Nutrition for Running

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Sports Performance Nutrition

Healthy Eating for Sport

Eloise Crowley (Performance Dietitian RD)

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Healthy Eating For Sport

About me…


Healthy Eating For Sport

Today I am going to discuss:

S 1. Optimizing Nutrition for Running including illness and

injury Prevention.

Comfort Break

S 2. Key Nutritional Supplements

S 3. The importance of Hydration


Healthy Eating for Sport


Sports Nutrition for Injury

Prevention

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Glycogen Restoration - CARBOHYDRATE

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Hydration – FLUIDS

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Reducing Soreness –ANTIOXIDANTS, PROTEIN,TART CHERRY

JUICE, OTHER NUTRIENTS


Sports Nutrition for

Injury Prevention

MACRONUTRIENTS

Carbohydrate is the preferred fuel source to support exercise. When

carbohydrate stores are low the body breaks down muscle-protein to

use as fuel supplies. Therefore chronic carbohydrate depletion may

lead to decreases in strength and possibly damage to muscle tissue.

Dietary protein is vital for muscle maintenance, growth and repair.

Muscle protein breakdown occurs in both endurance and strength

training activities, therefore you need an adequate intake of high

quality dietary protein to repair muscle damage caused by exercise.

For active individuals, studies show that the amount and timing of

protein intake are important to maximize growth and repair.


Sports Nutrition for Injury

Prevention

To help prevent injury fuel up with both carbohydrate and

protein 1-2 hours before your workout and within 30

minutes after. Combination pre-workout meal may include a

smoothie made with milk and fruit. For a convenient

recovery snack, chocolate milk fits the bill.

ANY OTHER PRE AND POST NUTRITION SNACKS??


Sports Nutrition for Injury

Prevention

Recovery Snacks supplying 50-60g CHO and 20-

25g Protein

1 Banana plus 500ml milk

1 cereal bar (ideally home-made i.e. flap jack, date, nut and apricot

bar)

1 slice toast with peanut or almond spread

1 yogurt i.e. FAGE Total with dried fruits


Sports Nutrition for

Injury Prevention


Sports Nutrition for Injury

Prevention


Healthy Eating for sport and

Injury Prevention

HEART-HEALTHY ESSENTIAL FATS

Dietary fats provide essential fatty acids that the body

cannot make on its own. Essential fatty acids like omega-

3 fatty acids are needed to make and repair cell

membranes, and are good for the heart, a source of

energy, lubricating joints and tissues and reducing

inflammation in the body.

Cold water fish (salmon, mackerel, and sardines), ground

flaxseed and walnuts are a few good dietary sources to

include in your daily training diet.


Healthy Eating for Sport and Injury Prevention

Dietary fat for inflammation control

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A diet high in trans-fats, omega-6 rich vegetable oils, and saturated fat will be proinflammatory

(in other words, it’ll worsen inflammation). A diet high in

monounsaturated fats and omega-3 fats will be anti-inflammatory.

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The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 in the diet is important for overall inflammation in

the body — especially during normal periods of healthy living when we definitely want

to keep inflammation under control.

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which should lead to a balanced inflammatory profile.

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Of course, overall fat balance is important here. With a good balance of saturated,

monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats (about 1/3 of total fat intake each), the

body’s inflammatory profile will look pretty good.


Healthy Eating for Sport and Injury prevention

Purposely decrease omega-6 fats and increase omega-3s (specifically fish

oil). High omega 6:3 ratios reduce collagen production while a low 3:6 ratio

supports healing.

Even though relatively higher omega-3s create an anti-inflammatory response

in the body, this response doesn’t interfere with repair; rather, it only helps

with injury healing and collagen deposition.

Unfortunately, we haven’t yet determined the exact omega 6:3 ratio, nor the

amount of fish oil supplementation required to manage inflammation during

injury.

Studies with low dose fish oil (~450 mg to 1 g/day) have shown no effect on

inflammatory or immune markers while other studies have shown that high

dose fish oil (12-15 g/day) may reduce immune cell function in certain

populations.


