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Flying Together 5- Sudan

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In the Middle Ages, Arabs named the area that is presentday Sudan "Bilad alSudan," or "The

Land of the Black People." evidently because it was peopled by the Black people. There was a

constant influx of Arabs from early times. Today the north is primarily Arab Muslims, whereas

the south is largely black African of various tribes, with their own religion.

It is the largest country in Africa and the ninth largest in the world, covering one million square

miles (2.59 square kilometers).

The confluence of White Nile and Blue Nile is in Khartoum generating three cities The

Three Towns: Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman. A bridge connects between

Khartoum and Omdurman which I have crossed every working day for nine years, since I

stayed in Khartoum and worked in Omdurman. The Nile emptied into Lake Nubia in the

north, the largest manmade lake in the world.

The northern part of the country is mostly desert with life supported by Nile and its fertility.

The southern region extending into tropical forest region hosts vast areas of grasslands, well into

thick fertile tropical forests which provides provisions for cultivation, cattle and supports a variety

of wildlife, including crocodiles and hippopotamuses in the rivers, elephants, giraffes, lions,

leopards, tropical birds, and several species of poisonous reptiles.

North is predominantly of Arab origin and speak Arabic.


Kush is found in our Bibles 48 times. It begins early: Kush is one of the sons of Ham.(Genesis

10:6.) Kush is a clear geographical place, its northern boundary very distinct. Ezekiel talks of the

whole of Egypt "from Migdol (in the north) to Syene (i.e. Aswan), as far as the border of Kush."

(Ezekiel 29:10) Kush is all the land south of the first cataractAswan. Kush meant the black

race which today is translated as Sudan though the blacks as pushed south at the Arab pressure.

(Ethiopian meant simply a Black man. It did not mean a man from modernday Ethiopia,

but was the Greek word used to translate the Hebrew for a Kushite. Some bible translations use

the word Ethiopia instead of Kush because of that.) Egypt's 25th dynasty was Kushite: Napata in

Nubia conquered and ruled Egypt, and appeared in the prophecies of Isaiah.(Isaiah

1820).


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The first known civilization to inhabit the region of presentday Sudan were the Meroitic people,

who lived in the area between the Atbara and Nile Rivers from 590 B.C.E. until 350 B.C.E. ,

"On the righthand coast next below Berenice is the country of the Berbers. Along the shore are

the FishEaters, living in scattered caves in the narrow valleys. Farther inland are the Berbers,

and beyond them the WildfleshEaters and CalfEaters, each tribe governed by its chief; and

behind them, farther inland, in the country towards the west, there lies a city called Meroe."

—Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (first century report)

The ancient city of Meroe lies on the east bank of the Nile near the present day Shendi, Sudan,

approximately 200 km northeast of Khartoum. It appears that Meroe used to be an island in Nile.

The Kingdom of Meroe consisted of Bahr el Abiad, Kordofan, and Darfur; Tarka; Dongola; and

Nubia usually referred to as Bagrawiyah. Meroe was the capital of the Kingdom of Kush for

several centuries.


The importance of the Kingdom lay in its metal wealth both iron and gold. It was the center of

the world’s biggest iron industry in the period of iron age. They exported iron tools made in blast

furnaces to countries as far as India and China. Other industries included decorated potteries,

textiles and jewelries of gold. The word “Nub’ is and Egyptian word for “gold”. The name

Nubia arose from this.

Being essentially a Savannah region, they developed sophisticated agricultural systems such as

sakia (the water wheels) and irrigation systems using Nile water.

Nubian Meroitic Period (11090 BC)

Votive Tablet of King Tanyidamani

Collection: Baltimore (Maryland), Walters Art Gallery 22.258 (WAG 213)

The administration of the Kingdom was autocratic under a King with administrative officers and

scribes. They had a well developed Merotic language and script with 23 letters in the alphabet.

The Queen mother known as Cadace has some dominance in the system though the details are

not known. Probably like the Ashanties the lineage depended on matrilinear inheritance. During


the preChristian period, the predominant religion appears to be that of the Egyptians of the

period.

An interesting explanation for the Napatan phase to Merotic phase in the third century BC as due

to a conflict between religious leaders and Political leaders is given by Timothy Kendal which I

quote him in full. This started a totally new vastly different culture.


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http://www.numibia.net/nubia/meroe.htm

The Napatan Phase of the Nubian culture ended when the royal cemetery was transferred from

Napata to Meroe in the early third century BC. This inaugurated the phase called the "Meroitic,"

in which the culture seemed to free itself from the strict adherence to Egyptian norms and

developed many original traits. The dramatic shift in the Kushite culture almost certainly had to

do with an event recorded by the Greek historian Diodorus. He stated that prior to the reign of a

king named Ergamenes, a contemporary of Ptolemy II of Egypt (285246 BC), it had been the

custom for the high priests, probably at Napata, to send a message to the king, supposedly from

the great god himself, advising him that the time of his rule on earth was finished and that he

must die. Traditionally the kings had obeyed the divine orders and had taken their own lives.

Ergamenes, however, "who had received instruction in Greek philosophy, was the first to disdain

this command. With the determination worthy of a king he came with an armed force to the

forbidden place where the golden temple of the Aithiopians was situated and slaughtered all the

priests, abolished this tradition, and instituted practices at his own discretion". It was about this

time that the first royal tomb was built at Meroe: of a king named "Arkamani" (=Ergamanes).

Soon thereafter, Kushite art and architecture began to develop individualistic styles. The royal

family appeared much more "African" in their images and in their standards of beauty. The royal

costumes and crowns were unique. A lion god, unknown in the Egyptian pantheon, became

preeminent in the southern part of the kingdom. And Egyptian language and writing were largely

abandoned for official monuments and were replaced by the native Nubian language (called

"Meroitic"), which was for the first time written down in newly devised hieroglyphic and cursive

alphabets.

Meroe seems to have been a flourishing town at least as early as the eighth century BC. It was

situated at the junction of several main rivers and caravan routes, connecting central Africa, via

the Blue and White Niles, with Egypt, and the Upper Nile region itself with Kordofan, the Red Sea

and the Ethiopian highlands. Since it lay within the rain belt, the land about it was seasonally

more productive than the region of Napata, and it was thus a somewhat more pleasant place to

live. By the third century BC it was only one of several large towns that had arisen in the same

region. Bounded to the west by the Nile, the north by the River Atbara and to the south by the

Blue Nile, this area, now known as the Butana, was the heartland of the later Kushite kingdom,

and came to be known in classical literature as "the Island of Meroe."


http://phys.org/news202459514.html August 31, 2010


Apparently the Nubians produced the antibiotic tetracycline by natural fermentation process in

their food (probably as a beer) and used it as a normal part of their life. Their bones produces a

green fluorescence and even the bones of babies shows its presence. The modern world dates

the discovery of penicillin in 1928. Nubians knew of the stuff 2,000 years ago.

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The Meroitic script is an alphabet originally derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs, used to write the

Meroitic language of the Kingdom of Meroe (Kush). It first appears in the 2nd century BC.

Ian James:http://acknowledger.com/MeroiticSamaritan.htm

“The main impetus behind deciphering Meroitic was done by the English scholar Francis

Llewellyn Griffith (18621934). He worked out the phonetic value of the signs by comparing

proper names on texts in Meroïtic and Egyptian. However, scholars can read, but cannot

understand what the texts mean, because the problem is that the Meroïtic language is an isolate

as far as linguists know.” http://www.ancientscripts.com/meroitic.html


Nubian Warriors


The Pyramids of Nubia

L:Ramses II in his war chariot charging into battle against the Nubians

R: Egyptian depiction of Nubian captives


Seven Nubian Pharaohs

Queen Candace Amanitore of Meroe


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Nubia lies in the proximity to the Christian world of the early Christian era. The description of the

conversion of the 'eunuch of Abyssinia' described \ in Acts of Apostle 8:2640 may be the first

description of the entry of Christianity into this area. This man was the servant of the Kandake,

which was the official title of the Queen Mother in the kingdom of Meroe in northern Sudan.

This eunuch baptized by Phillip probably was the first Sudanese Christian. We need not doubt

that this powerful administrative figure did start a church there.


According to the Catholic Encyclopedia (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11147a.htm)

“Christianity was brought into Meroe probably by the hermits and monks of the Thebaid, and

began to spread through the country. .....The various accounts of this event are confusing; Pliny

and Mela give the name of Ethiopia to all the countries in this region, including Abyssinia while

ecclesiastical writers speak of an Ethiopian Church, but give no account of the conversion of

individual lands.” Thus we cannot really assert the origin of Christianity in these areas

.“Around AD 350 Meroe was invaded by the Ethiopian kingdom of Aksum and the kingdom came

to an end. It was later developed into three smaller kingdoms:




Nobatia between the first and second cataract of the Nile River, with its capital at Pachoras

(modern day Faras);

Makuria, with its capital at Old Dongola; and

Alodia, with its capital at Soba


While bishop Athanasius of Alexandria consecrated one Marcus as bishop of Philae before his

death in 373AD, showing that Christianity had penetrated the region by the 4th century.

