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Honouring the Truth Reconciling for the Future

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Preface Canada’s

Preface Canada’s residential school system for Aboriginal children was an education system in name only for much of its existence. These residential schools were created for the purpose of separating Aboriginal children from their families, in order to minimize and weaken family ties and cultural linkages, and to indoctrinate children into a new culture—the culture of the legally dominant Euro-Christian Canadian society, led by Canada’s first prime minister, Sir John A. Macdonald. The schools were in existence for well over 100 years, and many successive generations of children from the same communities and families endured the experience of them. That experience was hidden for most of Canada’s history, until Survivors of the system were finally able to find the strength, courage, and support to bring their experiences to light in several thousand court cases that ultimately led to the largest class-action lawsuit in Canada’s history. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada was a commission like no other in Canada. Constituted and created by the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, which settled the class actions, the Commission spent six years travelling to all parts of Canada to hear from the Aboriginal people who had been taken from their families as children, forcibly if necessary, and placed for much of their childhoods in residential schools. This volume is a summary of the discussion and findings contained in the Commission’s final multi-volume report. The Final Report discusses what the Commission did and how it went about its work, as well as what it heard, read, and concluded about the schools and afterwards, based on all the evidence available to it. This summary must be read in conjunction with the Final Report. The Commission heard from more than 6,000 witnesses, most of whom survived the experience of living in the schools as students. The stories of that experience are sometimes difficult to accept as something that could have happened in a country such as Canada, which has long prided itself on being a bastion of democracy, peace, and kindness throughout the world. Children were abused, physically and sexually,

vi • Truth & Reconciliation Commission and they died in the schools in numbers that would not have been tolerated in any school system anywhere in the country, or in the world. But, shaming and pointing out wrongdoing were not the purpose of the Commission’s mandate. Ultimately, the Commission’s focus on truth determination was intended to lay the foundation for the important question of reconciliation. Now that we know about residential schools and their legacy, what do we do about it? Getting to the truth was hard, but getting to reconciliation will be harder. It requires that the paternalistic and racist foundations of the residential school system be rejected as the basis for an ongoing relationship. Reconciliation requires that a new vision, based on a commitment to mutual respect, be developed. It also requires an understanding that the most harmful impacts of residential schools have been the loss of pride and self-respect of Aboriginal people, and the lack of respect that non-Aboriginal people have been raised to have for their Aboriginal neighbours. Reconciliation is not an Aboriginal problem; it is a Canadian one. Virtually all aspects of Canadian society may need to be reconsidered. This summary is intended to be the initial reference point in that important discussion. Reconciliation will take some time.

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    The legacy I want Canadians to unde

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    The legacy • 137 children to be p

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    The legacy • 139 Disturbing data

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    The legacy • 141 many, many years

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    The legacy • 143 Call to Action:

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    The legacy • 149 In October 2013,

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    The legacy • 167 children. It als

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    The legacy • 169 and the churches

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    The legacy • 177 Parole and commu

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    The legacy • 179 Canadian history

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    Appendix 1 The Mandate of the Truth

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    Appendix 1 • 341 (a) in fulfillin

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    Appendix 1 • 343 (e) to have avai

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    Appendix 1 • 345 (d) The Executiv

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    Appendix 1 • 347 The Commission s

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    Appendix 1 • 349 11. Access to Re

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    Appendix 2 Canada’s Residential S

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    Appendix 5 Honorary Witnesses One o

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    Appendix 6 Commission Staff and Con

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    Appendix 6 • 401 Gloria Spence Sa

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    Appendix 6 • 403 Damian Eagle Bea

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    Appendix 6 • 405 The History Grou

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    Bibliography Primary Sources 1. Tru

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    Bibliography • 409 The department

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    Bibliography • 411 Canada. Depart

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    Bibliography • 413 Canada. Statis

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    Bibliography • 415 Great Britain.

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    Bibliography • 417 United Nations

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    Bibliography • 419 Canadian Bar A

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    Bibliography • 421 Hamilton, W. D

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    Bibliography • 423 Native Women

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    Bibliography • 425 Stocken, H. W.

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    Bibliography • 427 McCormack and

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    Bibliography • 429 Kelm, Mary-Ell

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    Bibliography • 431 Stonechild, Bl

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    Bibliography • 433 Daily News (Ha

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    Bibliography • 435 University of

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    Bibliography • 437 Littlechild, C

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    Bibliography • 439 Persson, Diane

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    Endnotes • 441 News, 14 February

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    Endnotes • 443 43. Indian Residen

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    Endnotes • 445 d’Or, Québec, 5

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    Endnotes • 447 W0vIHYDA&ved=0CDkQ

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    Endnotes • 449 123. For the admis

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    Endnotes • 451 of Canada 1906, ch

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    Endnotes • 453 RG10, Acc. 1984-85

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    Endnotes • 455 74-75; Canada, Ann

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    Endnotes • 457 227. TRC, NRA, Nat

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    Endnotes • 459 garet Whitehead, 3

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    Endnotes • 461 [AEMR-013533] TRC,

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    Endnotes • 463 1935. [SBR-001147-

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    Endnotes • 465 and Archives Canad

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    Endnotes • 467 Gould to Duncan Ca

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    Endnotes • 469 dian Affairs, 25 A

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    Endnotes • 471 Skownan First Nati

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    Endnotes • 473 496. TRC, AVS, Pau

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    Endnotes • 475 [BVL-000433] TRC,

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    Endnotes • 477 Manitoba, school,

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    Endnotes • 479 and Archives Canad

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    Endnotes • 481 580. Canada, Annua

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    Endnotes • 483 ry Cook to Frank H

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    Endnotes • 485 4, Giollo Kelly to

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    Endnotes • 487 8. TRC, NRA, INAC

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    Endnotes • 489 55. Canadian Human

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    Endnotes • 491 103. United Nation

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    Endnotes • 493 155. Canada, Stati

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    Endnotes • 495 21. UN Permanent O

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    Endnotes • 497 50. TRC, AVS, Step

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    Endnotes • 499 82. See, for examp

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    Endnotes • 501 education resource

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    Endnotes • 511 Appendix 1: The ma

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    Endnotes • 513 would not provide

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    Endnotes • 519 166. Indian Reside

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    Endnotes • 525 to Unknown, 14 Oct

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    Endnotes • 527 36. TRC, NRA, Libr

PATHWAYS TO RECONCILIATION
Brian Rice and Anna Snyder - Speaking My Truth
White Goose Flying
The History Part 1 Origins to 1939
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ns_-_residential_schools_resource_-_second_edition