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Semantics

CONTENTS UNIT I An

CONTENTS UNIT I An introduction to the science of meaning Lesson 1. BASIC CONCEPTS I .......................................................... 19 1.1. Communication and Language .................................................. 21 1.1.1. Branches of the study of meaning ................................... 21 1.1.2. Overlap between semantics and pragmatics ................... 22 1.2. Different units of analysis: words, utterances, sentences, propositions and texts ................................................................. 22 1.2.1. Words ................................................................................. 23 1.2.2. Utterances, sentences, propositions and texts ................ 23 1.3. Meaning and the world. Different dimensions of meaning ..... 26 1.3.1. Reference, denotation and sense ..................................... 26 1.4. Types of meaning ......................................................................... 29 1.4.1. Descriptive and non-descriptive meaning........................ 29 1.4.1.1. Descriptive meaning ........................................... 29 1.4.2. Functional meaning and content meaning. Lexical meaning and grammatical meaning ................................ 31 1.4.3. Literal and non literal meaning ....................................... 32 1.4.4. Contextual meaning .......................................................... 33 1.4.4.1. Sense, homonymy, polysemy and ambiguity .... 33 1.4.5. Extensions of meaning: metaphor and metonymy ......... 34 Suggested readings for lesson 1........................................................... 35 Exercises and activities ....................................................................... 35

8 BASIC SEMANTICS Exercises .............................................................................................. 37 Annotated References ......................................................................... 38 General References .............................................................................. 39 Lesson 2. BASIC CONCEPTS II ........................................................ 41 2.1. Introduction ................................................................................. 43 2.2. Linguistic models and different semantic approaches ............. 43 2.3. Representational and denotational approaches to semantic analysis ......................................................................................... 48 2.4. Componential analysis ................................................................ 50 2.4.1. Background to componential analysis ............................. 51 2.4.2. How the theory of meaning components works? ............ 54 2.5. Conceptual tools ........................................................................... 56 2.5.1. Linguistic codification: lexicalization and grammaticalization.......................................................... 57 2.5.2. Argument structure ........................................................... 58 Suggested readings .............................................................................. 59 Exercises and activities ........................................................................ 59 References............................................................................................. 60 Lesson 3. SEMANTICS AND RELATED DISCIPLINES I ................ 61 3.1. Semantics and logic ..................................................................... 63 3.1.1. Logic in semantic analysis .............................................. 63 3.1.2. Logic and the notion of truth. The concept of truth and its consequences .............................................................. 64 3.1.3. A logical metalanguage.................................................... 65 3.1.4. Logical relations. Logical connectors: and, not, or, if .... 66 3.1.5. Connectives and propositional logic............................... 67 3.1.6. Logical types of sentences: analytical, paradoxical and synthetic sentences .......................................................... 69 3.1.7. Logical relations beween sentences: entailment, equivalence, contrariety, contradiction, independence, presupposition ................................................................. 69 3.1.8. Intensionality ................................................................... 75 3.1.9. Representing negative and compound sentences .......... 76

  • Page 1 and 2: Basic Semantics Margarita Goded Ram
  • Page 3: BASIC SEMANTICS Quedan rigurosament
  • Page 7 and 8: 10 BASIC SEMANTICS UNIT II Paradigm
  • Page 9 and 10: 12 BASIC SEMANTICS Suggested readin
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  • Page 16 and 17: Lesson 1 BASIC CONCEPTS I
  • Page 18 and 19: 1.1. COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE For
  • Page 20 and 21: BASIC CONCEPTS I 23 technical term:
  • Page 22 and 23: BASIC CONCEPTS I 25 or a relation a
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    58 BASIC SEMANTICS grammaticalized.

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    60 BASIC SEMANTICS REFERENCES GODDA

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    3.1. Semantics and logic. 3.1.1. Lo

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    64 BASIC SEMANTICS of a sentence is

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    66 BASIC SEMANTICS 3.1.4. Logical r

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    68 BASIC SEMANTICS For example a. T

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    70 BASIC SEMANTICS importance of th

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    72 BASIC SEMANTICS Differentiating

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    74 BASIC SEMANTICS Saeed also touch

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    76 BASIC SEMANTICS a set of feature

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    78 BASIC SEMANTICS we can re read i

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    80 BASIC SEMANTICS Two place predic

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    82 BASIC SEMANTICS semantic network

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    84 BASIC SEMANTICS recognizes, the

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    86 BASIC SEMANTICS has structural r

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    88 BASIC SEMANTICS a) an analytic t

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    4. Semantics and Pragmatics. 4.1 De

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    92 BASIC SEMANTICS way we name it.