John of Ephesus records that a Monophysite priest named Julian converted the king and his

nobles of Nobatia around 545AD. John of Ephesus also writes that the kingdom of Alodia was

converted around 569AD.

There are conflicting reports whether they were Roman, or Greek or Coptic denominations.

John of Biclarum records that the kingdom of Makuria was converted to Catholicism the same

year. There is also an entry in the chronicle of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria

Eutychius, which states that in 719 the church of Nubia transferred its allegiance from the Greek

to the Coptic Orthodox Church. (Catholic Encyclopedia). It is quite possible that all three had

influenced the area and had congregations.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Dictionary of African Christian Biography

Christianity in the Sudan

Andrew Wheeler

"The story is told in some detail by John, the Monophysite bishop of Ephesus in his

"Ecclesiastical History." From his and other contemporary accounts the following picture emerges.

The impulse towards the conversion of Nubia originated at the royal court in Byzantium with a

Monophysite monk called Julian. The empress Theodora, who was of Monophysite persuasion,

backed a mission led by Julian and frustrated a rival duophysite mission supported by her

husband and duophysite Emperor Justinian (527565). As a result the northern kingdom of

Nobatia was converted to Monophysite Christianity about the year 543 AD. A rival duophysite

mission was unsuccessful. Under circumstances that are still not clear, the kingdom of Makouria

was converted to Melkite (duophysite) Christianity around 570 AD. About 580 AD, Bishop

Longinus who had previously effectively established the Church in Nobatia following Julian's

departure reached Alodia and it was converted to Monophysite Christianity. By the year 600, the

Nile Valley was essentially Christian from its mouth 10 the source of the Blue Nile in Ethiopia.

As the Coptic Church in Egypt established itself as Monophysite and when, with the 7th century

Arab conquest, Melkite influence was eliminated, it was inevitable that eventually Chalcedonian

and Byzantine influence in Nubia should decline. Throughout the history of the Nubian Church

duophysite tendencies can be traced but even when Makuria absorbed Nobatia in about 700 AD;

it was Monophysite faith that triumphed. However the Nubian Church retained Orthodox as well

as Coptic features. Greek was retained as the liturgical language until the 9th or 10th centuries,

when it was replaced by Old Nubian, for example.

The Christian dominance of the Nile Valley was not to last for long. In the years following the


death of Muhammad (632 AD), Arab armies spread out of Arabia overrunning much of the

Christian Middle East. Egypt fell to the armies of Amr bin alAs in 641642 AD. His victory was

greatly assisted by the Coptic dislike of Byzantine rule, an attitude reflected in the ecclesiastical

struggle between Monophysites and Melkites. With the establishment of Muslim power in Egypt,

Coptic Christianity became securely Monophysite and the Melkite party collapsed.

The Muslim conquest of Egypt changed the situation of the Nubian Church. Frontiers then did not

constitute the kind of barriers they do today and Nubian bishops were still appointed by the

Patriarch of Alexandria and Nubian Christians still went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem where they

had their own chapel. Nubian kings did on occasion intervene in Egyptian affairs on behalf of

their coreligionists. But communication with the rest of the Christian world was much more

difficult and these Christians living beyond the bounds of Roman law and Greek culture were

largely unknown in the West."


Monophysitism, is the Christological position that, after the union of the divine and the human in

the historical Incarnation, Jesus Christ, as the incarnation of the eternal Son or Word of God, had

only a single "nature" which was either divine or a synthesis of divine and human. Its adherents

called themselves Copts. The Nobatian kings Silko and Eirpanomos accepted Christianity in this

form, and the Monophysite patriarch Theodosius, Bishop Theodore of Philae, and Longinus,

Julian's successor, put the new doctrine on a firm basis. In AD580 Longinus baptized the King of

the Alodae. In 640AD the Melchite (Catholic) patriarch, George of Alexandria, fled to

Constantinople. The Copts took over all the churches.


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Though we look upon Islam as a new religion, the historical context clearly indicate it as a

Gnostic take over of Christianity. It may be thought of as a reversal from Christianity to Judaism

in its basic legalistic form. After all the first Muslims were the children of Easaw the eldest son of

Abraham. The basics of Gnosticism existed long before Mohamed. There were the Persian

Gnostic Schools –Manicheanism and Mandaeanism. These were in existence since the

second century AD. All non Christian religions may be thought of as Gnosticism, as it simply

consists of conceiving God as the totally other who can be approached with the divine medium of

the Spirit of God that is ever present within Man. The Christian approach is that since God is

totally other the fullest understanding is possible only through an incarnation where God tries to

reveal himself in the language and symbols of Man living among man.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Dr. Stephan A. Hoeller, Bishop of the Ecclesia Gnostica.in

http://www.gnosis.org/whatisgnostic.htm?What Is a Gnostic? Says:

"In 1966, a distinguished assembly of scholars convened in Messina, Italy, for the purpose of

arriving at some useful definitions of Gnosticism. ...The scholars proposed restricting the use

of the term "Gnosticism" to certain secondcentury "heretical" movements, while the broader

term "gnosis" was to be used to refer to "knowledge of the divine mysteries for an elite...:"

Thus the general definition of Gnosticism is any attempt in understanding God without

reference to Jesus. Without the incarnation, religion becomes an attempt to understand the God

who is beyond all senses by human logic and endeavor. While Gnosticism assume Man as

holographic part of the Godhead Islam as proposed and understood by Muhammad rejects any

such possibility. The assumption imply a dualism where there was to be something a nothing

outside of God where creation was made by God.

The only possibility for man is simply to submit to God and expect him to be Merciful and

Gracious. This is the only possibility if God could not reveal himself to Man in a more intimate

way and man is something totally other than and outside of God. Add to it the legalism without

compromise, we get Islam. Man is simply a slave of God.

Thus Islam may be considered as an extreme heresy of Christianity which considers itself as the

only true religion. Initially it tolerated Christianity as the people of the book. However and

whenever required that tolerance turned into intolerance. There is an ongoing wave of the two

aspects throughout all history. The new religious movement faced opposition and

persecution.The first Hijra occurred in 615 when a group of Muslims fled to Ethiopia (Abyssinia at


the time), as refugees, which was ruled by a Christian king, the Negus. This was an ongoing

process where the Christian Kingdoms of Nubia and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) received the refugees

and gave shelter.

While his followers fled to Nubia and Abyssinia, Muhammad fled to Medina,

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The spread of Islam began soon after the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632. Within a few

decades Islamic forces took over most of the Arabian Peninsula and imposed Islamic rule under

the Caliphates who were the successors of the prophet. Once all Arabia was under the control of


Islam they invaded Nubia (in 642 and again in 652). By the time they launched their attack on the

Christian Kingdoms, there were already an Islamic community in the nations who joined forces

with the attackers. They laid siege to the city of Dongulah and destroyed its cathedral.

At this period, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Eastern Roman Empire with its capital at

Constantinople. In AD 641 'Amr ibn al'As conquered Egypt. Amr: extracted the taxes which

had been determined upon ( which even the Romans did) but he took none of the property of the

churches, and he committed no act of spoliation or plunder, and he preserved them throughout

all his days'" As a result Amr ibn alAas had popular support in Egypt among the Coptic

Christian population. Again Cyrus the Roman governor had expelled the Coptic patriarch

Benjamin into exile. When Amr occupied Alexandria, he was invited to return to Alexandria.

When he arrived, after thirteen years in concealment, Amr treated him with respect. He was then

instructed by the governor to resume control over the Coptic Church. He arranged for the

restoration of the monasteries in the Wadi Natrun that had been ruined by the Chalcedonian

Christians. ("The Great Arab Conquests" Hugh Kennedy)

By the 7th century, Makuria expanded becoming the dominant power in the region. It was strong

enough to halt the southern expansion of Islam after the Arabs had taken Egypt. After several

failed invasions the new rulers agreed to a treaty with Dongola allowing for peaceful coexistence

and trade. This treaty held for six hundred years. Over time the influx of Arab traders introduced

Islam to Nubia and it gradually supplanted Christianity.

