have a future

The prime function of a set of instruments designed with a view to particularly

sensitive areas is not to preserve things in their indigenous state,

but rather to develop sustainable, environmentally friendly settlement

and landscape patterns. The main objective is to create development

options for the future.

… pittoresque villages and unique cultural heritage

14

… vavaluable arid zonen or wetlands …

… as well as magic landmarks


The Lake Neusiedl Region –

a Particularly Sensitive Area

In the heart of Europe, where the Alpine foothills touch on the

Pannonian plains and manifold cultural environments meet,

the Lake Neusiedl/Fertö-tó Region is situated. The pilot study

highlights the sensitive character of this Austrian-Hungarian

region, especially the area along the western shore and the

Leithamountain range and Rust hills, as well as the eastern

shore and the Lake District Hanság.

Western Shore of Lake Neusiedl – Leitha Mountainrage

Unique and irrecoverable

ecological and cultural

value: The very special and

highly unique cultural landscape

of the lowlands and the steppe

lake with its extended reed

belt in the littoral zone and the

pelagic grassland, the wellpreserved

villages, the wine-

The westen shore: wetlands

and the reed belt …

growing areas with their small-scale structures, dry grasslands

and pasture lands extending up to the hills of the Leitha range

and its unbroken deciduous forest hold a plethora of rare and

unique nature reserves and cultural treasures. The multifarious

uses, the harmony of land- and townscapes and the wide areas

of uninterrupted quiet zones (Leitha range and the slopes of its

hills, littoral zone) provide a perfect basis for high living quality

in the settlement areas and sustainable patterns of economic

activity, in particular with regard to the integration of agriculture

(quality wine-growing) and quality tourism.

Fragile eco and land use systems, insufficiently consolidated

future strategies, risks caused by transit traffic:

From an ecological viewpoint, it is above all the sensitive water

household (light precipitation and high evaporation,

catchment area for the lake, shallow body of water, karst features)

that is responsible for the low regional buffer capacity.

From the point of view of regional planning, the low awareness

of regional identity and the ensuing lack of well-established

joint strategies for the future at the community level render the

area vulnerable to external impacts. The small-scale structure

of the landscape and settlement area requires “individually

tailored” solutions, whereas the scope of action for all-inclusive

new uses is rather restricted.

Transport issues involve a particularly high risk potential as the

region is in danger of becoming a transit region characterised

by a high individual traffic load that implies structural changes

incompatible with the region’s needs and potential. Moreover,

regional transport, tourism and short-distance excursion and

recreation traffic is still very much car-biased. Despite improvement

efforts, public transport options still lack the necessary

flexibility and coordination and moreover are in danger of falling

prey to counterproductive cuts in services. Railway and

bus packages targeted on tourism are still underdeveloped or

simply lacking.

… a high variety in landscape: sensitive vinyards with cherry trees between the Leith

mountains and the lake

Potentials for the future: The area’s geographical position

at the heart of an agglomeration of European dimension holds

the promise of great opportunities and at the same time

implies the risk of it developing into a transit region. However,

the highly fortunate mix of nature and culture, the area’s creative

potential and first networking efforts made by local players

as well as measures already implemented to improve

public transport, a good cycling tourism infrastructure and

new tourist packages have opened up a remarkable scope

for action towards an exemplary future: the cherry Region

“Lake Neusiedl-Leitha mountains” is a model area for ecologically,

socially and economically sustainable development.

15


16

The eastern parts of the Lake Neusiedl region are famous for its exceptional natural jewels in the Austrian-Hungarian National Park

“Lake Neusiedl/Fertö-Hanság” …

Eastern Shore of Lake Neusiedl - Seewinkel

Unique and irrecoverable ecological value: The almost

unbroken natural and cultural landscape extending from the

eastern shore of Lake Neusiedl with its reed belt and pelagic

grassland, its saline marshes, the pasture and farm land and

the wine-growing areas of the communities in the Seewinkel,

the Austrian eastern corner of the lake down to the Hungarian

Hansag, represents a prototype of a “quiet” and “tranquillising”

landscape with high recreational value.

The historic pastureland contains unique habitats with rare

and valuable nature preserves. The area is internationally

known for its unique bird population and floral rarities and

offers visitors unforgettable nature scenarios and experience.

The establishment of the national park has additionally enhanced

the outstanding regional identity and the positive image

of the region. Nature tourism (combined with a broad range

of regional quality products produced by sustainable forms of

economic activity) has become an important pillar of regional

economic activity and has been contributing importantly to

furthering local initiative and activating community life.

