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UNESCO Ancient Civilizations of Africa (Editor G. Mokhtar)

UNESCO Ancient Civilizations of Africa (Editor G.

  • Page 2 and 3: GENERAL HISTORY OF AFRICA Ancient C
  • Page 4 and 5: UNESCO International Scientific Com
  • Page 6 and 7: Contents List of figures ix List of
  • Page 8 and 9: 24 West Africa before the seventh c
  • Page 10 and 11: List of figures 24.4 The Tichitt re
  • Page 12 and 13: List of plates 3.6 Tame pelicans 13
  • Page 14 and 15: List of plates 15.3 Inscription fro
  • Page 16 and 17: Acknowledgements for plates Polish
  • Page 18 and 19: Introduction G. MOKHTAR with the co
  • Page 20 and 21: Introduction the documents at their
  • Page 22 and 23: Introduction is also wide open to t
  • Page 24 and 25: Introduction increasingly threatene
  • Page 26 and 27: Introduction used a natural calenda
  • Page 28 and 29: Introduction eighteenth to twentiet
  • Page 30 and 31: Introduction the very root of the d
  • Page 32 and 33: Introduction statues of the Pharaoh
  • Page 34 and 35: Introduction know whether a given s
  • Page 36 and 37: Introduction arms, the river itself
  • Page 38 and 39: Introduction religious purposes or
  • Page 40 and 41: Introduction must have been there t
  • Page 43 and 44: plate intro. i Onslaught on the Nil
  • Page 45 and 46: Origin of the ancient Egyptians CHE
  • Page 47 and 48: Origin of the ancient Egyptians the
  • Page 49 and 50: Origin of the ancient Egyptians It
  • Page 51 and 52: Origin of the ancient Egyptians The
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    Origin of the ancient Egyptians Mel

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    Origin of the ancient Egyptians reg

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    Origin of the ancient Egyptians of

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    Origin of the ancient Egyptians sch

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    Origin of the ancient Egyptians The

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    PRESENT kef i kef ek kef et kefef k

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    Origin of the ancient Egyptians Egy

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    Origin of the ancient Egyptians Con

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    Origin of the ancient Egyptians sci

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    plate 1.5 Libyan prisoner PLATE 1.6

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    plate 1. 12 Cheops, Pharaoh of the

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    * JÙ&&&L plate i. i 8 Statue of th

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    I Symposium on the peopling of anci

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    Annex to Chapter i individuals. Van

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    Annex to Chapter i collaboration of

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    Annex to Chapter i lexicological an

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    Annex to Chapter i None of the part

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    Annex to Chapter i up to the predyn

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    Annex to Chapter i when the Kushite

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    Annex to Chapter i would be used wi

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    Annex to Chapter i considerably enl

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    Annex to Chapter i stakingly resear

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    Annex to Chapter i 1972 and again i

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    Annex to Chapter i in the overall p

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    FIG. 2.1 The Nile from the Third Ca

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    Pharaonic Egypt different somatic g

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    NEW KINGDOM 4 • *> — ItS ¡SSÍ

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    Pharaonic Egypt were filled by coun

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    Pharaonic Egypt written in cursive

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    Pharaonic Egypt There were several

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    Pharaonic Egypt Old Kingdom ended a

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    Pharaonic Egypt certain other gods

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    Pharaonic Egypt reflect the existen

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    Pharaonic Egypt Joppa by General Dj

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    Pharaonic Egypt eventually changed

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    Pharaonk Egypt another has not yet

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    Pharaonic Egypt Persian period 45 I

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    plates 2.4-2.9 Treasures of Tutankh

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    plate 2.9 Anubis at the entry to th

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    Pharaonic Egypt: society, economy a

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    Pharaonic Egypt: society, economy a

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    Pharaonic Egypt: society, economy a

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    Pharaonic Egypt: society, economy a

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    Pharaonic Egypt: society, economy a

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    Pharaonic Egypt: society, economy a

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    Pharaonic Egypt: society, economy a

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    Pharaonic Egypt: society, economy a

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    Pharaonic Egypt: society, economy a

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    Pharaonic Egypt: society, economy a

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    w.%W*£ ^¿ 1-" **^% - plate 3.4 Re

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    plate 3.9 Discoveries made by the F

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    Egypt's relations with the rest of

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    Egypt's relations with the rest of

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    Egypt's relations with the rest of

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    Egypt's relations with the rest of

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    Egypt's relations with the rest of

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    Egypt's relations with the rest of

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    Egypt's relations with the rest of

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    Egypt's relations with the rest of

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    plate 4.1 The tribute of Libyan pri

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    The legacy of Pharaonic Egypt R.-EL

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    The legacy of Pharaonic Egypt This

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    The legacy of Pharaonic Egypt manne

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    The legacy of Pharaonic Egypt Egypt

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    The legacy of Pharaonic Egypt and r

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    The legacy of Pharaonic Egypt case