Healthy Eating For Sport

and sports injury Prevention.

Eat MORE Anti-inflammatory Fats like:

Olive Oil Avocados Fish Oil

Flax oil or

Ground Flax

Fish Like Mackerel,

Salmon, Sardines

Mixed Nuts and Seeds


Healthy Eating for Sport and

injury prevention.

Eat fewer Pro-Inflammatory things like:

Processed Foods High in Saturated Fats

Vegetable Oils like

corn, sunflower,

soyabean

Foods with

Transfats


Healthy Eating for Sport and Injury

Prevention.

Include Inflammation Managing HERBS & SPICES

1. Curcumin from Tumeric/Curry Powder

7 tsp a day of powder or 400-600mg in supplement form

2. Garlic

2-4 cloves a day or 600-1200mg of aged garlic extract

3. Bromelain from Pineapple

2 cups of pineapple a day or 500-1000mg in supplement form

4. Cocoa, Tea & Berries

Eat daily or supplement with Bluebarry or grape extracts, Green tea

extract, citrus extracts and bioflavonoid supplements


Healthy Eating for Sport and Injury

Prevention.

Turmeric

A flowering plant in the ginger family, turmeric has long been used as an

anti-inflammatory agent and in wound healing.

Current research shows that the active ingredient, curcumin, is responsible

for some of the benefits of turmeric. While adding turmeric to food every

day is a good strategy, using 400-600 mg of supplemental turmeric extract 3x

per day (or as described on the product label) is probably more manageable

for most people.


Healthy Eating for Sport and Injury

Prevention.

Garlic

Garlic has been shown to inhibit the activity of the inflammatory

enzymes cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase and affect macrophage

function. Again, though, while eating additional garlic is likely a good

strategy, garlic extracts may be required for more measurable antiinflammatory

effects.

Typically recommended dosing is 2-4 g of whole garlic clove each day

(each clove is 1 g) or 600-1200 mg of supplemental aged garlic extract.


Healthy Eating for Sport and

Injury Prevention.

Bromelain

Bromelain is another anti-inflammatory plant extract from

pineapple. While best known for its digestive properties, bromelain

is an excellent anti-inflammatory and analgesic compound

although its mechanism of action is poorly understood.

Typically bromelain is given in doses of 500-1000 mg/day for the

management of inflammation.


Healthy Eating for Sport and Injury

Prevention.

Boswellia

A type of tree, Boswellia also has anti-inflammatory uses and has been

shown to offer benefit through the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and

potentially other cytokines.

Typically supplemental Boswellia is taken in 300 mg doses 3x per day.


Injury

What about NSAIDs?

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In sport, it’s very common to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen as the

first line of defense against acute injury, pain, and inflammation. They come over the counter, docs prescribe

them readily, and they reduce pain.

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Yet new research suggests in some cases, NSAIDs might actually hinder injury healing in the mid-term.

Celebrex, for example, reduced ligament strength in rats recovering from injury by about 32%. In another

study, the same thing happened with both Celebrex and Indocin.

Not all studies show these effects, but enough of them do to cause some concern. That’s why we recommend

moderating NSAID use in acute injury or muscle pain.

Beyond interfering with ligament healing, NSAIDs also may interfere with muscle strain healing, weight

training adaptation, and bone healing in the mid-term. Of course, there are also the side effects (such as GI

bleeding with many types of NSAIDs). Again, the data are mixed, but suggest that NSAIDs should be used

sparingly.

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Use caution when taking NSAIDs or any other anti-inflammatories for pain management during acute injury.

In some cases the risks (GI problems, reduced healing rates, incomplete healing prognosis) may outweigh the

benefits (pain management).


Healthy Eating For Sport – Cardiff City

Injury Goodie-bag!

INJURY NUTRITIONAL GOODIE-BAG CARDIFF CITY FC

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Variety dried fruits – apricots, cranberries, banana, goji berries, prunes, jumbo

raisins, pineapple, strawberries.