In 1275 the Mameluke sultan Djahn Beibars sent an army from Egypt into Nubia. Dongola was

conquered, the Christian king David was obliged to flee, and the churches were plundered. in

1276 the Christian king Shekanda was installed on the Makurian throne in Old Dongola, but as a

representative of the Sultan. The inhabitants escaped forcible conversion to Mohammedanism

only by payment of an infidaltax.(jiza). In 1317, Sayf al Din Abd Allah Barshambu was crowned

as the first Muslim King to ascend to the throne of Christian Muqurra (Nubia). Barshambu

commemorated this by converting the Christian Church of Dunqula into a mosque (Yusuf Fadl

Hasan, 2003: 25). In1323 Kanz edDawla became the first Muslim ruler of Makuria. Old

Dongola was abandoned in 13656 as the capital of northern Nubia and the court moved to Daw

(probably Jebel Adda some 55 km south of Qasr Ibrim).

In 1820, the Egyptian wāli &' army commanded by his son Ismail Pasha

gained control of Sudan declaring a “Unity of Nile Valley". During the period of Muhammad Ali's


grandson, the remainder of modernday Sudan was conquered.

to some extent between Islam and Christianity.

As such there was coexistence

In 1845 the Austrian imperial family contributed funds and a Christian mission was opened under

the protection of the Austrian consulate at Khartoum called Propaganda. Propaganda erected a

vicariate, confirmed by Gregory XVI, 3 April, 1846. Missionary work was begun by the Jesuits

who gave their lives for the missions. Among them were Ryllo (died 1848) and Knoblecher

(died 1858), Kirchner, Haller, (died 1854), and Gerbl, (died 1857). They founded stations at

Heiligenkreuz on the Abiad (1855), and at Santa Maria in Gondokoro (1851).

http://www.timemaps.com/history if seen in series shows clearly the expansion of Islam over the

centuries

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King Lalibela (c. 12001250), of Ethiopian Zagwe dynasty built his rock churches and

monasteries. He allowed the Muslims to build their mosques and they coexisted. A strong

Muslim state has developed to the southeast of Ethiopia, based on trading posts from which

control over the local population has gradually achieved.

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The Christian Nubian kingdom of Maqurrah was overwhelmed by the inflow of Arab tribes,

ejected from Egypt by its Mamluqs rulers. They converted Dongola cathedral into a mosque in

1317.

This period saw the emergence of the sultanate of Adal,in the southern boarder of Ethiopia.

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A pastoral people of the eastern Savannah, the Funj, conquered a large kingdom in the Sudan

during this period. At this time they are converting to Islam. The Ottoman empire has occupied

northern Nubia as well as some of the Red Sea coast at this time.


Adal, with a force armed with firearms (the new discovery of the age) acquired from the Turks,

attacked the Christian kingdom. .

The Ethiopian emperor appealed to the Portuguese, who sent a small army and, together, the

Portuguese and Ethiopians managed to defeat Adal’s forces.

This was also the period of Oromo tide. Oromo people are cattle herders who, in search of new

grazing lands, started taking over the fertile areas in a vast scale.

The Funj, had risen in southern Nubia and had supplanted the remnants of the old Christian

kingdom of Alwa. In 1504 a Funj leader, Amara Dunqas, founded the Kingdom of Sennar. By the

midsixteenth century, Sennar controlled Al Jazirah and controlled in the north to the third

cataract and in the south to the rainforests. The Funj aristocracy became Muslims.

In 1671 the Pope set up the Mission of Upper EgyptFungiEthiopia to make contact with the

Christians of these areas. It soon became clear that there were no such Christians in Nubia by

that time.

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In 1962, the government enacted the Missionary Societies Act, regulating

missionary activities. No missionary society or any member of such society

should do missionary work in the Sudan except in accordance with the terms

of a license granted by the council of ministers. The license could impose

whatever conditions the council of ministers might think fit. The council of

ministers might refuse to grant or renew a license and could revoke one at its

discretion. n that specified in its license."

Missionaries were not allowed to "practice any social activities except within

the limits and in the manner laid down from time to time by regulations."

The act also stated that: "No missionary society shall bring up in any religion

or admit to any religious order, any person under the age of eighteen years

without the consent of his lawful guardian."

Furthermore, "No missionary society shall adopt, protect, or maintain an

abandoned child without the consent of the Province Authority."

/

The act imposed spatial limitations and prohibited a missionary society from

doing "any missionary act towards any person or persons professing any

religion or sect or belief thereof other than .......The formation of clubs,

organization of social activities, collection of money, famine and flood relief,

the holding of land, and the publication and distribution of papers, pamphlets,

or books were subject to ministerial regulations.


["The Expulsion of Foreign Missionaries and Priests from the Southern Provinces," The

Black Book of the Sudan on the Expulsion of the Missionaries from the South Sudan (Verona,

Italy: Verona Fathers, 1964), pp.1617.


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The Mahdi, Mohammed Ahmed, in 1880 conquered Kordofan, in 1883 vanquished the Egyptian

army, and on 26 January, 1885, destroyed Khartoum. A number of Christian priests and sisters

were held for years in captivity; the name of Christian seemed obliterated.

Muhammad ibn Abdalla, the Mahdi (Guided One) and his Red Flag

Muhammad Ahmad ibn 'Abd Allah was the son of a Dunqulahwi boat builder who claimed

descent from the Prophet Muhammad. He was the disciple of the Sufi master Sammaniyah. He

later retired in Aba Island on the White Nile as an ascetic. In his tours he had occasion to visit

many of the Sudanese areas and were deeply touched by the corruption of the government

officials and the apathy the clergy. Being of descend from Prophet Mohamed himself, he took it

upon himself for the reformation and declared himself a the Mahdi the called one. The Ansars

under the leadership of 'Abd Allah ibn Muhammad, the caliph (Khalifah; "deputy"), and all the

Baqqarah Arabs of Kordofan and Darfur who were cattle breeders supported him.

Charles George Gordon (1833 1885)and the commemorative Jug of Gen Gordon dated 1885

This fabulous jug, memorializing the "Hero of Heroes," was struck to celebrate the effort of the

British army to rescue Gordon which arrived just two days too late to save Gordon.

MajorGeneral Charles George Gordon, CB, also known as Chinese Gordon, Gordon Pasha,

and Gordon of Khartoum, was a British army officer and administrator. He saw action in the

Crimean War as an officer in the British Army.


In 1877 Isma'il appointed Gordon governorgeneral of the Sudan. Gordon was a European and a

Christian. He returned to the Sudan to lead a crusade against the slave trade, and, to assist him

in this humanitarian enterprise, he surrounded himself with a cadre of European and American

Christian officials. In 1877 Isma'il had signed the AngloEgyptian Slave Trade Convention, which

provided for the termination of the sale and purchase of slaves in the Sudan by 1880. Gordon set

out to fulfill the terms of this treaty, and in whirlwind tours through the country he broke up the

markets and imprisoned the traders. His European subordinates did the same in the provinces.

By 1882, the Mahdists controlled all of Kordofan and by1883, defeated the indomitable

Egyptian army led by the British. British sent General Gordon to take over the fight. On Jan. 26,

1885, the Mahdists captured Khartoum and massacred Gordon and his army. Mahdi,though was

a Suffi, instituted the Islamic theocracy. He died six months after the fall of Khartoum.

Three of the four sons of Mahdi who survived the Anglo Egyptian Conquest

He was succeeded by the Baqquara Chief Abdallahi ibn Muhammad in the midst of tribal and

religious attempts to overthrow him. His expansionist dreams led as far an invasion Ethiopia in

1887.

Khalifah 'Abd Allah

In1897 British ordered the AngloEgyptian army under the command of General Sir Horatio

Herbert Kitchener to invade the Sudan. The British army defeated Mahdist army at the 'Atbarah

River on April 8, 1898 followed to the capital Omdurman and totally decimated the Khalifa army

in the Battle of Omdurman. Khalifa escaped but he was followed and killed an year later.


General Sir Horatio Herbert Kitchener

After the overthrow of Caliph Abdullah, by the English under Lord Kitchener, 2 September, 1898,

the British reestablished missions all around the country: The first governorgeneral was Lord

Kitchener himself.