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    The legacy ofPhar aortic Egypt Two

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    The legacy of Pharaonic Egypt Papyr

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    The legacy of Pharaonic Egypt its p

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    The legacy of Pharaortic Egypt an i

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    The legacy of Pharaonic Egypt distr

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    The legacy of Pharaonic Egypt force

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    4 WTT \ .:- plate 5.3 Discoveries m

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    , - j plate 5.7 Town planning: layo

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    plate 5.13 Ramses II (fluids techni

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    Egypt in the hellenistic era they h

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    Egypt in the hellenistic era Part o

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    Egypt in the Hellenistic era runs:

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    Egypt in the Hellenistic era In the

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    Egypt in the Hellenistic era the na

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    Egypt in the Hellenistic era exist

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    Egypt in the hellenistic era Satyru

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    Egypt in the hellenistic era worksh

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    Egypt in the Hellenistic era of Cyr

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    Egypt in the Hellenistic era own ch

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    Î?M plate 6.1 Lighthouse at Alexan

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    plate 6.7 A fragment of a bronze ba

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    Egypt under Roman domination theref

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    Egypt under Roman domination had a

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    Egypt under Roman domination Antino

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    Egypt under Roman domination victor

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    Egypt under Roman domination In thi

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    Egypt under Roman domination well v

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    Egypt under Roman domination instal

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    a) Roman baths and hypocaust b) Rom

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    PLATE 7.7 Baouit painting plate 7.8

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    Mediterranean Sea i i i 500 km CENT

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    Egypt FärasBÜheri^Wadi Haifa jebe

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    The importance of Nubia: a link bet

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    The importance of Nubia: a link bet

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    The importance of Nubia: a link bet

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    The importance of Nubia: a link bet

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    The importance of Nubia: a link bet

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    The importance of Nubia: a link bet

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    The importance of Nubia: a link bet

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    Nubia before Napata (-3100 to -750)

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    Nubia before Napata ( to éÉÊÊ^

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    Nubia before Napata ( to 750) fig.

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    Nubia before Napata ( — JIOO to

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    Nubia before Napata ( jioo to 750)

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    Nubia before Napata (—3100 to —

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    FIG. 9.7 Nubia, 1580 before our era

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    Nubia before Napata ( — j/oo to

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    Nubia befare Napata ( — jioo to

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    Kerma culture Nubia before Napata (

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    Nubia before Napata (—3100 to —

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    Nubia before Napata ( — 3100 to

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    Nubia before Napata ( — 3100 to

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    Nubia before Napata (—3100 to —

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    Nubia before Napata (—jioo to —

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    plate 9.1 A selection of Kerma pott

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    plate 9.8 Kerma pottery plate 9.9 T

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    FIG. io. i Meroitk sites

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    The empire of Kush: Napata and Mero

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    The empire of Kush: Napata and Mero

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    The empire of Kush: Napata and Mero

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    The empire of Kush: Napata and Mero

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    The empire of Kush: Napata and Mero

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    The empire of Kush: Napata and Mero

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    The empire of Kush: Napata and Mero

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    The empire o/Kusft: Napata and Mero

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    plate 10.4 Painted blue glassware o

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    The civilization of Napata and Mero

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    The civilization of Napata and Mero

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    The civilization of Napata and Mero

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    The civilization of Napata and Mero

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    The civilization of Napata and Mero

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    The civilization of Napata and Mero

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    The civilization of Napata and Mero

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    The civilization of Napata and Mero

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    The civilization of Napata and Mero

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    The civilization of Napata and Mero

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    The civilization of Napata and Mero

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    The civilization of Napata and Mero

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    plate i 1.5 Various pieces ofMeroit

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    plate i i .7 King Arnekhamani:from

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    FIG. 12. i The Nile from the First

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    The spreading of Christianity in Nu

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    The spreading of Christianity in Nu

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    The spreading of Christianity in Nu

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    The spreading of Christianity in Nu

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    The spreading of Christianity in Nu

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    x vWM r* if -* plate 12.2 Sandstone

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    Pre-Aksumite culture H. DE CONTENSO

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    Pre-Aksumite culture They merely te

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    Pre-Aksumite culture façades, whic

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    Pre-Aksumite culture and is much mo

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    Pre-Aksumite culture to light in so

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    Pre-Aksumite culture Gobochela repr

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    Pre-Aksumite culture The solar cult

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    Pre-Aksumite culture this group con

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    Pre-Aksumite culture sanctuaries is

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    Pre-Aksumite culture material found

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    plate 13.3 Incense altar of Addi Ga

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    The civilization of Aksum from the

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    The civilization of Aksum from the

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    The civilization of Aksum from the

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    The civilization of Aksum from the

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    The civilization ofAksum from the f

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    The civilization of Aksum from the

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    The civilization of Aksum from the

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    The civilization of Aksum from the

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    plate 1 4. i Aerial photograph of A