Variety of non-salted nuts – walnuts, cashew nuts, almonds, pumpkinseeds,

sunflower-seeds.

Fruit Salad pots– Fresh pineapple, blackberries, strawberries, blueberries, cherries,

papaya and kiwi.

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Healthy carbohydrates (whole grains, vegetables, sourdough, rye) prevent an

increase in stress hormones.

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Probiotic Organic yogurts.

Tin of Salmon – this will be convenient for the players and supply them with

protein to help with growth and repair of muscular tissue and also a great source

of Omega-3 fatty acids.

Green-Tea


Healthy Eating for Sport

and Injury Prevention

Vitamins C,D and E

MICRONUTRIENTS

Minerals Selenium, Calcium, Iron and Zinc

INFLAMMATION = Increase in free radicals which weaken

cells

ANTIOXIDANTS = Eliminate free radical thereby preventing

cell damage.


Healthy Eating For Sport

and Injury Prevention

Vitamins C and E are injury preventing antioxidants that help

protect your body’s cells from damage.

Vitamin C plays a role in tissue repair and formation of

collagen. Collagen provides strength and flexibility for ligaments,

tendons and is necessary to hold bone together.

Vitamin E helps protect tissues and organs from damage caused

by free radicals. The combination of these vitamins is thought to

minimize damage from exercise and therefore help with recovery

from your workout or training session.


Healthy Eating for Sport and Injury

Prevention

Think of deep and vibrant colors when choosing which

fruits and vegetables you consume. Citrus fruits,

strawberries, kiwi, tomatoes and peppers contain tissue

repairing vitamins.

Vitamin E can be found in almonds, almond butter,

sunflower seeds, wheat germ and avocado.


Healthy Eating for Sport and Injury

Prevention.

Preventing stress fractures are critical in preventing other

exercise-related injuries.

Getting adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D every

day helps develop and maintain strong bones.


Studies have shown that athletes who consume diets low in

calcium tend to have lower bone mineral density (BMD) and

increased risk for stress fractures. Great dietary sources of

calcium and vitamin D are dairy products, green leafy veg, nuts &

seeds, eggs, kale, tinned fish with bones and fortified foods such as

orange juice plus sunlight 10-15mins per day.


Healthy Eating for Sport

and Injury Prevention

Iron deficiency can also be a potential cause of injury, low

blood-iron levels will reduce the oxidative potential in the

muscles. This will shift the energy production towards

producing more lactate, which may contribute to muscle

injuries.

Frank Horwill, was the BAF coach, study involving 164

cross-country female runners which found that a quarter

of the athletes had low serum ferritin level (blood iron

count) and that this low-iron group was three times more

likely to be injured during the rest of the season than the

other runners.


Healthy Eating For Sport

and Injury Prevention.


The recommended daily intake for elemental iron varies depending on gender and

age, ranging from 8mg/day to 18mg/day (27mg/day during pregnancy).


The higher range of intake may be difficult to maintain, especially for vegetarians,

who need to take in more iron because less is absorbed from nonmeat sources.


Heme iron, found in red meat and dark poultry, is a more readily available source of

iron (18 percent absorbed). Our bodies absorb about 10 percent of non-heme iron

from vegetables and grains. Vitamin C, taken in conjunction with a meal, improves

the absorption of non-heme iron, as does meat protein. Tannins (found in tea) and

calcium can decrease absorption.


How to put this all together?

here are some e.g’s

Breakfast - Total Greek yogurt with Blueberries and rolled oats

How to put this all together?

Lunch – Chicken and Prawn Omelet with mixed vegetables

Here are some examples

Dinner – Salmon, brown rice or quinoa, steamed broccoli with

carrots.


Healthy Eating For Sport and

Injury Prevention.

Tart Cherry Juice

Montmorency Cherries reduce the Oxidative stress and

Inflammatory responses to repeated days high-intensity

cycling (Bell et al Nutrients 2014)

Montmoency cherry juice reduces muscle damage caused

by intensive strength exercise (Bowell et al 2011 Med in

science in sports & Exercise)


Healthy Eating for Sport and Injury

Prevention.