26 January 1885 2 October 1898 Territory of Egyptian Sudan under complete control of

Mahdiya (Mahdist State)

Under British Military Administration from 2 September 1898 to 19 January 1899 Sir.Herbert

Kitchener, Earl Kitchener was the Military Governor


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An agreement was reached in 1899 establishing AngloEgyptian rule, under which Sudan was to

be administered by a governorgeneral appointed by Egypt with British consent. Sudan was

effectively administered as a British imperial possession. During World War I, the British invaded

and incorporated Darfur into the AngloEgyptian Sudan in 1916. When AngloEgyptian Sudan

(condominium) took over Lord Kitchener continued as GovernorGeneral till 22 December

1899

Plaque in the Cloisters of Westminster Abbey, London, UK, to commemorate the British in

AngloEgyptian Sudan 1898–1955

Mahdi’s tomb hit


GovernorGeneral of the Sudan Sir John Maffey and staff at the Palace in Khartoum

Sir John Loader Maffey, 1st Baron Rugby, GCMG, KCB, KCVO, CSI, CIE (1 July 1877 – 20 April

1969)

He entered the Indian Civil Service in 1899, and notably served Assistant Secretary to Chief

Commissioner of NorthWestFrontierProvince from 1912 to 1916 and then as Private Secretary

to the Viceroy of India Lord Chelmsford from 1916 to 1920 and then Chief Commissioner of the

NorthWest Frontier Province from 1921 to 1924. After a disagreement with the British


government in 1924, Maffey resigned from the Indian Civil Service. In 1926 he became

GovernorGeneral of the Sudan, (31 October 1926 to 10 January 1934) followed in 1933 by his

appointment as Permanent UnderSecretary of State for the Colonies.


The British planned the city of Khartoum in the form of the British Flag the Union Jack. It has

been said by some that Kitchener chose the original road layout so that it resembled the Union

Jack of the British flag. A more likely reason for this design was that it allowed maxim guns to be

placed at junctions that covered several streets simultaneously.

Sir Reginald Wingate, took over in 1988. Like all other colonies the with the British, they went

about modernizing Sudan in communication, travel and Education. They built railways, telegraph,

and steamer services. They developed Gezirah as the world's best cotton county. In i898 Lord

Kitchener of Britain proposed founding a college in the memory of Gordon of Khartoum, who was

killed in the Battle of Khartoum. Gordon Memorial College. The 0 /


1 1902 which started the process of national progress and independence

movement.. By 1906, the college was offering programs for training assistant engineers, land

surveyors and primary school teachers. The first equipped laboratory for bacteriological analysis

was added in 1905, with donations from an an AmericanBritish pharmaceutical entrepreneur

and archaeologist Henry.

ln l924, the College incorporated programs in Sharia engineering,,teachers training) clerical work,

accounting and science. The Kitchener School of Medicine, and the School of Law came into

existence

In 1947the College was affiliated with The University of London. When Sudan became an

independent nation the college became the University of Khartoum.

Its first visible expression of national liberation movement was the organization of the United

Tribes Society in 1921, led by 'Ali 'Abd alLatif. It was followed by the White Flag League of

Khartoum which even assassinated the governorgeneral, Sir Lee Stack, in Cairo on Nov. 19,

1924. This led to severe suppression of all Sudanese liberation movements. The British rule

sustained well into the World War II.

The educated community of Sudanese formed the 0' 0 1

$ 22 By 1943 Azhari and his supporters had won control of the

Congress and organized the Ashiqqa' (Brothers), the first genu In opposition the moderates

started the Ummah (Nation) Party under the patronage of Sayyid 'Abd arRahman alMahdi, the

son of the Mahdi, with the intention of cooperating with the British toward independence.

On Feb. 12, 1953, the Egyptian government signed an agreement with Britain granting

selfgovernment for the Sudan and selfdetermination within three years for the Sudanese.

On 1 January 1956, Anglo Egyptian Sudan came to and end and Sudan became an independent

sovereign state, ending its nearly 136year union with Egypt and its 56year occupation by the

British.


## *(

El Ferik Ibrahim Abboud (1900 – 1983)

First President of Sudan (1958 1964)

On the night of Nov. 1617, 1958, the commander in chief of the Sudanese army, General

Ibrahim Abbud, carried out a bloodless coup d'etat, dissolving all political parties, prohibiting

assemblies, and suspending newspapers declaring emergency situation within the country. . .

General Abbud expelled many foreign Christian missionaries between 1962 and 1964.

In the southern Sudan an independent movement started in opposition to the repressive

approach of Abbud. In September 1963 rebellion erupted in eastern AlIstiwa'iyah (Equatoria)

and in the A'ali AnNil (Upper Nile) province led by the Anya Nya, (The Serpent) a southern

Sudanese guerrilla organization.

In October 1964, students at the University of Khartoum held a meeting, in defiance of a

government prohibition, in order to condemn government action in the southern Sudan and to

denounce the regime. Demonstrations followed, and, with most of its forces committed in the

southern Sudan, the military regime was unable to maintain control. The disorders soon spread,

and General Abbud resigned as head of state; a transitional government was appointed to serve

under the provisional constitution of 1956.


Hassan 'Abd Allah alTurabi

Born in 1932 in Kassala, northern Sudan, to a Sufi Muslim sheikh, Mr Turabi received an Islamic

education before studying in Khartoum, London and finally the Sorbonne in Paris, where he

gained a PhD. He joined Sudan's Muslim Brotherhood and rose to prominence during the

popular uprising of October 1964 against President Ibrahim Abbud. He became the founder of

the Islamic Charter Front (ICF).

Between 1964 and 1969, Mr Turabi was the secretarygeneral of the Islamic Charter Front, a

political arm of the Muslim Brotherhood that advocated an Islamic constitution and opposed

communism.

Following the 1969 coup that brought General Ja'far alNumayri to power, he spent six years in

custody before escaping to exile in Libya for three years.

In 1979, as President Numayri sought rapprochement with Islamist leaders, Mr Turabi was

appointed attorney general.

While he was attorney general, a liberal politician and theologian Mahmoud Mohammed Taha

was put on trial for apostasy abandoning religious belief and executed in January 1985.

Many Sudanese believed Mr Turabi was behind the president's introduction of certain aspects of

Sharia (Islamic Law) and the replacement of the Council of Ministers with a Presidential Council.

The new flag was adopted on 1 January 1956, together with the national emblem.

The flag consisted of three stripes blue, yellow and green.


It is said that these are the colors of the tartan of General Charles Gordon, in the time of the

Condominium worshiped as a national hero. Officially the colors are explained as the colors of

the Nile, the desert and the fertility of the country.

The first national emblem is not of the usual British design but of Soviet fashion. It consists of a

brown rhinoceros ( ) surrounded by two palm trees and a garland

of laurel. Below is the name of the country (Republic of the Sudan) on a

white ribbon with brown ends.

President Ismail alAzhari

Ismāʿīl alAzharī, (born October 30, 1900, Omdurman, Sudan—died August 26, 1969,

Khartoum), Sudanese statesman, who was instrumental in achieving his country’s independence

and served as prime minister in 1954–56.

Educated at Gordon Memorial College at Khartoum and at the American University of Beirut,

alAzharī became president of the Graduates’ General Congress in 1940. At first the Congress

was concerned primarily with educational and social reforms, but it later opposed British

administration of the Sudan and instead supported the Sudan’s union with Egypt. In 1943,

following a split within the Congress, alAzharī organized the Ashiggāʾ (“Brothers”) party; his

opposition to the British proposal for selfgovernment in the Sudan brought about his arrest in

December 1948.

In 1954 alAzhari became the Sudan's first prime minister.Ismail alAzhari (Saiyid) (October 20,

1900 – August 26, 1969) was a Sudanese nationalist and political figure. He served as the Prime

Minister of Sudan between 1954 and 1956, and as President of Sudan from 1964 until he was

overthrown by Gaafar Nimeiry in 1969.In 1961 alAzhari was arrested and exiled for several

months to Juba in Southern Sudan. In 1964 the military regime resigned in the face of

studentled demonstrations, and party politics reemerged in the Sudan. AlAzhari sought to

regain power, but without a strong political base even his skill as a politician was insufficient to

lead a government in the Sudan. In March 1965 he became President of the Republic of the

Sudan, but this was primarily an honorary position with little real power. He remained president

until May 1969,when a military coup d'état ended his political life. He was the third President of

the Sudan in office from, June 10, 1965 . He was overthrown in a military coup on May 25, 1969


y Nimeri.

It is in 1965 during the Presidency of Azhari that we came to Sudan.

The new flag, hoisted for the first time on 20 May 1970 was of three stripes red, white and black

an had a green triangle at the mast end. It had the proportions of 1 : 2.

A new national symbol appeared in 1971. It consists of a Sudanese shield charged with a red ball.

It is supported by a black and white secretary bird ( ),

wings upright like the eagles of the mediaeval christian kings. Above the head of the bird the

warcry (Victory is Ours) is written. Below is the title

(Democratic Republic of Sudan) on a ribbon.


President AlAzhari raising the National Flag on the inauguration of the Republic of Sudan


The first governing body of the Republic on the palace steps

Tour of President Ismail AlAzhari streets of central Khartoum and the people celebrates


Today muslims form the majority in the North Sudan.