Fragile land use systems: From the viewpoint of land use

and agriculture it is above all the sensitive water household

(light precipitation and high evaporation, shallow bodies of

water, saline marshes, high groundwater level, low filter capacity

of the soil) that is responsible for the low regional buffer

capacity. Intensive forms of cultivation (irrigation of special cultures

with high water consumption, drainage of wetlands)

have a major impact on groundwater levels.

From the point of view of regional planning, the high regional

awareness as a “national park region” constitutes an important

foundation on which to build joint cross-border future

strategies. However, a regional concept for the national park

region as a whole, is lacking for counteracting the undesired

developments gaining ground in the area (e.g. conflict potential

settlement sprawl – edges of marshes, wetlands) and for

exploiting the existing potential in an adequate way (e.g. development

and marketing of local products, innovative mobility

offers).

©

The share of motorised individual traffic bringing in vacationers

and excursionists whishing to experience nature is still

very high. As regards public means of transportation, the

development focus is on transport options for commuters to

and from Vienna. But the success attained with efforts made

to extend and improve the public transport network to render

it more attractive is now jeopardized by cuts in services. Railway

and bus packages targeted on tourism are still underdeveloped

or simply lacking.

… and its touristic attractions like the lakeside resorts

Potentials for the future: In general, the area has a good

potential for a sustainable regional development, in particular

with regard to innovative, attractive and environmentally compatible

mobility solutions based on a creative interlinking of

the different means of transport within the national park region

as such and the region as a whole. The future potentials in

the Seewinkel area are still there, they have not been spoiled

yet. The high renown of the region, the information level about

the region (in Austria and internationally) and its positive image

create a sound basis for innovation and joint cross-border

strategies. Networking with neighbouring Hungarian communities

and districts enlarges the local and regional scope

for action, the “borders open for communication without transit”

create opportunities for sustainable regional development

as a crossborder “National Park” region.


Sensitive Transport Solutions Create Potential

for the Future of Sensitive Regions

The particularly sensitive Lake Neusiedl Region exhibits high

value, a high degree of fragility and a great future potential. These

features pose a particular challenge to transport

A sensitive

policy and the development of transport infra-

approach to structure, in particular with a view to planning the

sensitive areas

area’s future traffic and transport systems.

Generally, measures should meet the following guidelines:

• Traffic and transport systems should not reduce, but improve

the value of the Lake Neusiedl Region as a unique cultural landscape

characterised by a high quality of life and of the environment.

• Traffic and transport systems must accommodate the fragility

of the Lake Neusiedl Region, in particular its landscapes and

village structures, its eco-systems and its water household,

and aim to avoid risks by paying due regard to critical limits.

• Traffic and transport systems should serve the objective of utilising

the unique future potentials of the Lake Neusiedl Region

and enhance a sustainable development of the region.

In line with the recommendations and guidelines defined by

international organisations and set forth in international agreements

(UNECE, OECD, CEI) and national programmes, the

ecologically particularly sensitive nature of the Lake Neusiedl

Region requires sustainable and environmentally friendly transport

solutions tailored to meet the highly specific needs of this

area.

Discussions within the framework of the pilot study on the Lake

Neusiedl Region have shown that:

Initial efforts towards innovative and environmentally friendly

mobility options have produced tangible results in

the Lake Neusiedl Region, e.g. more attractive railway services

(public transport services hub Neusiedl, modernisation of

railway cars), the container terminal at Sopron

Exploiting

existing strengths and piggyback transport, safe new thoroughfares

through villages and towns, speed reduction

measures for village and town access roads, extension of

the network of cycle paths, city taxi Eisenstadt, Lake Neusiedl

Neusiedl is developed as the regular scheduled rendezvous station for

trains and busses

Card, among others. However, networking and implementation

deficits as well as a lack of information and insufficient public

relations work prevent that these initiatives produce their full

effect;

The issue of a transport policy for the future needs to be

addressed for the Lake Neusiedl Region. This policy should

be based on the objective of creating a transport

Avoiding risks

system which pays due regard to the sensitive

Exploiting

nature of the area and the quality goals of sustain- opportunities

able development, in whiche environmental and

health objectives rank equal with economic and social goals.

Transport in sensitive areas should in the first place serve the

needs of regional accessibility and mobility. As analyses show,

regional traffic accounts for a share of 80-90% at present. Hence

the opportunity still exists to keep this sensitive region free of

high-load extra-regional transit flows, especially high-duty truck

traffic.