Cherry Active (100% natural Montmorency cherry concentrate

rich in anthocyanins & antioxidants)

Proven to improve muscle rec rates after training

Proven to reduce exercise-induced muscle soreness

Helps combat oxidative stress

Helps protect the immune system from infections and viruses

Helps maintain regular sleep patterns


Healthy Eating for Sport

and Injury Prevention.

In general, the basic dietary approach to reducing your risk

for sport related injury is to provide a wide variety of

nutrient-dense whole foods that support bones, joints, muscles,

tendons, and other connective tissues.

Including plenty of whole grains, dark green vegetables and

red, purple, and blue fruit, dairy products and healthy fats

such as fresh tuna, olive oil, nuts and seeds and staying

hydrated can help minimize your risk for exercise related

injury.


Healthy Eating for Sport

and Injury Prevention

Injury Preventing Pre-Workout Snack/Meal

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Power House Smoothie...Milk, blueberries, strawberries, banana, kale and

ground flax seed

Almond butter sandwich, strawberries and milk

Meat or cheese sub loaded with veggies, milk or fruit juice

Injury Preventing Post-Workout Snack/Meal

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Chocolate milk and walnuts

Yogurt, low fat granola and berries

Salmon sandwich, fruit cup and milk

Lentil soup with rice, yogurt, fruit salad and milk, juice or water


Healthy Eating For Sport and

Injury Prevention.

An athlete’s diet is a key aspect in

supporting consistent, intense training,

whilst remaining free from illness and

injury. This is particularly important

for young athletes who have the

additional energy cost of growth and

development.

On Camp With Kelly Holmes


Tailoring your nutrition plan to accommodate reduced training loads to avoid

overeating.

Discontinue using sports nutrition products during this phase as they are

simply not needed. Aim to meet your daily nutrient needs through wholefoods.

Eat healthy, balanced meals and snacks to prevent too much weight gain.


Metabolic Efficiency (ME)

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Improving your body’s ability to use its internal fat stores.

The more efficient we burn fat while preserving our limited and

precious CHO stores, the longer & faster we can go without

“bonking”.

CHO provide us with energy needed to fuel the body for training

sessions, but during the off-season maintaining a higher CHO

eating plan combined with less training can lead to weight and

body fat gain.

Improving your ME is NOT about eating a very low CHO.


Metabolic Efficiency (ME)

S Lower your CHO intake and eat more protein and healthy

fats. Get most of your CHO’s from veg, fruits, dairy, nuts. If

you feel hungry, eat additional protein and fats.

S When you build into your prep and competition training

cycles and are doing more training at HIGHER

INTENSITIES, increase your CHO’s.

S When we eat a plate full of CHO’s (pasta, potatoes, bagels)

the body releases insulin suppressing the fat burning system.

S By eating a combination of CHO’s, lean protein, fiber and

healthy fat at each meal we release less insulin and stabilise

blood sugars and burn fat for energy while increasing satiety.


Conclusion pre and post Nutrition

S 1. Focus your daily diet on Fresh (think Seasonal),

Unprocessed foods.

S 2. Try new Breakfast’s such as different versions of

homemade muesli or porridge or ways of cooking eggs with

veg as a weekend brunch.

S 3. Fill ½ your plate with colorful veg at lunch & dinner.

S 4. Make sure you have protein as part of every meal and

snacks.

S 5. Eat smaller portions of carbohydrates than you would

when you are in FULL Training.

S 6. Have some healthy Fats everyday.


Injury & Illness Prevention cont:

Get a blood test and find out if you have any deficiencies.

Work with your Dr or Dietitian at correcting this through

diet & Supplementation if necessary.

This will help you get started on the right foot when you are

ready to start training hard again.


Illness & Injury Prevention cont:

Nutritional Supplements – Vitabiotics

Visit: http://www.vitabiotics.com/ and receive a 10% discount

(enter CD10 promotional code). This include the 3 for 2 offer!


Common mistakes on Race Day!