They form three groups


Sunni means “tradition,”

Sunnis follow the traditions of Muhammad and of the first two generations of the community of Muslims


who were involved in the islamization of the Early Islamic period.

the Wahhabis, the Muslim Brotherhood, and Jama`at&i&Islami.

These are more legalistic and form

Shi`ites are the “party of `Ali,” who believe that Muhammad’s son&in&law Ali was his designated

successor (imam) and that the Muslim community should be headed by a designated descendent of

Muhammad.

Three main subgroups of Shi`ites are Twelvers (Ithna`Asharis), Seveners (Isma ilis),

and Fivers (Zaydis).







Two origins of the word sufi have been suggested. Commonly, the lexical root of the word is traced

to ṣafā , which in Arabic means "purity".

Another origin is ṣūf , "wool", referring to the simple cloaks the early Muslim ascetics wore. The

two were combined by the Sufi al&Rudhabari who said, "The Sufi is the one who wears wool on top

of purity".

Others have suggested that the word comes from the term ahl aṣṣuffah ("the people of the

bench"), who were a group of impoverished companions of Muhammad who held regular

gatherings of dhikr. These men and women who sat at Al&Masjid al&Nabawi are considered by

some to be the first Sufites.

According to the medieval scholar Abū Rayḥān al&Bīrūnī, the word sufi is derived from the Greek

word sofia (σοφία), meaning wisdom clearly indicating it as a gnostic movement within Islam.

The Sufi order known as Tariqa, Qadiriyyah is one of the most widespread in Sudan & north Africa. It

was established by Abdul Qadir Jilani (1077&1166 AD), a native of the Iranian province of Gilan.


The concept of the "Perfect Man" (alInsan alKamil) lie at the root of Sufism where every man is

suppose to strive towards this ultimate state of man similar to the concept of progressive sanctification

here and now in this life and be justified before the final judgment.

This can be achieved through the right action to fulfill !" # $, an %

concerned with actions, and an inner law concerned with one's own spiritual life.

The outer law of rules pertaining to worship, transactions, marriage, judicial rulings, and criminal

law—what is often referred to, broadly, as qanun.

The % of Sufism consists of rules about repentance from sin, the purging of contemptible

qualities and evil traits of character, and adornment with virtues and good character.

The typical early Sufi Teacher lived in a cell of a mosque and taught a small band of disciples & a

tradition which can be traced to Hebrew Rabbinical Schools and certainly to the monastic orders. A

Sufi student enters the faith by seeking a teacher. Sufism emphasises a strong relationship between

the seeker and the teacher. The Sufi community grows around a teacher.

% ! Sufis are an an outgrowth of Islam arising from syncretism with the Christians who

were forced to join Islam as a compromise and tolerance. According to Marshall Hodgson, the Muslim

conquests had brought large numbers of Christian monks and hermits, especially in Syria and Egypt,

under the rule of Muslims. When Nubia was ran over by the Muslim invaders, they retained their

spiritual life after the conquests, and this eventually led to the founding of Sufism. It is more like the

Christian Pentecostal Movement which insists on going beyond external and legalistic forms to

seek a personal experience of God through forms of meditation and spiritual growth. A number of Sufi

orders, comparable to Christian monastic orders, exist.

Eminent Sufis such as Ali Hujwiri claim that the tradition first began with Ali ibn Abi Talib. the cousin

and son&in&law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, ruling over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661.

Junayd of Baghdad regarded Ali as the Sheikh of the principles and practices of Sufism.

https://3roadblog.wordpress.com/2012/06/08/whirling&to&allah/

"In Sudan, every Friday, an hour before sunset, a large group of sufis, city dwellers who believes in the

spiritual powers of sufi and tourists gathers at the Cemetary around the tomb of Sheikh Hamed al&Nil in


the Omdurman city of Khartoum which was named after him.

The crowd forms a circle around sufis dressed in green and red, some of whom seem rockstar&like in

their varying outfits of dreadlocks, leopard skin accessories, and mountains of beads piled around their

necks. Usually their colourful attire is in contrast to the usual white robes and quiet demeanour of

Sudanese. Mostly, Sufis renounce the material world – living a simple life of asceticism. However,

celibacy is not a requirement of Sufi life.

These colourful men, the dervishes (sufis), begin cheering up the crowd chanting “LA ILLAHA

ALLALLAH!” (There is no God but Allah!) they chant repeatedly. They begin spinning and spinning,

whirling in their quest to find a path to God, through the ritual, called dhikr (remembrance of Allah) in

the Sufi Muslim religion, a process of seeking God and gaining a greater understanding of and

communication with God.

A man, carrying a jug of water around with which he refreshes members of the crowd. Another man

carries burning incense around the circle making sure everyone have a scent of it. A few children

dance in the middle, encouraged by their parents and affectionately patted on the head by the

dervishes, this process of twirling and stamping their feets to the sound of the drums goes on for about

45mins to 1hr, In the process some of them go into trance and some would lay their hands on people

who have come for healing purposes.

At the height of the dance, participants say that their souls communicate with Allah ( God, in Arabic)

and are cleansed of evil. The spell is only broken, with the call to evening prayer as everyone finally

gathers to pray.

The sect grew to be powerful during the time of the Funj Kingdom.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

"Short history about Sufism in Sudan.

"In this regard the Qadiriyya tariqa which is supposed to be, by some historians, the first Sufi tariqa in

Sudan, built its doctrines upon local practices and traditions and won the support and the allegiance of

many Sudanese, becoming the most popular and widespread order in the country. Sufism in Sudan is

a deep rooted force that has shaped, and continues to shape, the Sudanese society as a whole. In a

country with diverse cultures and beliefs, Sufism casts a spell of moderation over the whole country.

The introduction of Sufi orders into the country has led to the creation of some distinctive features of

Sudanese Muslim culture, and,since it represents the popular version of Islam in the country, Sufism

has come to be the main aspect of social consciousness as well as a significant unifying force

throughout the different epochs of Sudanese history...........The Sufis have been revered by rulers both

in the past and the present day, and are favoured by them. Sufism and Sufis are the plasma for the

unity that overcomes the principles which divide humanity on the bases of religion, class, tribe and

political affiliation. Sufism reaches beyond egocentrism, ethnocentrism and competitive materialism."

(Abdulgalil Abdallah Salih,University of Gezira)

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&


')%* + %,


'( "%

Sufi gathering engaged in Dhikr

Allah as having been written on the disciple's heart according to Qadiri Al&Muntahi order



Dhikr is the remembrance of God through a specific devotional act, such as %"

+( * supplications and aphorisms from hadith literature and the Qur'an.

Sema includes various forms of worship such as: recitation, singing (the most well known being

the Qawwali music of the Indian subcontinent), instrumental music, dance (most famously the Sufi

whirling of the Mevlevi order), incense, meditation, ecstasy, and trance.


The weekly dervish ceremony in Omdurman ends with incense going round.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

! "

By Jasser Auda

Saturday, 16 August

Sema, or worship ceremony, through which dervishes (also called semazens) aim to reach the source

of all perfection, or kemal. This is sought through abandoning one's nafs, egos or personal desires, by

listening to the music, focusing on God, and spinning one's body in repetitive circles, which has been

seen as a symbolic imitation of planets in the Solar System orbiting the sun. As explained by Sufis:

In the symbolism of the Sema ritual, the semazen's camel's hair hat (sikke) represents the tombstone

of the ego; his wide, white skirt (tennure) represents the ego's shroud. By removing his black cloak (h

he is spiritually reborn to the truth. At the beginning of the Sema, by holding his arms crosswise,

the semazen appears to represent the number one, thus testifying to God's unity. While whirling, his

arms are open: his right arm is directed to the sky, ready to receive God's beneficence; his left hand,

upon which his eyes are fastened, is turned toward the earth. The semazen conveys God's spiritual

gift to those who are witnessing the Sema. Revolving from right to left around the heart, the semazen

embraces all humanity with love. The human being has been created with love in order to love. Mevlna


谋 rka),


Jalluddn Rumi says, "All loves are a bridge to Divine love. Yet, those who have not had a taste of it do

not know!"


-

"

The name Coptic Church indicates that it is an Egyptian Church. The Church was established by

St.Mark the evangelist. St. Mark died in Alexandria in year 68 AD, his body was buried in the chapel at

Beucalis. However in 828 AD the body was taken to Venice and was retuned in 1970 by the then

Roman Pope Paul VI.