A particularly pronounced impact results from high-duty transit

traffic. Therefore, a recommendable immediate measure would

be to restrict truck transport traffic (e.g. tonnage restrictions and

a ban on night-time transport like in other sensitive areas as, for

example, the Wachau), while at the same time promoting railway

and combined transport (positive example: freight terminal

Sopron and piggyback-transport on the Györ railway).

17


In regional transport policy, the guiding principles in working

towards a solution of mainly “home-made” traffic impacts

should be to promote those types of transport with the least

impact on the environment and local resources, among them

public transport, cycling and pedestrian traffic (i.e. a combination

of eco-friendly means of transport which has become

known under the catchword “Umweltverbund”) and to elaborate

environmentally compatible solutions for car traffic;

The construction of a high-capacity road connection

(high-speed road or highway) would have substantial

impacts on this sensitive area. The realisation of such a project

will not or only partially solve the basic transport problems

in this area, which basically are of a regional nature.

Abstaining from At the same time and to the disadvantage of this

inducing new loads

area, this solution would encourage transit traffic

flows, implying, on the one hand, a prevalence of

extraneous influences and, on the other hand, a depletion of its

resources from within. These factors would necessarily feed a

trend to overdevelopment, a trend towards the monotonous

and trivial in an area that may still be defined as largely intact,

highly varied and unique.

18

The particularly sensitive Lake Neusiedl Region calls for an extremely sensitive approach to transport and infrastructure planning

In some of the villages throughroads were redesigned in a safe and attractive

way

A preferable solution would be

to improve the existing infrastructure

(e. g. by additional

country lanes). Bypass roads

appear feasible only in individual

and restricted instances,

where they can be integrated

into the landscape without con-

Growing transit truck traffic

causes risks

suming too much resources (two-lane roads, single-level crossroads,

tunnel solutions), and only if traffic-calming measures

are implemented for the respective village or town roads and the

relief effect will lastingly exceed any new load arising.

An issue of particular importance

for the sensitive Lake

Neusiedl Region is to prevent

groundwater and soil contamination.

Cycling tourism is booming using

Regional players are aware regional trains and ferries

of the need to elaborate a

regional and sustainable transport strategy, Economic,

social and ecological goals. should be integrated on an equal

level. The creative potentials of the region have

Regional

become more pronounced in recent years:

know-how,

regional and local decision makers open

creativity,

towards innovation, nature research workers commitment

conducting studies in and around the national

park, well known catering businesses, artists, high-quality wine

growers, innovative tourism and trade all combine to form a

sound basis for the Lake Neusiedl region to evolve as a quality

region. A central task consists in putting the existing potential

(know-how, creativity, commitment) to work, to bring its use into

harmony with the outstanding landscape and environmental

conditions and to mobilise the resources for a sustainable development

of the region.

It is therefore recommended that the current discussion centring

on the too narrowly defined concept of a “high-capacity corridor

road” be extended to include “proposals for a sustainable,

low-impact transport solution for the region”, which gives due

attention to the risks and opportunities of ecologically particularly

sensitive areas. The basic objective must be to mobilise existing

potentials (future opportunities) to ensure the sustainable

development of the Lake Neusiedl Region and its transport

system.

The unique combination of intact nature, highly varied landscapes,

regional initiatives, a preferred tourist region at the centre

of the urban agglomeration Vienna – Bratislava – Györ, a high

level of awareness for the qualities of the region both at home

and abroad and first networking initiatives of local actors to

exploit the potential of the national park have been opening up

further scope for future action - in particular with regard to prioritising

high-quality products, such as quality wine, herbs, nearnature

meet production (national park beef/pork), reed as energy

resource and building material, and marketing these products

on both a regional and supra-regional scale.

These developments could set the stage for environmentally

sustainable mobility to evolve as a further trademark of

sustainable regional development.


Recommendations: Master Plan and Innovative

Pilot Projects for a Sustainable Transport

Development

Masterplan for Sustainable Transport

A viable course towards the solution of the transport issues of

Setting the course: the Lake Neusiedl Region would be to elabora-

master plan for te and implement a master plan for sustainable

sustainable transport development taking into account all

transport

means of transport and based on the objective

of securing the sustainable regional development of this

region.

In line with the EU-promoted integration of environmental

objectives and sustainability at the level of the different sectors,

such a plan would have to give

equal weighting to ecological,

economic and social goals and

requirements.