The most common mistakes that I have seen are:

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Sticking to a plan at all cost. If for some unforeseen reason you cannot follow the

plan (you lost a bottle, or you are developing gastrointestinal problems), do not

continue with the plan at all cost. Be flexible and adapt. A slightly lower intake is

not going to be a problem, forcing more nutrition in will.

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Do not try something new on race day. I see athletes walk around on expos, buying

new products for the race the next day. Only use products that you have tried and

tested, products you know you tolerate well.

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Thinking that more is better. Drinking more, eating more is not always better. Sure,

you have to take in enough energy and enough fluids, but once you achieve the

basic needs, more is not necessarily better and in some cases detrimental.


Common mistakes on Race Day

cont:

A couple of extra points:

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Caffeine (low dose: 3 mg/kg one hour before; equivalent of a big cup of

coffee or 2 espressos before the start) may help some athletes. Some

athletes like it, some don’t. Experiment in training and find out what

works for you.

These are the very basics of good fueling . Many athletes don’t get the

basics right and many athletes are too concerned with other aspects and

get distracted by details (often supplements), without paying enough

attention to the basics. The next step is that the plan becomes fully

personalized, but this is a little more advanced and may require a few

measurements.


What to avoid the week leading

up to the race?

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Processed foods such as instant microwave or quick meals such as

take outs

Deep fried foods completely

Sugar and sugar laden foods, meaning sweets, chocolates, instant

cereals, tinned fruits, honey. Look at the amount of sugars

contained on the label.

Heavy milk products and bad fats such as yellow cheeses and your

more problematic saturated fats like margarine's etc.

Excessively high fiber food which can cause bowel discomfort

Excessive stimulants like numerous cups of coffee and tea limit to

one a day if possible


Race Day!

There are 3 things you need to manage on race day – Hydration, Electrolytes and Calories.

Examples:

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CLIF SHOT BLOCKS Clifbar.co.uk

Each 60g pack of jelly-like blocks contains 48g of carbs and 100mg of caffeine. This is about the same

as two gels from most brands. The blocks are easy to eat or can be slowly sucked if preferred. Along

with the energy from the carbs, the caffeine here which is in the form of green tea extract, offers a

good kick when you start to tire.

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HIGH5 GELS: Provides 92kcal and 23g Carbohydrate. I advice you take 3 x Gels every

20minutes.

HIGH5 ENERGY SOURCE: Provides 44g Carbohydrates and 177kcal and 240mg Sodium per

sachet, mix with NATURAL ZERO tablets for extra (Electrolytes). You can alternate High5

Energy Source with High 5 ZERO Tablets (electrolyte alone) and get additional calories from the

gels and a mars bar (34g carbs and 224kcal per bar).

HIGH5 ENERGY SOURCE XTREME – Contains caffeine which will give you a push of the

run.

(I recommend you consume 750-1L Fluid/hr and 1000mg Sodium /hr)


Carbohydrate intake during exercise

CHO Type

CHO Rec

60g/h

Multiple

transportable CHO’s

Carbohydrate recommendation dependent on duration (and intensity)


Carbohydrate intake during exercise

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Not all CHO are equal

Some are used more rapidly than others and those are the ones we

need for optimal performance.

CHO intake even in small amounts can improve performance during

prolonged exercise (>2hr) but more seems to be better.

Your body cannot use more tan 60g/h of a single CHO

This limitation can be overcome by using multiple transportable

CHO like maltodextrins and fructose or glucose.

Intakes of 90g/h of glucose fructose can enhance performance

during exercise >2/5h

CHO intake and even a mouth rinse can improve performance

during shorter, high intensity such as a 40km time trial.


Carbohydrate intake during exercise

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To determine how much CHO is recommended we need to know the

exercise duration.

Exercise


Comfort Break


Supplements

Is it proven to improve performance, health or recovery?

Yes

Is it lacking in sufficient

quantities in real food?

Yes

No

Is the product allowed?

No

Save your money

Yes

No

Is there Informed

sport product?