The name Coptic Church can be traced from the Greek (Aigyptos), and Arabic (qubt) for the name

Egypt. Thus it simply translates as the Church of Egypt. Alexandria had been the seat of

theological learning from the early Christianity and the head of the church reside there. During the

Islamic invasion, the Copts did not resist Byzantines were ruling with a heavy hand. Though they

coexisted, eventualy Islam became a mojority in Egypt.

Africa Watch February 10, 1993 Vol. V, Issue No. 3

However, after the collapse of the Christian Kingdoms of Northern Sudan, the Coptic communities

disappeared. Christianity was revived in Sudan by the arrival of Coptic immigrants from Egypt to

the Sudan, in waves of refugees triggered by bouts of oppression from Moslem rulers of Egypt. The

peak of that movement was reached after the Turco&Egyptian invasion of the Sudan in 1821.

These Coptic immigrants came as civil servants, craftsmen, and merchants, for whom

Sudan became the land of opportunity and tolerance. After the Mahdi seized power in 1885, however,

they were left with no choice but to convert to Islam. Only those who managed to escape from the

country succeeded in keeping their faith.

The Copts returned to Sudan once more after the Anglo&Egyptian troops conquered the Mahdist State

(1885&1898). They lived in peace and harmony with other groups in the society, and were prominent

in trading, banking, engineering, and the medical profession, but avoided political involvement.

! # $% & $ '

Egyptians copts contributed immensely to Christian tradition.

The Catechetical School of Alexandria was the oldest catechetical school in the world.It was founded

around 190 AD by the scholar Pantanaeus, who travelled far and wide to collect early scriptures


distributed around the world. He is said to have visited Kalyan near Bombay and found a copy of

the Gospel of Mathew in Hebrew. The school of Alexandria became an important institution of

religious learning, Scholars such as Athenagoras, Clement, Didymus, and Origen, came from this

institution.

The question&and&answer method of commentary and bible study began there.

Another major contribution made by the Egyptians to Christianity was the creation and organization of

monasticism. Worldwide Christian monasticism stems, either directly or indirectly, from the Egyptian

example. The most prominent figures of the monastic movement were Anthony the Great, Paul of

Thebes, Macarius the Great, Shenouda the Archimandrite and Pachomius the Cenobite. By the end of

the 5th century, there were hundreds of monasteries, and thousands of cells and caves scattered

throughout the Egyptian desert.It is these traditi ons that produced the Sufi movement within Islam.

The first three Ecumenical councils in the history of Christianity were headed by Egyptian patriarchs.

The Council of Nicaea (325 AD) was presided over by St. Alexander, Patriarch of Alexandria, along

withSaint Hosius of Córdoba. Patriarch of Alexandria Athanasius, played the major role in the

formulation of the Nicene Creed, which form the standard statement of faith in almost all churches.

The Council of Constantinople (381 AD) was presided over by Patriarch Timothy of Alexandria, while

theCouncil of Ephesus (431 AD) was presided over by Cyril of Alexandria.

+

In 451 AD, following the Council of Chalcedon, the Church of Alexandria was divided into two branches.

Those who accepted the terms of the Council became known as Chalcedonians or Melkites. Those

who did not abide by the Council's terms were labeled non&Chalcedonians or Monophysites and later

Jacobites after Jacob Baradaeus. The non&Chalcedonians, however, rejected the term Monophysites

as erroneous and referred to themselves as Miaphysites. The majority of the Egyptians belonged to

the Miaphysite branch, which led to their persecution by the Byzantines in Egypt.


%

The second wave of Christianity in Sudan took place during the 19th century, through Christian

missionaries sent from Europe

The first to arrive in Sudan was from the Catholic Church in 1842, which consisted of Father Luigi

Montuori, who was actually fleeing from religious persecution in Ethiopia. The mission settled in

Khartoum and started schools and Churches. In 1846, Pope Gregory XVI formally established the

Sudan as the Apostolic Vicariate of Central Africa. In 1865, Bishop Comboni took over Montuori’s

mission and entered into a vast educational adventure until the take over of the country by Mahdi from

1885 until 1898.

The next wave of Christianization did not begin until the Anglo&Egyptian Condominium (1898&1956). In

order to avoid competition between various denominations each group was given definite areas,

"sphere within which to carry out their activities” but carefully banning the right “to proselyte outside the

boundaries set for them by the Governor General”

During this period, the Roman Catholic Mission reentered the Northern Sudan (in 1899,) along with the

Anglican Church Missionary Society, and the American Presbyterian Mission (1902.)


.

/ % *

%/! + ! /

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

"The Episcopal Church of the Sudan (ECS) was started by Church Missionary Society (CMS) from

United Kingdom (UK) with the arrival of its first missionary Rev. Llwellyn Henry Gwynne in Khartoum in

December 1899. The mission to Sudan was called “Gordon Memorial Mission” meant to evangelize

the Northern Sudanese who killed Charles Gordon, the Governor General in Khartoum during the

Mahadiyya uprising.

Rev. L. H. Gwynne and Dr. F. J. Harpur opened a girl’s school and a dispensary in Omdurman in 1902.

As the British colonial government could not allow evangelization in Northern Sudan for fear of Muslim


eaction following the defeat of Mahdist forces in 1898, the CMS moved to Southern Sudan.

Later on the CMS Missionaries opened mission stations in Malek (1906), Yambio (1910), Yei (1917),

Opari, Lui and Juba (1920), Maridi (1922), Kajo&keji and Akot (1929), Leer and Port Sudan (1932),

Salara (1935) and Katcha (1939) in Nuba Mountains, Gel River (1942), Paneker (1948) and Wad

Medani in 1949. They also opened Juba Bookshop (Apaya) in 1914, Abu Rauf for Lepers (1926),

hospitals in Lui (1926) and Leer (1932), Bishop Gwynne Theological College (BGC) in Mundri and

Vocational Training Institute in Lainya in 1947, Mothers’ Union in 1948 and Revival Movement in 1949

from Uganda.

The first ECS Christian John Aruor was baptized in Malek mission station in 1916. However, by 1942

there were 16,000 believers half of which were baptized and 3,454 communicants. In 1908 Gwynne

was consecrated an Assistant Bishop. In 1920 he was made Bishop of the Diocese of Egypt and the

Sudan. In 1945 the Diocese of Sudan was created under Bishop Morris Gelsthrope.

The expulsion of Christian missionaries by Ibrahim Abud’s military regime was preceded by a

Missionary Act 1962 that sought to regulate and control church activities. For example, baptism of

children and ordination of priests would require a license from the government. Sunday as a day of

rest in South Sudan was replaced by Friday. English as a language of instruction in schools was

replaced by Arabic. The use of local languages in schools was discouraged or re&written in Arabic

script. The aim was to Islamize and Arabize the people of South Sudan. Many Qoranic schools

(Khalawi) were opened all over the South Sudan. This was the cultural and religious dimension of the

civil war.

In 1965, Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) went on the rampage killing civilians at random in Juba, Wau and

Malakal. They also targeted educated Southern Sudanese. Thus many people fled to rural areas and

neighbouring countries as refugees. Some of the clergy followed their flock into the country side or in

exile. The ECS like other churches got affected by persecution, insecurity and displacement by the

civil war. However Bishop Oliver Allison, Bishop Augustino Baroni of the Catholic Church and other

Church leaders formed Sudan Council of Churches (SCC) on 29th January 1965 for Christian unity

and solidarity in the face of State persecutionis"

(CHURCH MISSION SOCIETY AND THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF THE SUDANBY RT. REV. ENOCK TOMBE STEPHEN DIOCESAN BISHOP, REJAF DIOCESE, EPISCOPAL C

HURCH OF THE SUDAN)


All Saints Cathedral as we remember

The foundation of the old Cathedral was laid in 1904 and was consecrated and opened in 1912.

It was in 1965 I came to the Sudan with two young children ready to join school.

Clergy House School was part of the Khartoum ECS cathedral (All Saints

Cathedral) and was in the campus of the Cathdral. My children were initiated

into it. When they graduated from the middle school, my daughters joined the

Unity High School and my sons joined the Comboni College.

On the 31st of July 1971, the Cathedral was confiscated by the Sudan government with the allegation

that, there was a tunnel from the cathedral to the palace, an allegation which was not true. The second

argument was that the Cathedral was near the palace and therefore it was not convenient for the

Christians to worship there. However, today there stands a magnificent Mosque just near to palace

which was opened in 1995. Addition to that the Cathedral's tower was knocked down in October 1996

and the Cathedral was turn into a Museum which was opened in the year 2000.


The Republican Palace Museum

The main structure is used as the Museum.

The Stained glass window and the cross are still visible.