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    94 BASIC SEMANTICS 4.3. PERSON DEIX

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    96 BASIC SEMANTICS different interp

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    98 BASIC SEMANTICS Nominals can be

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    100 BASIC SEMANTICS The most obviou

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    102 BASIC SEMANTICS knowledge, whic

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    104 BASIC SEMANTICS or a priest at

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    106 BASIC SEMANTICS Commissives, wh

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    108 BASIC SEMANTICS 5. Explain the

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    Lesson 5 PARADIGMATIC RELATIONS I:

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    INTRODUCTION In the following lesso

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    PARADIGMATIC RELATIONS I: A WORD VI

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    PARADIGMATIC RELATIONS I: A WORD VI

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    PARADIGMATIC RELATIONS I: A WORD VI

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    PARADIGMATIC RELATIONS I: A WORD VI

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    PARADIGMATIC RELATIONS I: A WORD VI

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    PARADIGMATIC RELATIONS I: A WORD VI

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    PARADIGMATIC RELATIONS I: A WORD VI

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    PARADIGMATIC RELATIONS I: A WORD VI

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    PARADIGMATIC RELATIONS I: A WORD VI

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    PARADIGMATIC RELATIONS I: A WORD VI

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    Introduction. 6.1. Semantic fields.

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    138 BASIC SEMANTICS We have also se

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    140 BASIC SEMANTICS distinctiveness

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    142 BASIC SEMANTICS are several kin

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    144 BASIC SEMANTICS these three mod

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    146 BASIC SEMANTICS we understand a

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    148 BASIC SEMANTICS not definable b

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    150 BASIC SEMANTICS is grammaticali

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    152 BASIC SEMANTICS Saeed distingui

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    154 BASIC SEMANTICS 3. For each of

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    Lesson 7 SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS I

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    7.1. INTRODUCTION: ASPECTS AFFECTIN

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    SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS I 161 predica

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    SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS I 163 State o

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    SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS I 165 phenome

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    SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS I 167 Dynamic

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    SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS I 169 Situati

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    SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS I 171 3. Expl

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    Lesson 8 SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS II

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    INTRODUCTION In this lesson we will

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    SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS II 177 (or st

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    SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS II 179 author

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    SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS II 181 Goal i

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    SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS II 183 there

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    UNIT III THE COGNITIVE DIMENSION OF

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    Introduction 9.1. The relationship

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    190 BASIC SEMANTICS and rules forms

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    192 BASIC SEMANTICS linguistic form

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    194 BASIC SEMANTICS to a particular

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    196 BASIC SEMANTICS relevant, but p

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    198 BASIC SEMANTICS 9.3.1. Basic le

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    200 BASIC SEMANTICS A similar notio

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    202 BASIC SEMANTICS LAKOFF, G. 1987

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    204 BASIC SEMANTICS BIRO, TEASPOON,

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    10.1. Metaphor: definition, descrip

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    208 BASIC SEMANTICS Metonymy is a r

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    210 BASIC SEMANTICS All these words

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    212 BASIC SEMANTICS head face eye m

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    214 BASIC SEMANTICS called regular

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    216 BASIC SEMANTICS Lakoff and John

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    218 BASIC SEMANTICS Here we can see

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    220 BASIC SEMANTICS Blending theory

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    222 BASIC SEMANTICS These categorie

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    224 BASIC SEMANTICS as action chain

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    226 BASIC SEMANTICS This is an atra

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    228 BASIC SEMANTICS 5. With the aid

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    230 BASIC SEMANTICS are usually hel

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    232 BASIC SEMANTICS Lesson 3. SEMAN

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    234 BASIC SEMANTICS only been expre

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    236 BASIC SEMANTICS Key: skirt book

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    238 BASIC SEMANTICS 5. Solution: x

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    240 BASIC SEMANTICS a particular wa

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