Yes

No

Consider the product


Nutritional Supplements


Band A:

Nutritional Supplements

These are the primary supplements that you should purchase and implement

them into your daily regime without any doubt whatsoever:

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Vitamin D3 (bone health, testosterone production)

Probiotics (gut health, immunity)

Omega 3 (brain health, heart health, inflammation)

Magnesium (bone health, ATP synthesis)

These should be included alongside the diet as the quantities required for optimal

health are often hard to obtain from a healthy diet without eating a significant

amount of calories. All of these supplements will positively affect both health

and performance.


Band B:

Nutritional Supplements

These are those supplements that if you can afford them, would make a useful

addition to ensure you have everything covered:

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Multi vitamin (immunity, good health)

Zinc (immunity, testosterone production)

Creatine (ATP synthesis)

PWO Shake (2:1 - Carbs:Protein)

Now these supplements would probably be covered from food, however zinc

and multi vitamins are good insurance policies to include ensuring that you

have all your bases covered.

Creatine is the most studied performance supplement in the world and would

improve performance in nearly any individual undertaking strength training,

and has been proven safe by countless scientific studies. Creatine has also

been shown to improve cognitive function, so should also be considered by

those not necessarily looking for significant strength gains.


Nutritional Supplements

Band C:

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These supplements are really breaking into the boundaries of

enhancing performance, rather than necessarily for their health

benefits. However that isn’t to say they don’t have slight health

benefits too:

Beta Alanine (lactate buffering agent, increases work capacity)

Citrulline/Arginine (improves blood flow to working muscles)

L-Tyrosine (neurotransmitter production, stimulatory effect)

L-Leucine (muscle protein synthesis)

These supplements will all enhance performance in the gym and help

with recovery from exercise. They will help push your limits in the

gym, which will lead to body composition improvements.


Band D:

Nutritional Supplements

These supplements will make a difference, but are going to cost more and can

be implemented if you can afford them or are told you need to implement

them by a coach once your on your way with your plan.

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L-Cartinine (increases rate of mitochondrial fat burning)

BCAA (prevents muscle breakdown during fasted training)

CoQ10 (antioxidant & energy production)

Alpha Lipoic Acid (antioxidant & energy metabolism)

Rhodiola Rosea (stimulatory/cognitive enhancement)

Glucosamine (joint health)

L-Glutamine (gut health)


Nutritional Supplements

Band E:

Now these supplements are those that you may hear a fair bit about, and

promise amazing results but are actually hideously expensive for the

amount of effect they actually have, if any…

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D-Aspartic Acid (testosterone booster)

CLA (fat loss)

HMB (lean mass gains)


Nutritional Supplements

S So there you have it. A quick breakdown of the most common

supplements available to you and a quick reference to enable you to

make a decision about whether it is worth parting with your hard

earned cash.

S In my opinion most people would have impeccable health and perform

optimally in the gym with just Band A & B.

S If you are a more advanced gym goer then Band C would probably

help with your results, but not at the expense of either Band A or B.

S Once you start looking for the 1% gains and improvements in

performance look to introduce Band D.

S I wouldn’t bother with any in Band E as the scientific evidence

supporting their use is lacking and the cost of them is just ridiculous.


Nutritional Supplements - Conclusion

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1. Get you diet spot on first, spend money buying high quality

food.

2. Spend money on the essential supplements and get them

working for you and your body.

3. Start identifying the next batch of supplements that may make

a difference and that you can afford.

4. Try and identify products that incorporate a few of the

supplements listed in a formula that works effectively.

5. Don’t stress about supplements and protocols, focus on the

basics and you’ll get amazing results.

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Supplements

DRUGS FREE STATEMENT

S Studies have shown that as many as 20 percent of supplements

available to athletes can contain ingredients that are not declared on

the label. Not surprisingly, a significant number of positive tests

have been attributed to the misuse of supplements.