+%

The New Cathedral in Haj Yousif, Khartoum North

The foundation stone of the new Cathedral was laid on the 27th of May 1979, by the Most Rev. Elinana

J. Ngalamu, the first Archbishop of the Episcopal church of the Sudan. The consecration was done on

the 18th of September 1983, at which Oliver Alison, the Last English Bishop to leave Sudan, was

invited back to preach on the occasion. This Church also has been destroyed soon after the

independence of South Sudan on the pretext that all Christians have move to the South Sudan or they

should.

0123 %%+ + 4 (%! 5%

Allison, Oliver Claude(1908 to 1989)

Bishop Alison translated his name to me as "Settun Ibn Ali" (Olive = Settun, Allison=Son of Ali = Ibn Ali)

35 years serving in the Sudan. He is the one who invited me to join the Governing body of he Unity High School in 1973.


Back row L&R: Nura, Irene Fenwick, ?,?, Joanna, Monica Latif, ?, Jenny Moss, ?, Diane, Diana McArthur.

Seated: Candy Brisley, Maisa, Ann McClean, ?, Liz German (Headmistress), Avinash Mirghani, Tricia Babiker, Liz Ashton.

Front: Ismail & Mohamed.

Khartoum_Clergy_House_School_Nov1979

This was the staff in 1979. Mrs. Mirghani was the teacher of Premu while she was in that school from which she graduated to jo inthe

Unity High School in1969


6



Visit of Princes Anne in Unity High Schol1974

You can see Pat Clague the Principal of Unity School and Bishop Allison


In 1953, Bishop Oliver Allison became the second Bishop of Sudan. The Diocese of Sudan had two

Archdeaconries known as Northern Archdeaconry and Southern Archdeaconry. 12 Sudanese Pastors


were ordained by Bishop Oliver Allison. Later on the Southern Archdeaconry was further divided into

two Archdeaconries. One Archdeaconry was called Bari/Zande Archdeaconry led by Archdeacon

Amosa Rakpi Ngama. The other was called Moru/Dinka Archdeaconry led by Archdeacon Elinana

Ja’bi Ngalamu. In 1955, Rev. Daniel Deng Atong was consecrated as the first Sudanese Assistant

Bishop in 1955 at St. Paul Cathedral Namirembe in Uganda due to outbreak of the first civil war in Torit

in August 1955. However, he retired early in 1961 due to ill health.

With the advent of Sudan’s Independence from Condominium rule by British and Egyptians in 1956,

the national government in Khartoum took control of mission schools in 1957 and eventually expelled

missionaries from the country in 1964. The few missionaries that were left were transferred to

Khartoum for easy monitoring and control of their movement and activities.

Growth and development of ECS to a Province of Anglican Communion 1964&76

During the ECS centenary celebration, Abe Enosa said this: “By the rivers of the Sudan, Christ will

reign forever. The Sudanese will raise their hands in prayer to our

God, we will sing forever. In humble spirits like birds of the air. We will celebrate the love of God for us.

When God will make us his unparalleled heirs.

Let the rivers flow, the rivers of life too. Heaven and earth will testify that God has taken us into his

bosom.

The birds, the creatures in nature testify that, up in the heavens God reign supreme. On earth the

Sudanese

will sing to His praise!

Celebrate, Oh Church of God in the Sudan. Sing praises to the God of love. You are Messengers of

peace andlove. To our God, let your voices ring in the Sudan. Travel light on boats made of reeds.

You may be, in theeyes of men, a simple weed, but you have endured for one hundred years."


Proud winner


6

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+


In 1861 the missions were transferred to the Franciscans. 7% ' #++

8%* 0220$ founded an institute at Verona for the training of missionaries to labour among the

negroes of Soudan. ! " #

$ %&'()#

' , the %! in the heart of Africa who was beatified in 1996 and canonized by

John Paul II in Rome on October 5, 2003,

This is the college where my children studied.


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At the end of the year we have the three months of holidays. At the Ministry of Education Office, I

was told that even though I will not get a ticket to go home, all my four wives and sixteen children are

entitled to ticket and taxi fares to go anywhere and come back. We are two adults and two children.

So we decided to take the vacation to Europe. On doing some research we came across Arthur

Frommer’s travel guide that says "Europe on 5 Dollars a Day.” That was fair enough. It gave basic

instructions on how to make a vacation as simple yet enjoyable. This book is now available in

amazone. Discounting children we should get away with $450 a month which is well within our

means. After all the travel is covered by the Sudanese government except for me. The officers were

helpful at the ministry in transferring tickets from Khartoum to Trivandrum and back to Khartoum to

Paris and back through Greece and Rome. This infact worked out cheaper for them.

One of basic instruction which we remembered always was that in Europe do not sit down in a

restaurant unless you are eating luch of dinner. They charge you for the use of the table and utilities.

Buy your sandwitches and eat them standing. At one point we were surprised by a huge bill when the

waiter reminded of the fact we are charged for the table, chairs, spoons and forks and napkins. That

brought us home the basics once again. When you are tired sit on chairs outside the restaurants.

This way the vacations became affordable, but we got the best of Europe.


Paris was founded in the 3rd century BC by a Celtic people called the Parisii, who gave the city its

name. By the 12th century, Paris was the largest city in the western world, a prosperous trading centre,

and the home of the University of Paris, one of the first in Europe. In the 18th century, it was the centre

stage for the French Revolution, and became an important centre of finance, commerce, fashion,

science, and the arts, a position it still retains today.

The following tourist map will give some idea of the vast tourist attractions of Paris.

interest was a holiday so we did not really explore all monuments and attractions.

But our primary

A few images that stuck in the mind are just presented with modern photographs which represents the


impression.

Eiffel Tower and Gustave Eiffel the designer

This tower was erected in 1889 as the entrance arch to the 1889 World's Fair, and has become the

global cultural icon of France. The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and

second. The third level observatory's upper platform is 276 m (906 ft) above the ground. We with two

children used the elevator to the first and second levels where we had lunch. If we use the steps the

climb from one level to the other level is over 300 steps. It gives a panaromic view of Paris.

The next popular site of visit was the ,> the triumphal arc of France’s famous

conqueror Nepolian Bonaparte the Emperor. It is the gate of entry into the city. Though Napolean

ordered it and started it in 1806. After his Austerlitz victory in 1805, Napoleon said to his soldiers :

"You will return home through arches of triumph". However the work stopped from 1814 when he was

exiled to the island of Elba. The construction of Arc de Triomphe was completed in 1836, long after

Napoleon's death in 1821..


The names of 128 battles of the first French Republic and Napoleon's Empire are written on the white

walls under the vault together with the names of the generals who took part in them.

Notre>Dame Cathedral,

considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture, and it is among the largest

and most well>known church buildings in the world. In the 1790s, Notre>Dame suffered desecration

during the French Revolution as an expression of the Age of Reason, when much of its religious

imagery were damaged or destroyed. In 1793, the cathedral was rededicated to the Cult of Reason,

and then to the Cult of the Supreme Being. The 13th century spire was torn down and the statues of

the biblical kings of Judah were beheaded. An extensive restoration took place in 1845 to reverse the

damage.


Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa or La Gioconda (1503–1505/1507)—Louvre, Paris, France

This museum contains some of the world famous Renaissance collections including the paintings of

Leonardo da Vinci Raphael and Michelangelo. I suppose the museum itself grew into what it is today

after our visit.


Theatre of Epidavros

renowned for its amazing acoustics; a coin dropped in the centre can be heard from the highest seat.

Built of limestone, the theatre seats up to 14,000 people. Its entrance is flanked by restored Corinthian

pilasters . It’s used for performances of ancient Greek drama during the annual Hellenic Festival .


Standing tall above the Greek city of Athens, the Acropolis contains a number of buildings and

monuments from Greek Antiquity, including the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, the Propylaia and the

temple of Athena Nike.

The majority of sites on the Acropolis were constructed in the 5th Century BC, during the ‘golden age’

of Athens and under the stewardship of Athenian statesman Pericles. After the original site was burned

to the ground in 480BC during the Persian Wars, the Athenians set to re>building their city with

monuments that would bear testament to the greatness of their state.

Delphi in Itea where the Oracles of the Old sat besides the fume emitting chasm


Civita di Bagnoregio. The ancient city on the hill top. The city became desolate in the 17 th century due

to continued seismic activity.

The Easterm Orthodox monasteries of Meteora built on top of solid rock structure cannot be reached

by foot. The word Meteora means literally 'hovering in the air' In the ancient days they used

removable ladders and windlasses hauling people in net. These provided the necessary isolation for

monks from the cruelties and bloodsheds of the Byzantine empire. 24 monasteries emerged on the

countless summits of the rocks from the 14th until the 16th century, 6 of them remain today.


The best way of isolation

onasteries of Meteora > the climb

There are five others like this still in Greece.