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    Aksum: political system, economics

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    Aksum: political system, economics

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    Aksum: political system, economics

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    Aksum: political system, economics

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    Aksum: political system, economics

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    Aksum: political system, economics

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    Aksum: political system, economics

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    Aksum: political system, economics

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    Aksum: political system, economics

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    Aksum: political system, economics

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    Christian Aksum TEKLE TSADIK MEKOUR

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    Christian Aksum the Jews and that o

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    Christian Aksutn But probably the A

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    The spread of Christianity Christia

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    Christian Aksum denying that Christ

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    Christian Aksum Yeha bear witness t

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    Christian Aksum retaliation among t

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    Christian Aksum this slaughter, Chr

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    Christian Aksum Yet, Ezana boasts o

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    Christian Aksum In reading this boo

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    plate 16.1 Paintingfrom the church

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    The proto-Berbers J. DESANGES The B

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    The proto-Berbers peopling of the M

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    The proto-Berbers that water was mo

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    The proto-Berbers The proto-Berbers

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    The proto-Berbers An inscription on

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    The proto-Berbers The origins of th

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    The proto-Berbers Such tomb furnitu

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    The proto-Berbers fresh water, in p

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    The proto-Berbers Poseidon, while t

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    The Carthaginian period B. H. WARMI

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    The Carthaginian period The long se

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    The Carthaginian period and finally

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    The empire of Carthage The Carthagi

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    The Carthaginian period family in t

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    Saharan trade The Carthaginian peri

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    The Carthaginian period after the R

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    The Carthaginian period to Carthage

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    The Carthaginian period geopolitica

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    The Carthaginian period Syphax's de

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    The Carthaginian period of north-ea

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    The Carthaginian period kingdoms sa

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    467

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    ^ .«s S 473

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    57 Timgad = Thamugadi 58 Henchir Gu

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    The Roman and post-Roman period in

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    plate 19. i Mosaic from Sousse: Vir

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    PLATE 19.7 (left) Djemila (ancient

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    PLATE 19.12 Haïdra (Tunisia): Byza

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    0 The Sahara in classical antiquity

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    KEY i Resseremt, near Akjoujt, Maur

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    The Sahara in classical antiquity o

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    The Sahara in classical antiquity N

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    The Sahara in classical antiquity t

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    The Sahara in classical antiquity S

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    The Sahara in classical antiquity m

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    The Sahara in classical antiquity d

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    The Sahara in classical antiquity k

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    PLATE 20.2 The tomb of 'Queen Tin H

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    21 Introduction to the later prehis

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    FIG. 21. i Hypotheses concerning th

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    Introduction to the later prehistor

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    Introduction to the later prehistor

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    Introduction to the later prehistor

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    Introduction to the later prehistor

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    Introduction to the later prehistor

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    Introduction to the later prehistor

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    Introduction to the later prehistor

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    22 The East African coast and its r

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    The East African coast and its role

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    The East African coast and its role

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    The East African coast and its role

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    The East African coast and its role

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    The East African coast and its role

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    The East African coast and its role

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    The East African coast and its role

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    The East African coast and its role

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    ai en 3 .Si ¿ .ïï g "S M cn^ Q)

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa of

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa for

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa mil

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa of

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa The

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa as

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa is

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa ore

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Nil

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa the

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa The

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    f^\ < J\ ¿tí \ LJ C-«-3 } r / *

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa cha

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Ear

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa The

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa pro

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa is

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa sit

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa com

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa In

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa bur

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Exc

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa ind

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa of

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    Central Africa 5 F. VAN NOTEN with

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa The

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa wer

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    § e B Aï S1- 626

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa But

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa mos

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Mor

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa The

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Exc

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Rec

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa sur

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa sig

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa of

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa FIG

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Whi

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa The

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Ms,

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa cou

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa fig

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa of

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa APP

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa rem

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa FIG

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa FIG

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa clo

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    672

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa dis

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa fro

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa It

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Bul

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa in

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    Ancient Civilisations of Africa in

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa whe

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Cop

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa occ

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa rec

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa J\C

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa FIG

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa how

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa and

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa The

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa at

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa sou

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa of

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa col

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    a 0 2 4 6 8cm 1 I I « 0 1 2 3cm i

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    plate 28.1 Stone pot, Vohemar civil

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    plate 28.7 Terraced rice fields nea

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    The societies of Africa south of th

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Akj

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa was

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa fea

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa of

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa whe

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa dep

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    Conclusion G. MOKHTAR In this volum

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa the

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa tha

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    Members of the International Scient

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    Biographies of Authors INTRODUCTION

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    Bibliography The publishers wish to

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa CC

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa UJ

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Car

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Bor

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Car

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Con

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    Ancient Civilizations of Africa Deg

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    Subject Index Acheulean period, 67

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    Index of Persons Abale, 282 Abar, 3

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    Index of Ethnonyms Abyssinians, 385

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