The future perspectives of the

Lake Neusiedl Region are closely

related to a sustainable

mobility concept for this region.

The perspectives of the region

have an inherent dualism “highimpact

transit region” vs. “intact

Taking care of the needs of

mobility and access

habitat with high quality of life” (in line with the Land’s official

motto “A land to live in”). Whereas the “transit region” would be

characterised by transit and commuter traffic, with the active

working population (temporarily) having to leave their places of

residence and endogenous economic potenti-

High-impact als remaining unutilised, the “land to live in”

transit region implies a further enhancement of the area as a

or intact habitat

whole: an attractive place of residence featuring

with high quality

of life

high quality of life and the environment, a highgrade

business location, a quality tourist destination

with unique natural landscapes, a quality agronomy

(wine-growing, biological agriculture) and a culture region integrating

east and west. Ensuring the sustainable use of existing

resources and enhancing a social structure based on the principles

of tolerance and responsibility can achieve these goals.

The Lake Neusiedl region exhibits

a particularly promising

potential for sustainable regional

development – in particular

with regard to innovative, commercially

successful, attractively

linked and environmentally

compatible mobility options.

But quite apart of the mobility

issue, the activities of all other

sectors established in the region

also contribute substantially

to creating a prospering region

and enhancing the quality of life

and the environment.

Offering innovative mobility packages,

e.g. provided by good cooperations

The realisation of this vision and the individual goals aspired to

require multidimensional networking and participative planning

involving regional and local decision makers and various agents

responsible for issues relating to traffic and transport, the environment,

health, nature protection, tourism, the regional business

community, spatial planning and regional development as

well as the NGOs and the local population.

The master plan constitutes the factual and organisational framework

for planning measures to safeguard environmentally

sustainable transport development. The pilot projects initiated

under the master plan are to serve as impulse and motor for the

realisation of the objective of environmentally sustainable transport.

Therefore, the master plan defines the objectives, strategies

and measures towards environmentally sustainable transport

development in the region and defines the structures required

to implement these measures (organisation, financing, networking,

marketing, monitoring and controlling).

The guiding principle is:

Modes of transport with a high impact on the environment like

road haulage and car traffic should be shifted step by step to

19


20

Environmentally Sustainable Transport is preserving villages, landscapes and resources and and leads to ecotopical, economic and social advantages

more environmentally compatible transport options like the

railway and public transport, walking cycling. The means to

achieve this consist in a mix of infrastructural and regulatory

measures, economic instruments and incentive systems.

Opening future options for a sustainable development

The master plan should take into account the international

recommendations and guidelines for environmentally

sustainable transport such as the ones issued by UNECE,

WHO, OECD and CEI.

The objectives, strategies and pilot projects of the master plan

should be accompanied and supported by creative marketing.

Creating awareness for mobility problems/ mobility

opportunities must take place on several levels: On the one

hand, it involves exploiting and enhancing the know-how of

regional and local actors as a basis for developing and implementing

a concept of sustainable mobility; on the other hand,

marketing and PR measures should be used to create a “positive”

attitude towards soft and innovative forms of mobility.

A master plan for the area must be based on the strategic

combination of the following key objectives:

Area and community networking, networking between

regional and local players

• Cross-border regional networking (national – international)

• Low-impact mobility networking (e.g. railway and bus networks,

networks of cycling and pedestrian paths, pedestrian

- public transport, bicycle – public transport networks, etc.).

• Networking between sectors (e.g. transport – tourism,

transport – businesses, transport – regional planning, etc.)

• Networking of ecological, economic and social dimensions

of sustainability (e.g. Local Agenda 21)

• Information, public relations work, broadly-based promotion

of the awareness of possible solutions to mobility problems

(motto: openness to unconventional solutions)

• Development and implementation of innovative mobility

concepts and mobility services, individually tailored transport

and infrastructure solutions accommodating the specific

needs of a particularly sensitive region.

• Implementation of model pilot projects.


Innovative Pilot Projects

These promising future perspectives can only be realised gradually

and on the basis of suitable implementation projects.

Important in this context is, on the one hand

• to base the utilisation of the existing potential on a “bottomup”

approach (ensuring an active part for regional experts

and decision-makers as well as the population in general),

and, on the other hand,

• to develop and implement pilot projects with impulse function

for the region.

