basic statistics on tribes and tribal areas of andhra pradesh

basic statistics on tribes and tribal areas of andhra pradesh

basic statistics on tribes and tribal areas of andhra pradesh


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(As Kh<strong>on</strong>ds <strong>and</strong> Jatapus are <strong>on</strong>e <strong>and</strong> same tribe, detailed ethnographic note is<br />

furnished under Kh<strong>on</strong>ds)<br />

10. KAMMARA<br />

Kammaras are a scheduled Tribe inhabiting the scheduled <strong>areas</strong> <strong>and</strong> adjoining <strong>areas</strong> in<br />

Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari <strong>and</strong> West Godavari districts.<br />

They are also called K<strong>on</strong>da Kammara <strong>and</strong> Ojas. Their populati<strong>on</strong> as per 1991 census is<br />

44,613. The total literacy rate am<strong>on</strong>g Kammara is 18.08.<br />

Even though traditi<strong>on</strong>al occupati<strong>on</strong> <strong>of</strong> Kammaras <strong>of</strong> scheduled <strong>areas</strong> is black smithy<br />

<strong>and</strong> carpentry. Most <strong>of</strong> them gave up their traditi<strong>on</strong>al occupati<strong>on</strong> <strong>and</strong> resorting to shifting<br />

cultivati<strong>on</strong> <strong>and</strong> settled cultivati<strong>on</strong>.<br />

Kammara tribe is divided into a number <strong>of</strong> totemic clans, which regulate marital<br />

relati<strong>on</strong>s am<strong>on</strong>g the Kammaras. Some <strong>of</strong> the popular clans are Korra (Sun), Killo (Tiger),<br />

Bhalu (bear), Samardi (flower), Pangi (Kite) etc., <strong>and</strong> their surnames are identical with<br />

surnames <strong>of</strong> other <strong>tribal</strong> groups in Visakhapatnam district.<br />

Marriage by mutual love <strong>and</strong> elopement, marriage by capture, marriage by service<br />

<strong>and</strong> marriage by negotiati<strong>on</strong>s is socially approved forms <strong>of</strong> acquiring mates. Both levirate<br />

<strong>and</strong> sororate are in vogue. Kammaras eat Beef <strong>and</strong> Pork.<br />

Kammaras worship Nisahan Devatha, Sankudevata, Jakiri Devatha <strong>and</strong> Gangalamma.<br />

They perform festivals like Chaitrapurab, Gangalamma P<strong>and</strong>uga <strong>and</strong> new fruit crop eating<br />

cerem<strong>on</strong>ies such as Mamidi Kotha, K<strong>and</strong>i Koha, Chikkudu Kotha <strong>and</strong> Korra, Sama Kotha.<br />

They perform Dimsa folk dance al<strong>on</strong>g with other <strong>tribal</strong> groups.<br />

They have traditi<strong>on</strong>al <strong>tribal</strong> council <strong>of</strong> their own, which regulates the social life <strong>of</strong><br />

Kammaras <strong>and</strong> to settle the disputes.<br />

Kammaras have been living in symbiosis with other <strong>tribes</strong> <strong>of</strong> the area. They<br />

manufacture agricultural implements <strong>and</strong> supply them to other <strong>tribal</strong>s <strong>of</strong> the village <strong>and</strong><br />

receive in kind for their services.

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