Everything was culminated with the marvelous Light and Sound from Pnix Hill

Which provided an memorable history of Greek people

Gyros or gyro (Greek γύρος, "turning") is a kind of meat roasted on a vertical rotisserie. In the pita

bread in addition to the meat, various salads and sauces are also added. The most common fillings

are tomato, french fries, onions and tzatziki sauce. The Arabic shawarma, the Turkish döner and

Mexican tacos al pastor are somewhat similar (though tortillas, used to wrap Mexican tacos, is a bread

product of very different texture than the Greek pita). In some parts of Greece, gyros was formerly

called ντονέρ [don'er], from its Turkish name döner kebab (literally "turning roast"); γύρος is a calque

on that name.[1] The name gyros and souvlaki are usually used interchangeably in Athens. This was

our favorite meals on the road until we returned to the hotel to have a full dinner.


Florence Cathedral

Michelangelo's David

Signature of Michelangelo

The statue was placed instead in a public square, outside the Palazzo della Signoria, the seat of civic

government in Florence, where it was unveiled on the 8th of September, 1504. In 1873 the statue of

David was removed from the piazza, to protect it from damage, and displayed in the Accademia

Gallery, Florence, leaving behind a replica.


Some of the other works of Michaelangelo include Madonna and Crucifix in Florence and

The Holy Family


Old Italian towns are famous for their narrow streets and steep hills. Many of these towns, built

centuries ago, were never constructed with the intent to accommodate modern cars.

Fiat (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino) founded in 1899 produced the Fiat Car which was originally

meant for the narrow roads of Italian cities. Probably no other cars can pass through them. Launched

as the Nuova (new) 500 in 1957 and continued till 1975, it was a cheap and practical town car.

Measuring only 2.97 metres (9 feet 9 inches) long, and originally powered by an appropriately sized

479 cc two>cylinder abd air>cooled engine.

Wheelbase 1.84 m (72.4 in)

Length 2.97 m (116.9 in)

Width 1.32 m (52.0 in)

Height 1.32 m (52.0 in)

Curb weight 499 kg(1,100 lb)


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The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium,

Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy,

the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. Its construction started between 70 and 72 AD under the

emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made

during Domitian's reign (AD96). The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's

and Titus's family name (Flavius, from the gens Flavia).

Originally capable of seating around 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial

contests and public spectacles. It remained in use for nearly 500 years with the last recorded games

being held there as late as the 6th century. As well as the traditional gladiatorial games, many other

public spectacles were held there, such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re>enactments

of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The Colosseum has long been

regarded as having been the scene of numerous martyrdoms of early Christians.


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Baths of Diocletian, could hold up to 3,000 bathers.After a morning's work, most Romans enjoyed

spending the afternoon at the thermae or public bath. They were a social meeting place. Men and

women enjoyed coming to the baths not only to get clean but to meet with friends, exercise, or read at

the library. The baths had hot and cold pools, towels, steam rooms, saunas, exercise rooms, and hair

cutting salons. They had reading rooms and libraries, as among the freeborn, who had the right to

frequent baths, the majority could read. Children were not permitted.

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The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed, in which commerce,

business, prostitution, cult and the administration of justice took place.

Vatican City , officially Vatican City State is a walled enclave within the city of Rome. With an area of

approximately 44 hectares (110 acres) it is the smallest internationally recognized independent state

in the world by both area and population.

It is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal>monarchical state ruled by the Bishop of Rome—the Pope.


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St. Peter's Basilica (Latin: Basilica Sancti Petri; Italian: Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano) is a Late

Renaissance church located within Vatican City.

Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St.

Peter's is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture and remains one of the largest

Churches in the world. Churches

It is believed by a long tradition that Peter, after a ministry of about thirty years, travelled to Rome and

met his martyrdom there in the year 64 AD during the reign of the Roman Emperor Nero. His execution

was one of the many martyrdoms of Christians following the Great Fire of Rome. According to Origen,

Peter was crucified head downwards, by his own request because he considered himself unworthy to

die in the same manner as Jesus. The crucifixion took place near an ancient Egyptian obelisk in the

Circus of Nero. The obelisk now stands in Saint Peter's Square and is revered as a "witness" to Peter's

death. It is one of several ancient Obelisks of Rome.According to tradition, Peter's remains were

buried just outside the Circus, on the Mons Vaticanus across the Via Cornelia from the Circus, less


than 150 metres (490 ft) from his place of death.

site.

Old St. Peter's Basilica was constructed over this

.

Inside the Basilica


The Weekly Wednesdays Pope appears on the balcony of the basilica. The audience lasts for around

1.1/2 > 2 hours.

During the Audience the Pope give speeches in various languages. At the end of the audience the

Pope imparts a blessing upon the crowd .

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The Vatican Museum is one of the greatest art galleries in the world, the museum is most famous for

its spiral staircase, the Raphael Rooms and the exquisitely decorated Sistine Chapel with

Michelangelo's frescoes. It's organised in such a way that the visitor has to follow a one>way route.

Michelangelo's Pietà, in St>Peters Basilica

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The Spiral Stairs

Sistine Chapel


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There are a large number of cathedrals with marvellous sculptures and stained glass art and paintings

that you loose the sense of what is where. We stopped when we were fed to the full, enjoying each.


The Catacombs of Rome (Italian: Catacombe di Roma) are ancient catacombs, underground burial

places. These were underground places for worship and burial of Christians in the period of Roman

persecution. The soft volcanic tuff rock under Rome is highly suitable for tunneling, as it is softer when

first exposed to air, hardening afterwards. Many have kilometres of tunnels, in up to four stories (or

layers). Names of the catacombs refer to the martyr saint who is interned there.

The skulls and bones of some 4,000 Capuchin monks, some of whom died nearly five centuries ago,

adorn a six>room crypt beneath the church of Santa Maria della Concezione in Rome. More than a

mere burial chamber, the friars have arranged the remains of their brethren into bizarre death art,

including chandeliers, archways, and wall decorations.


Neatly arranged bones sit within a crypt beneath Santa Maria dell'Orazione e Morte.

St.Paul’s catacoumb

After two weeks of stay in Rome, we took the train to Venice. On the way we broke journey to visit

the leaning tower of Pisa for a few hours and then continued to the islands of venice, the cities in the

sea

.


The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa)

is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide

for its unintended tilt to one side.

In /012, Italy asked help to prevent the Leaning Tower from toppling. They wanted to keep the lean

though, because of its importance for Pisa's tourism. A team of engineers and historians came

together on the Azores to discuss the problem. As a temporary measure, a leaden counterweight (800

tonnes) was installed.


The Italian town of Pisa with its Cathedral and the Leaning Bell Tower


Galileo Galilei had dropped two balls of different masses from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to

demonstrate that their time of descent was independent of their mass


Venice is a city in northeastern Italy sited on a group of 117 small islands separated by canals and

linked by bridges. It is located in the marshy Venetian Lagoon which stretches along the shoreline,

between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. Its main highways are waterways and houses are

mostly built on the shores. People travel using boats instead of cars. Venice is renowned for the

beauty of its setting, its architecture, and its artworks.The city in its entirety is listed as a World

Heritage Site, along with its lagoon. This was the place we relaxed for one full week with good hotel,

good food and fun moving aroun in boats.


The city of Venice is made up of islands surrounded by canals and connected by arching bridges.


We tasted for the first time Squids and Calamares.

It was days of feasting on sea food.


The Murano Island

Famous for its glass blowing art

We did spend a whole day in the island within several glass blowing factories


Murano glass is glass made on the Venetian island of Murano, which has specialized in fancy

glasswares for centuries. Murano’s glassmakers led Europe for centuries, developing or refining many

technologies including crystalline glass, enamelled glass (smalto), glass with threads of gold

(aventurine), multicolored glass (millefiori), milk glass (lattimo), and imitation gemstones made of glass.

Today, the artisans of Murano are still employing these centuries>old techniques, crafting everything

from contemporary art glass and glass figurines to Murano glass chandeliers and wine stoppers, as

well as tourist souvenirs.

Giuseppe Briati was the most famous producer of these chandeliers. He focused his work on the

creation of what are now recognised as the typical Murano chandeliers with multiple arms decorated

with garlands, flowers and leaves, called "ciocche".

Murano crystals were very expensive as we went around these glass blowing factories. The glass

blowers were the best artists. Since we wanted some sovenir of the place we went round looking for

something reasonable. We ended up buying two simple crystal glass vases > still costed ten dollars.


Murano Crystal

We bought two of these each coasting $5 each These are still in the family.

in the factory. It is after all a sovenir.

These were the cheapest


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