Recommended proposals for development and implementation are the following pilot projects:

Pilot project 1: Innovations in public transport

Suitable pilot projects would primarily be projects that can be

integrated on a larger scale, as for example

• in an international context like EU, UNECE, CEI, WHO,

OECD, UNEP

• in national key initiatives (e.g. by the Ministry of Transport,

Innovation and Technology and the Ministry of Agriculture,

Forestry, Environment and Water Management) and

• programmes for the promotion of regional development

(e.g. EU – Regional Funds and Programmes)

• Regional mobility on regular schedules (e.g. Lake Neusiedl Schedule) for optimum networking of railway, bus, taxi services,

etc. and demand-oriented public transport services, improved services to residential and commercial centres,

bathing resorts along the lake and tourist attractions.

• New mobility services (e.g. community bus, call-a-bus services, collective taxi services, buses servicing bathing resorts

and preferred cycling areas, car sharing, etc.

• Integrating cycling and hiking in „environmentally compatible mobility chains“ in every-day and leisure-time traffic,

involving efforts to make it easier to take a train with a bike, covered bike-parking facilities, and

automated rent-a-bike systems.

Pilot project 2: Cross-border regional mobility centre

• A “traffic and transport hub” for developing and optimising public transport services and an information centre on all

soft mobility options and services with the key objective of customer-oriented promotion of public transport.

• Designing attractive mobility services for specific target groups by creating public transport packages for tourism,

business, schools, etc.

• Developing a comprehensive travel information system based on new information and communication technologies.

Pilot project 3: Ecomobility for ecotourism

• Quality tourism through ecomobility for recreational tourism, mobility management for the National Park

Lake Neusiedl and the planned Natural Park Leitha Mountain Range - Western Lake Shore. (“Cherry Region”)

• Attractive mobility experience and mobility packages for tourists, excursionists, the resident population in the region

with train, bus, ship, cycling and walking and incoming visitors. (“Holidays from the car”)

• “Cycling Region Lake Neusiedl”, “Hiking Region Leitha Mountain Range”.

Pilot project 4: Company mobility management in regional key enterprises/Freight Logistics

• Transport efficiency and environmental improvement through soft mobility and rationalisation:

for businesses, employees and the residential population.

• Innovative regional freight transport logistics.

• Networking based on innovative product and marketing concepts.

Pilot project 5: New vehicle technologies and landscape tailored infrastructure

• Regional low-floor trains, bio-fuel propelled vehicles, electric cars, alternative propulsion technologies, etc.

• Extension of cycling and pedestrian paths, revitalisation, more attractive and a greater number of

railway stations and bus stops.

• Modernisation and expansion of public transport routes and lines, e.g. optimising lines, networking, closing gaps,

electrification of railway lines, adjusting road construction to the requirements of landscapes and communities (aiming

at a significant and lasting relief effect) paralleled by traffic calming measures in towns and villages.

21


Initiating Implementation, Promoting Networking,

Involving Players and Starting Pilot Projects

The implementation is based on the involvement of the responsible

local and regional agents in particular from the field

of transport, the environment, health, busin-

Communities, transess, tourism and spatial planning. These

portation companies, agents are called upon to network their know-

tourism and

how to design innovative mobility solutions:

businesses forming

partnerships

Elaborating of a master plan and conceiving

and realising innovative pilot projects serve

the aim of bundling regional strengths to create an attractive

future strategy for the sustainable development of the region.

New models should be considered and designed in particular

for the cooperation of communities in the fields of transport

and mobility (e.g. community associations for public

transport modelled on practical experience made in other

regions, e.g. Salzburg). The communities, transportation

companies, tourism associations should be the driving forces

in creating such cooperation models. These models’ first and

foremost goal should be to create attractive mobility packages,

achieve cost efficiency and exploit synergies as well as

to base information and marketing activities on a common

approach.

Cross-sector networking implies that soft mobility concepts

are introduced in the sectors tourism (accessibility of lakeside

bathing resorts and leisure-time facilities,

Developing space access by railway), schools (traffic education

and driver instruction), businesses (accessibility

of workplaces, problems of commuters, freight transport)

and housing (accessibility by transport options offered by

regional eco-mobility associations, public transport or via cycling

or pedestrian paths).

22

With regard to regional development, a priority goal must be

to harmonise regional development and transport development

objectives, an important issue being that in the future

green field developments of facilities generating a high traffic

volume (e.g. large shopping centres, entertainment centres)

are prevented and solutions integrated into existing community

structures are found instead. The traditional functions of

existing, organically grown town centres are to furthered.