EXAMPLE HIGH5: “As fellow athletes and believers in clean and

fair sport, we take our drugs free policy very seriously. Doping

undermines the integrity of sport and the ethos of fair competition. It

is fundamentally contrary to the spirit of sport. HIGH5 supports the

World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) Code and their List of

Prohibited Substances.”


Hydration

Drink to thirst is a recommendation that works fine for the slower

athlete. If you are going a bit faster it is better to go in with a plan. It is

good to use the early parts of a race when the gastrointestinal tract is

working fine to absorb both carbohydrate and fluid. Later in the race,

even though you may be thirsty, the gut may not absorb as much. Don’t

drink excessively and use common sense. The goal should be to lose a

little weight (2 to 4 pounds) at the finish line. You definitely want to

avoid weight gain, which clearly would be a sign of drinking too much.

In hot environments dehydration can definitely be a very important

factor. Don’t forget that good hydration starts before the race, and

hydrate well in the days leading to your race.


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Carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks are good to use as they also provide fuel

The Ugly Facts

Hydration

With every increasing stage of dehydration there is an increase in your:

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Heart rate (1litre = 8bpm)

Body Temperature (1litre = 0.3 °C)

Cardiovascular and respiratory system stress

A reduction in mental function, skill and co-ordination

Dehydration slows the rate at which you absorb fluids, so as you dehydrate

it becomes extremely difficult to reverse the fluid deficit.

It is impossible to ‘train’ or ‘toughen’ your body to handle dehydration.

Dehydration causes fatigue long before carbohydrate stores run out.

To prevent dehydration you need to drink frequently pre, during and after

training.

1kg weight loss = 1 litre of dehydration


Hydration

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When you sweat your body loses water. Dissolved in this water are

electrolytes like sodium, potassium and chloride. These minerals

play a crucial role when it comes to muscle contraction and fluid

balance. But as an Endurance Athlete the main one is SODIUM.

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Sodium is crucial in helping the body to absorb the fluids you drink

and to maintain hydration. Your rate of sodium loss in sweat is

determined by genetics and is unpredictable the losses in a normal

population can vary eight fold from 230 to 1,700mg/l meaning that

some individuals could loose eight times as much sodium in an hour

than others. Losses of potassium and other electrolytes tend to be

more predictable and less critical.


Hydration

Strategies to ensure your getting adequate sodium:

S Increase the salt you add to food in the days preceding

long and hot sessions (for example pretzels, marmite,

salted nuts).

S When your training hard read the packets of the Sports

Nutrition your using for training and racing to see how

much sodium your getting. You should experiment with

different amounts to see what works best.


Hydration

How much am I loosing?

The following signs are consistent with someone who experiences

HEAVY SODIUM LOSSES (During or after sessions and races)

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Often have salty residue on the skin/clothing after hot training

sessions and races.

Struggle to stay well hydrated in hot conditions.

Find yourself peeing a large volume of very pale or clear urine in

races (this shows that the body is seeking to retain sodium

concentration by causing the kidneys to push water out).

Often get stinging eyes from salty sweat on a hot day.

Crave salty foods during or after races and training in the heat.


Hydration

S A concentration of 30-50mmol/L of sodium is

recommended for optimal absorption and to prevent

hyponatreamia (low levels of sodium in the blood)

S The High 5 Electrolytes contain 46mmol/L (1 Tab in

750ml water) and 86mmol/l (2 Tabs in 750ml water).


Conclusion

If you are serious about making the changes that will transform your future, then here is

your step-by-step list:

1. Empty your cupboards of junk and processed foods

2. Go shopping for fresh and wholesome food

3. Buy Tupperware so you can pre prepare the right meals

4. Purchase the required supplements

5. Organise preparation time (maybe on Sunday night) – Prepare your meals and

supplements for the week

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Morning Ritual – Commit to paper a morning ritual that you follow every morning

without fail

Evening Ritual – Commit to paper a ritual to do each evening, whatever suits you best,

but this is a great time to get into the habit of preparing for the next day.

Avoid the TV and prepare for success.

“If you always put in what you have always put in you will get what you have always got”

Eloise (Registered Dietitian RD).


Thank you

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