… and the c ooperation of all players are the key towards sustainable transport

Innovative, attractive public transport services …

designing streets in a safe, pedestrian and cycling friendly way…

Objectives, strategies and pilot projects laid down in the

master plan are to be accompanied and enhanced by comprehensive

information campaigns involving the resident

population and regional agents as well as by public relations

work and creative marketing.

The objectives, strategies and pilot projects of the master plan

should be accompanied and supported by

creative marketing. Creating awareness for

Triple win

mobility problems/mobility opportunities must for the environment,

take place on several levels: On the one hand, business and

it involves exploiting and enhancing the know- the social fabric

how of regional and local actors as a basis for in the region

developing and implementing a concept of

sustainable mobility; on the other hand, marketing and PR

measures should be used to create a “positive” attitude

towards soft and innovative forms of mobility

The primary feature of pilot projects in general is that their planning

and implementation is based on a planning process

which involves a number of players and leverages the knowhow

of regional and local experts to design concrete projects

that comply with the principles of sustainable development.

Their objective is to define a “triple-win” strategy with positive

effects for the region’s environment, economy and social

fabric.

©


The International Conference on Transport and Sensitive Areas in Eisenstadt

Pilot Projects as Motors of Cross-border

Cooperation

Strategic networking of regions creates scope for implementing

innovative and sustainable mobility concepts at the international

and national level. International networking of regions

creates an opportunity to translate sustainable mobility

options elaborated at the international level onto a regional

level. The region is offered the chance to leverage international

best practice experience to attain local goals.

The latest recommendations and guidelines for environmentally

sustainable transport such as the ones issued by EU,

UNECE, WHO, OECD, UNECE, CEI and WHO can be taken

up and applied in model projects.

Beside the opportunities for designing environmentally and

socially compatible transport solutions, the implementation of

an innovative and sustainable mobility concept in the Lake Neusiedl

region characterised as a particularly sensitive area also

creates scope for cross-border cooperation with the neighbouring

regions in Hungary and the Slovak Republic and offers

a chance to gain international recognition as a model region.

Cross-border cooperation provides a platform for developing

and realising common goals and strategies and joint implementation

procedures aimed at sustainable regional and

transport development. Cross-border pilot projects targeting

substantable mobility in sensitive areas should be initiated.

Such projects would open up synergy potentials in the region

and enhance its international model character.

Following the initiative of the Austrian and Hungarian Environment

Ministers a crossborder Pilot Project for Sustainable

Transport in Sensitive Areas on Example of the Austrian-Hungarian

Region Lake Neusiedl/Fertö-tó is in preparation jointly

developed by the relevant ministries notably for transport

and environment, the Austrian State Burgenland, the Hungarian

Comitat Györ-Moson-Sopron in cooperation with the

municipalities, the National Park, the tourist companies,

transport operators and regional planning authorities.

This crossborder pilot project will be a Austrian-Hungarian

contribution to promote environmentally sustainable transport

in this particularly sensitive middle-European region. It

will be a big step towards the implementation of the UNECE

Vienna Declaration on Transport and Environment as well as

the CEI Declaration “Towards Sustainable Transport in the

CEI-Region” and represents an important element within the

process of enlargement and integration of the EU.

23


24

To Order Publication

Photographs

The full report on the pilot study is available in German only.

The basic Criteria Catalogue is published also in English.

Both can be ordered at the

Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture,

Forestry, Environment and Watermanagement,

Stubenbastei 5, A-1010 Vienna, Austria

Mrs. Renate Nagy (Pilotstudy/German only)

Fax: +43 1 515 22-7208

e-mail: renate.nagy@bmu.gv.at

Mrs. Ingeborg Fiala (Criteria Catalogue/Englisch also)

Fax: +43 1 515 22-7605

e-mail: ingeborg.fiala@bmu.gv.at

Cover: Zech

Page 17: BMLFUW

Page 19: Lang/Nationalpark

Page 10: Thaler

Page 11: ÖBB, Thaler, Zech

Page 12: ÖBB, Zech

Page 13: Lang, Zech, Österreich Werbung

Page 14: Zech,Thaler

Page 15: Preiszer, Zech

Page 16: Lang/Nationalpark

Page 17: Zech,Thaler

Page 18: Zech,Thaler

Page 19: Neusiedler See Tourismus GesmbH, Thaler, Zech

Page 20: Thaler, Zech

Page 22: Zech

Page 23: BMLFUW

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines