n ‘Migration to Britain’ thematic study

n ‘The Impact of Empire’ depth study

n ‘Urban Environments’ study of the historic environment


n ‘Migration to Britain’ thematic study

n ‘The Impact of Empire’ depth study

n ‘Urban Environments’ study of the historic environment





Uncorrected proof


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Prologue: The historian’s mind-set 4

Part 1: British thematic study:

Migration to Britain c1000–c2010 7

Introduction to the thematic study 8

Chapter 1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–

c1500 14

1.1 The Norman Conquest 16

1.2 Jews in the Middle Ages: a hatred created 20

1.3 England’s immigrants in the Middle Ages 25

1.4 Review: Comparing migrations 34

Chapter 2 Migration c1500–c1730 35

2.1 European immigration to Britain in the early

modern period 36

2.2 Africans in Tudor England 1500–1603 44

2.3 Early years of enslavement and empire 1560–

c1730 48

2.4 Review: England and the wider world 53

Chapter 3 Migration in Great Britain c1730–1900 54

3.1 Black Britain and the road to emancipation

c1730–1833 55

3.2 Asian arrivals 62

3.3 Migrant communities in the nineteenth century

industrial age 69

3.4 Review: Why did migrants come to England

during the Industrial Revolution? 82

Chapter 4 Twentieth and early twenty-first century

immigration 1900–c2010 83

4.1 The First World War, race riots and immigration

control 1900–19 84

4.2 Refugees from Nazism and the Second World

War 1925–48 90

4.3 Post-war Commonwealth immigration

1948–c2010 101

4.4 Immigration as a political issue 1985–c2010 115

4.5 The impact of immigration on Britain 126

4.6 Review: Reasons for migration and

experiences of immigrants 133

Assessment focus 134

Part 2: British depth study: Impact

of empire 1688–c1730 139

Introduction to the depth study 140

Chapter 5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland

and Scotland 142

5.1 Ireland 1688–c1730 142

5.2 Scotland 1688–c1730 149

5.3 Emigration 1688–c1730: an overview 159

5.4 Review: English control 162

Chapter 6 The economic impact of empire on

Britain 164

6.1 The Atlantic trade 164

6.2 The Asian trade 177

6.3 The British economy 184

6.4 Review: Britain’s actions and Britain’s

wealth 190

Chapter 7 The social and political impact of empire

on Britain 191

7.1 The impact of the growing empire on life in

Britain 191

7.2 Conclusion: How glorious was the

revolution? 204

Assessment focus

Part 3: Study of the historic

environment: Urban environments:

patterns of migration 209

Glossary 214

Index 218

Acknowledgements 223

Prologue: The historian’s mind-set

How historians work

If you think that history means reading a lot of information from a textbook and then

memorising it, you are wrong. If you try to learn history in this way, you will probably

end up feeling a bit like this:

Even historians get overwhelmed by the amount of historical information to be found

in books, archives and other sources. They use a range of techniques to help them make

sense of it all.


No historian can study every aspect of a period of history. To make the subject

manageable, historians focus on particular areas. This book does the same – each of the

studies focuses on selected parts of the story. In doing so we miss out other historical

information, such as people’s health and daily lives.

Ask questions

Historians are investigators rather than just collectors of

information. They search for new information about the

past in order to tackle important questions.

Historians have different interests. They do not all

investigate the same questions. So when investigating

people who came to settle in England from other places in

the Middle Ages, Historian A may be most interested in what

their daily lives and occupations were like, but Historian B may

concentrate on why they came and how they were received by the

authorities. They use the same or similar materials but they ask

different questions and tell different stories.

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You will follow the same sort of process when preparing for your history exam.

You need to learn the content of the specification, but you also need to practise

using this content to answer important questions. The text in this book, as well as

the Key Questions and Focus Tasks for each topic, are designed to help you think

in this way.


Another vital technique that historians use is selection.

From all the material they study, historians must select just

the parts that are relevant and useful to answer a question.

Selection is hard for a historian, but it may be even harder

for you under the time pressure of an exam. You have

learnt a lot of history facts and you want to show the

examiner how much you know – but this is the wrong way

of thinking. To begin with, you risk running out of time.

Even more serious, you may end up not answering the

question clearly because you have included things are not

relevant or helpful. Compare this process to a wardrobe full

of clothes. You never wake up in the morning and put on

every item of clothing you own! You choose what to wear

depending on different factors:

the weather

what you will be doing that day (going to school,

a wedding, a Saturday job, a sports match).

Selecting information carefully will make your writing more focused and

relevant. Thinking carefully about each fact as you select what is relevant and

reject what it not will also help you remember the information.


Once historians have selected the relevant information, they then have to choose

what order to present it in to create a coherent argument. You must do the same.

If you were responding to the question ‘Why were there riots in the port cities in

1919?’, you need to do more than simply listing all the reasons. You must build an

argument that shows what you think is the most important reason. Listing all the

events that happened leading up to 1919 does not necessarily explain why the riots

happened. You need to link the events to the outcomes.


But don’t stop there. Even the most skilled historians make

mistakes when they write and you might, too. When you have

finished writing, re-read your text and fine-tune it to make it

as clear and accurate as possible. When you are about to go out,

what is the last thing you do before you leave the house? Check

your hair? Check your eye make up? That is fine-tuning. It is a

history skill too and could make a real difference to how much

an examiner enjoys reading what you write.

So remember:

• focus

ask questions


• organise


Keep these points in mind as you work through your course.

Good luck!

4 5

Features of this book


In every section there is a Focus

box. This sets out the main events

and developments that will be

covered. It also highlights the

issues and questions that we will help you to think about

and develop your views on.

The big picture

At the start of each topic in Part

1, we summarise the big picture –

in fact, since the whole thematic

study is a big picture we probably

should have called it ‘the really big picture’! This feature

sums up the big questions that historians ask about this

period and their thinking about those questions. We hope

it will help you keep an overview of the period in your

head and that it will be a useful revision tool.

Key questions

These are the questions that

take a really big view of a topic.

They will be similar to the big

questions at the end of your exam.

However, the key questions here are usually a bit broader

than the questions you are likely to get in an exam.


Activities are designed to help

you think through a particular

question or issue. The thinking

you do in these tasks is usually a

building block towards your answer to a focus task.

Focus task

Focus tasks are the main tasks for

really making sure you understand

what you are studying. They

will never ask you to just write

something out, take notes or show basic comprehension.

These tasks challenge you to show that you know relevant

historical information and can use that information to

develop an argument.

Margin questions

These useful little questions are

designed to keep you on track.

They usually focus in on a source

or a section of text to make sure

you have fully understood the important points in there.

Practice questions

These questions come at the

end of major sections. They are

designed to help you think about

the kinds of questions you may

come across in your exam. We do not know the exact

questions you will be asked, but we know the style of

question. Our exam-style questions might even be a bit

more difficult than the real ones, so prepare for these and

the exam will seem easy!


Factfiles are more or less what

they say – files full of facts! These

give you important background

information to an story, without

interrupting the story too much.


Profiles are essentially factfiles

about people, summarising the

key facts about a historical figure.

Assessment focus

This section takes you through

the types of questions in the exam

paper, how they are assessed and

possible ways to answer them.

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Part 1

British thematic study:

Migration to Britain



Take some Picts, Celts and Silures

And let them settle,

Then overrun them with Roman conquerors.

Remove the Romans after approximately 400 years

Add lots of Norman French to some

Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Vikings, then stir vigorously.

Mix some hot Chileans, cool Jamaicans, Dominicans,

Trinidadians and Bajans with some Ethiopians, Chinese,

Vietnamese and Sudanese.

Then take a blend of Somalians, Sri Lankans, Nigerians

And Pakistanis,

Combine with some Guyanese

And turn up the heat.

Sprinkle some fresh Indians, Malaysians, Bosnians,

Iraqis and Bangladeshis together with some

Afghans, Spanish, Turkish, Kurdish, Japanese

And Palestinians

Then add to the melting pot.

Leave the ingredients to simmer.

As they mix and blend allow their languages to flourish

Binding them together with English.

Allow time to be cool.

Add some unity, understanding, and respect for the future,

Serve with justice

And enjoy.

Note: All the ingredients are equally important. Treating one

ingredient better than another will leave a bitter unpleasant


Warning: An unequal spread of justice will damage the people

and cause pain. Give justice and equality to all.

‘The British’ by Benjamin Zephaniah

Introduction to the

thematic study

At any time in the last 1,000 years a similar poem

could have been written about the people of Britain.

We are all descended from IMMIGRANTS. This course

traces the story of all of us. Although you will study

the movement of people to Britain over the past

1,000 years, to fully understand the topic you first

need to go much further back in time.

Early Britain: the diverse

population of our islands before


In August 1901, people digging in a street in York

made an extraordinary discovery. They found the

1,700-year-old stone coffin of a woman. She had

been buried with some of her possessions, including

beads, earrings, jet and ivory bracelets, and a glass

mirror. Fascinated by these objects, history detectives

at the time realised that the woman was one of the

high-ranking elite in the important Roman city of

Eboracum in the late fourth century. They were only

interested in the grave goods and took very little

notice of the skeleton.

In 2010, however, ARCHAEOLOGISTS from the

University of Reading told the world of an even

more important discovery. They had used the latest

forensic technology to analyse the skull of this

woman and had discovered that she was of North

African descent. They were even able to create a

reconstruction of what she looked like (see Source 1).

Roman Britain was culturally diverse, with people

from all over the empire – high class and poor, urban

and rural. Some were soldiers who stayed for a time

and then left, while others settled permanently (see Figure 2). A thousand years

before our course starts, in 1000 CE, these islands were absorbing people, goods,

culture, knowledge and ideas from all over the world.

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Figure 2 A diagram showing some

of the people who lived in Roman

Britain. This shows the modern

names of the places they came

from, but most had different

names 2,000 years ago.

Our changing picture of

who the British were and

where they came from

Until fairly recently, a commonly

held view of Britain’s early history

went as follows. The people living

here before the Romans arrived in

43 CE were Celts, who had

originally migrated from Central

Europe. The Roman invasion was a

surprise. The Romans defeated the

Celts and pushed them back towards

Wales, Scotland and Cornwall. The

Romans all left in 410 CE. They

were replaced by Anglo-Saxon

invaders. The Anglo-Saxons were

the first ‘English’ and most English

people are descended from them.

There was very little, if any, contact

with places outside Europe before the

eleventh century.

We now know that much of this

is incorrect. These are exciting

times for historians because our

understanding of the distant past is

being transformed. Archaeologists


together on projects at the

universities of Leicester and Oxford

are making important discoveries

on a regular basis. There is still a lot

we do not know about the peopling

of these islands in the distant past.

However, at the time of writing, this

is what we understand.

1 Why did the ‘Romans’ in

Britain come from so many

different places?




Austria &



North Africa,

Germany & the





North Africa


A cavalry officer buried in Colchester.

A merchant called Demetrius in London.

Soldiers who built Hardknott Fort.

Men, women and children buried in Penrith.

Barates, who made a memorial in South Shields to his British wife.

Soldiers on Hadrian’s Wall.

A wealthy woman in London.

A cavalry officer buried in Colchester.

Victor, a freed slave.

A Berber governor of Britain.

Septimus Severus, Roman emperor, who died in York.

Source 1 A reconstruction

from the skull of the female

skeleton discovered in York.

8 9

In The Origins of the British (2006), historian Stephen

Oppenheimer examined evidence from DNA and the

study of language. This showed that most English

people are descended from the very first settlers who

arrived here before farming began. He concluded: ‘After

all, Celts, Angles, Jutes, Saxons, Vikings, Normans

and others, we are all minorities compared with the

first unnamed pioneers, who ventured into the empty,

chilly lands so recently vacated by the great ice sheets.’

What this means is that the ‘English’ (i.e. Anglo-

Saxon) element in our make-up is only a minor part of

the DNA, sharing space with all the other migrations

– including Jewish, Flemish, Irish, Italian, African,

Huguenot, German, Indian, Caribbean, Chinese,

and Polish – that have mixed with the DNA of those

‘unnamed pioneers’ who may have come from what is

now Spain.

Their stories – our stories – make up this course.

Through migration stories we can understand how the

great events that shaped Britain’s relationship with the

world over 1,000 years affected the lives of ordinary

people in extraordinary ways.

The story of migration before 1000 was about continuity

– people, goods and ideas coming here in much the

same way for hundreds of years. It was also about

change – new ways of life (language, food, clothing,

customs and beliefs) brought by invaders and settlers and

combined with existing ways of life.

Migration to and from Britain is nothing new. While

numbers of immigrants have never been huge, their

significance has often been massive. The English and the

Vikings may have been in a minority but they ruled,

transformed the language and gave us most of our place

names. So although migration has been constant, it has

always been what one historian has called ‘a laboratory of


Source 3 Bristol in the

late Middle Ages.

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The OCR course: explaining the modern world

In this course you will look at the story of immigrants to Britain, focusing on

these key themes:

why people migrated

what their lives in Britain were like and their actions

how they were treated

the impact of immigration on Britain

how immigration affected ideas of ‘identity’

• how Britain’s relationship with the wider world affected migration.

To answer the assessment questions you will need to:

know about the key themes in every period (Question 1 in the assessment: 4

marks), including:

• where people came from and why

• how they were received and their actions

• the impact they had on life in Britain

• what their story tells us about Britain’s relationship with the world

explain how and why events and changes happened (Question 2: 8 marks)

• judge the significance of different migration stories and their impact

(Question 3: 14 marks)

analyse the extent of change or continuity over long periods of time

(Question 4: 24 marks)

Most of the assessment marks are for your judgement and analysis of significance,

change and continuity. These are assessed in Questions 3 and 4, and you will be

expected to show well-planned extended writing.

Bristol in the 1450s: a journey back in time

To help you become familiar with the key themes, we travel back in time to the

Middle Ages to Bristol in the west of England.

Often, the first view of Bristol is of the ships in the harbour, loading up English

cloth to sell in Europe and unloading Spanish wines. Walking through the narrow,

crowded streets a visitor could hear people speaking English, Welsh, Irish, Dutch,

French and even Icelandic.

With as many as 10,000 people, Bristol is England’s third-biggest town and is close

to Wales. The Welsh mix with the English at all levels of society. Henry Vaghan,

from one of Bristol’s richest families, might explain that the hostility the Welsh

suffer in other parts of England is not found here. In fact, the Welsh are at the

heart of the life of the city.

It is not the same for the Irish. They are no longer allowed to join trade GUILDS or

hold public office. They have to pay 50 times as much as the English to be allowed

to trade freely. Many came here to escape war in Ireland but although officially

they are subjects of King Henry, they still have to pay the new tax on foreigners.

Robert Londe is an Irish priest who has taught for many years in Newgate School.

He might tell you that 20 years ago, when all the Irish were told to leave, he had

to buy a special licence. Even the Devenyssh family – one of whom was mayor of

Bristol – are taxed as aliens. But the Irish were well organised and fought back:

they collected money to lobby parliament in London and managed to stop this

DISCRIMINATION against them. In the school translation book he made for his

students in 1420, Londe has written: ‘To Bristol, which is a port town, come more

strangers than Coventry, which is not a port town, but both are equally good.’

Like every corner of England, Bristol has people from overseas in all walks of life.

The Dutch and Flemish left the poverty and wars of their countries to look for a

better life. Here in Bristol they may well have brewed the beer you drink, worked

10 11


This imaginary description of immigrants in Bristol in the Middle Ages is based

on history – all the people really existed and are mentioned in tax records from

the time. Your task is to identify in this story examples of:

– reasons for migration

– experiences of migration

– Impact of migration.

1 Make a copy of the table below and fill it out as you read this story.

Henry Vaghan (Welsh)

Robert Londe (Irish)

Dutch and Flemish craftspeople

William de la Motte (French)

William Lombard (French)

Icelandic boys

Reasons for



and actions

Impact on life

in Bristol

the leather for your shoes, made

the laces to tie up your clothing,

created the gold jewellery worn by

the wealthy or be herding cattle

from the surrounding fields. There

are Scottish labourers and even

French bakers, in spite of England’s

difficulties with those foreign

countries. One, William de la Motte

from Brittany, is being held in the

city gaol.

As Bristol’s trade is mostly controlled

by English MERCHANTS, there are

very few foreign merchants. In spite

of the brisk trade, Spaniards prefer

to stay in their own country, where

wages are higher. However, there

are a few French merchants. Others

are arriving from Gascony after the

wars with France. William Lombard

had to escape from Bordeaux but in

order to stay here had to get a letter

of DENIZATION that allowed him to

become a subject of the king. This is

now his home.

2 Using the information you have collected, write a short summary paragraph There are sadder stories too. You

in answer to each of these questions:

may notice fair-haired boys who

a Who came to Bristol and why?

speak very little English working

b What were their experiences?

as servants for some of the town’s

c What was their impact on life in Bristol?

weavers. They are from Iceland and

were forcibly kidnapped or even

bought from poverty-stricken families. Nearly all are given the surname ‘Iselonde’

and sold on, not only in Bristol but as far away as Coventry and Northampton.

More and more are arriving. Bristol was also transporting Welsh and English slaves

to North Africa 300 years ago, and the tradition continues.

Immigrants here may be a small number but they settle, become part of the city

Source 4 A French bakery. and provide services. Resentment seems to be growing, though. Many in the

Weavers’ Guild are beginning

to complain that there are

fewer jobs for local people

and some are forced to beg

on the streets. When times are

hard immigrants are seen as

a threat in spite of their small

numbers, and then they face

dangers. A dark reminder of

this is Brandon Hill to the west,

where you can find tombstones

and the remains of a ritual

bath – echoes of the Jewish

community who once

thrived here.

Uncorrected proof

Notes and definitions

England, Great Britain and the United


As you read through this book you will see that we

sometimes call the country England, sometimes Great

Britain, sometimes the UK and sometimes Britain. This

is because its name and composition have changed many

times over the last 1,000 years. We use the names in the

following way:


Great Britain

United Kingdom



The period from c1000 to 1707, when England

was a separate kingdom (although after 1603

it was ruled together with Scotland by one


The period from 1707 to 1800, after the Act

of Union that officially brought England and

Scotland together as one kingdom.

The period from 1800 onwards, after a second

Act of Union that included Ireland (and later

only Northern Ireland)

When we are referring to the whole period, or

any longer period including more than one of

the above.

If we mean the whole geographical island that

includes Scotland, Wales and England.

Definitions of migration

This book covers 1,000 years of history and you may

come across words and ideas that are new to you. These

key terms (in capitals) are defined in the glossary on pages

214–217. However, here are some definitions concerning

the topic of migration that is the primary focus of the

thematic study:

• migration: when people move from one area or

country to another.

immigration: migration into a place.

emigration: migration away from a place.

• economic migration: when people migrate to find

work or a better standard of living.

• forced migration: when people are forced to migrate

against their will.

• step migration: when people migrate to one place

and then move on to another.

chain migration: when people migrating from one

region are joined by others from the same region who

follow them.

‘Race’ and racism

At several points in this book you will come across

references to RACISM, a term that people use today in many

different ways. The authors of this book understand racism

to be what the Institute of Race Relations call ‘the belief

or IDEOLOGY that “races” have distinctive characteristics

which gives some superiority over others.’

Biologically there are no different ‘races’ – just human

beings with common ancestors and a wide variety of

cultures, beliefs, languages and physical characteristics

such as skin colour or hair type. However, at different

times in our history powerful people have spread racist

ideas that became widely believed. Racism happens

when ideas take hold that some groups have an inferior

culture or intellectual ability. These groups are then

discriminated against. This has happened, for example,

in the case of ANTI-SEMITISM, anti-Irish racism and

ISLAMOPHOBIA. The enslavement of Africans and

the COLONISATION of Asia, Africa and the Americas

were justified by racism based on skin colour. By the

nineteenth century the idea that there was a HIERARCHY

of races based on colour – with darker skin at the bottom

and lighter skin at the top – was promoted as a science.

This ‘PSEUDO-SCIENTIFIC RACISM’ has no basis in fact:

racism has been used throughout history to justify the

actions of the powerful against the less powerful.

Some problems and exciting opportunities

It is very difficult to find out how migrants to Britain really

lived. This is a history mainly of ordinary people living

everyday lives. Most were part of the working poor, just

getting on with their daily lives, and until the twentieth

century most could not read or write. We only know the

stories of those who appear in a parish record, a court report

or a newspaper – in other words, the minority for whom

something unusual happened. The lives of the majority are

hard to trace. In addition, for much of our history people’s

ethnic origins were not recorded. When we see a name in

a parish register or a court report, we often have no idea

whether they were African or Flemish or Irish.

What you will read in this book is based on the little we

know. There is so much that we still do not know. An

exciting fact about this history is that new discoveries

are being made all the time and there is much more to

find out. As historians and archaeologists uncover new

evidence, our understanding changes of how people lived

in the past and where they came from. By the time you

read this, some of what is in the book may already be out

of date! By researching records in your local archive or

exploring your own family histories, you can add to our

growing understanding of the stories of the people who

came and settled in Britain.


Make sure you know these key terms and can use them

confidently in your writing.

l immigrants

l merchants

l archaeologists


l guilds

l ideology

l discrimination

l anti-Semitism

l denization

l Islamophobia

l racism

l colonisation

12 13

Introduction to the period

1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–c1500


Key dates



Norman Conquest.


First written record of

Jews in England.


Massacres of Jews in

London and York.


Italian bankers allowed

to charge interest.


Henry III ordered

expulsion of all nonweavers.


Expulsion of the Jews.


‘Alien subsidies’ –

taxation of foreigners.

Introduction to the period

During the Middle Ages, most people in England lived in villages. Under the

FEUDAL SYSTEM, they farmed land owned by the Crown, or by noblemen and

knights who provided the king with armies in return for that land. The king was

the ruler and laws were made by him. However, kings were not always secure and

some were overthrown by rebellious barons (rich, powerful noblemen, often with

their own private armies). Civil wars were common. Ordinary people had no say

in government, but at times they rose up against their rulers to demand better

conditions. The Church had a great deal of political power. England belonged to

‘CHRISTENDOM’ – the Catholic Christian world – and was in close contact with the

rest of Europe.

England was famous for the quality of its wool, which provided over half of the

country’s wealth by 1297. The guilds – associations of merchants and craftsmen

controlling the trade of their products – had great influence. They opposed

anything they saw as a threat to their own business.

During the Middle Ages, English armies conquered Wales and began to colonise

Ireland. England also controlled a large part of France, but during the Hundred

Years’ War most of this was lost. Although few people travelled widely, there was

regular movement of goods, culture and ideas into and out of the country. This

was also a period of wars in the Middle East, which were known in the West as the

CRUSADES and in the Arab world as the Frankish invasions. These conflicts caused

great tension between the Islamic world and Christendom. However, they also

resulted in a flow of culture and ideas from east to west.

England before the Normans: many cultures

Around the year 1000, England was in turmoil. For 200 years Viking Danes and

West Saxons had fought for control of this land that was inhabited mainly by the

descendants of those ‘first people’. For a long period England had been divided,

with the north and east ruled by the Danes. In 1000 the Danes were regularly

raiding the south coast and the West Saxon king, Aethelred, was forced to pay

tribute to the Danish king, Sweyn. In 1002, Aethelred ordered the massacre of all

Danes in his kingdom and many, possibly including Sweyn’s sister, were killed.

Sweyn invaded England and Aethelred was forced to flee to Normandy. Although

he eventually regained his kingdom, by 1016 all of England was ruled by the

Danish king Cnut. It was not until 1042 that a Saxon king, Edward the Confessor,

ruled again. When the Normans invaded in 1066, England had been under Saxon

rule for only 24 years. Its people, however, were a mix of many cultures.

Until recently, what we understood about the people who lived in England before

the Norman Conquest was based largely on histories written by monks living at

the time or soon afterwards. They concentrated on battles and kings. However,

recent archaeological, forensic and genetic research has led to a more accurate

understanding of these people and their migration stories:

• Objects buried with women include jewellery from Norway and clothes

from Germany. Clothing fashions varied widely, and through these we

understand how domestic lives were being changed by migration.

Chemicals in skeletons tell us about diet and drinking water, which can

reveal where people lived. Many of those buried in England previously lived in

Scandinavia, southern Europe and North Africa. Londoners were eating food

from many parts of the world. Skeletons of Africans have been discovered by

Uncorrected proof

Source 1 The Sutton Hoo helmet.

Source 2 Offa’s coin,

eighth century.

1 Look at the map. How might

these objects and styles have

come to Britain?

2 What does the coin in Source

2 tell us about England’s links

with the wider world?

Source 3 A medieval illustration

from Adelard’s translation of a

book by Euclid. It shows a woman

teaching geometry to student

monks. She has a set-square and

dividers to measure lengths on a


archaeologists, including a man in Stratford-upon-Avon from the s

eventh century and a young woman in Fairford from the tenth or early

eleventh century.

• DNA analysis of people living today shows that most British people are

descended from the first people who migrated here. This is mixed with DNA

from Romans, Vikings and all the other migrants covered in this book. Only

between 5 per cent and 30 per cent of DNA is ‘English’ (mainly from the

Angles and Jutes). One family in Yorkshire has West African DNA, which

may be from this period.

There is strong evidence that the people of the British Isles had been in touch

with the wider world for centuries by this point. One example of such evidence

lies close to the River Deben at Sutton Hoo in Suffolk. Here there is a cluster

of mounds made by people in the seventh century, when the area was settled by

Saxon migrants from Germany. In 1939, archaeologists found a fine wooden ship

inside the biggest mound. It had been used to bury a dead ruler – possibly the

Saxon king Raedwald. Inside the ship were gold and silver objects for the king to

carry to the afterlife. Most important of these was a magnificent warrior helmet

(see Source 1). Seen by many as one of our earliest English treasures, the helmet

(now in the British Museum) is also a mirror to the rest of the world. Its design

and the objects with it show links across Europe and into Asia (see Factfile).


A map showing where various hoards have been found.

The Sutton Hoo helmet and hoard

found in Suffolk.

Celtic hanging

bowl from West


Gold coins from


Mounted warrior

on one plaque

based on Roman


Siver spoons with Greek

Christian inscriptions.

Helmet design and ship burial

tradition from Sweden.

Silver bowls from


Garnets making the

eyes of flying beasts

from Sri Lanka or


The eighth-century gold coin in Source 2, now in the British Museum, was

minted for Offa, the king of Mercia in England. It is a copy of a Muslim coin,

with a very inaccurate imitation of Arabic script! Other Arab coins have been

found. In the Wirral in north-west England, people were using coins from

Byzantium in the sixth century.

Cultural links came not only with objects but also through ideas. An example

of this was Adelard, a monk from Bath who was born soon after the Norman

Conquest in 1080. He was a highly educated scholar and translator, who travelled

all over Europe and western Asia. He devoted himself to the ‘studies of the

Arabs’ at a time when Islamic Baghdad (Iraq) and Cordoba (Spain) – then called

Al-Andalus and under Islamic rule – were the most advanced places for the arts,

sciences and technology. Adelard translated many Arabic texts as well as the work

of the Ancient Greek mathematician Euclid. He was one of the first to introduce

Arabic mathematics into England. Inspired by Arabic thought, he supported the

idea of using human reason to solve scientific questions.



1.1 The Norman Conquest

1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–c1500

1.1 The Norman Conquest


In this topic, you will look at the invasion of England by the Normans, who took

control of the country in 1066. In particular, you will investigate:

how the Normans changed England

• what kind of migration this was – whether it was similar or different to other

migrations you will study in this course.


A How did the Norman Conquest affect England?

The table below lists some of the areas in which the Normans had an impact

on England and its people. As you work through this topic, look for examples of

each effect and record them in a copy of the table. The first has been started for


land ownership

daily life

law and order


personal freedom




What did the Normans do?

They seized most of the land from Anglo-Danish lords. They also

collected information about ...

B How different was the Norman Conquest from the other

migrations in this story?

Your task will be to compare the Norman arrival with the migration you read

about in the Introduction, and then to decide how similar or different they were.

Look again at the description of medieval Bristol on page 10. Copy the table

below and complete column 2. As you work through this topic, complete

column 3.

reasons for coming

experiences and actions


Immigrants in fifteenth

century Bristol

Normans in the eleventh


Uncorrected proof

The big picture

Who came

and why?

What were their

experiences and


1 Some historians describe the

Battle of Hastings as a fight

for power between migrants.

Do you think this is accurate?

Why, or why not?

Source 1 A scene from the Bayeux

Tapestry, showing William’s fleet

setting sail for England.

Norman invaders came to

take control of England.

They took total military,

political and economic

control of the country.

They experienced

continual resistance to

their rule and dealt with it


How did England’s

relationship with the

wider world affect

their decision to


What was

their impact?

The Norman invasion of 1066

Norman, Danish

and Saxon

rulers all

claimed the

right to rule


They caused considerable

change in the language,

culture, economics and

politics of England.

The year 1066 is perhaps the most famous in the history of the British Isles.

The Battle of Hastings marked the start of the Norman invasion and conquest

of England. William, Duke of Normandy, landed with an army, as well as

followers from Brittany, Flanders and other parts of his kingdom. Many of these

people ended up settling in England.

The Normans were descended from earlier migrants from Scandinavia, who had

conquered parts of northern France in the early tenth century. In the 70 years before

the Battle of Hastings, Danes and others from Scandinavia, sometimes joined by

Polish allies, had often invaded England. Edward the Confessor, who became king

in 1043, had lived in Normandy for 25 years and his mother was a Norman. He

also appointed a Norman as Archbishop of Canterbury. During Edward’s reign a

struggle developed between his Norman friends and the Anglo-Danish nobles such

as the powerful Godwin family. When Edward died without an heir in early 1066,

both Harold Godwinson and William of Normandy claimed the English throne.

William defeated Harold at Hastings and conquered the whole of England in the

next few years. He promised land and wealth to the nobles who joined his invasion

force, and he honoured that promise. He gave them land that once belonged to the

Anglo-Danish lords, making them the major landholders in England.

The population of England at the time has been estimated at no more than

2 million. At about 100,000 (5 per cent of the population) the number of Norman

migrants was small, but enough to have an impact on the country’s language,

culture and political institutions. Political and economic control of England passed

almost totally to the Normans and their allies from France.



1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–c1500 1.1 The Norman Conquest

Source 2 A Derbyshire version of

the Domesday Book, dating from

1241, has this figure on one of its


Source 3 A woman and child watch

as William’s men burn down their

house, in a scene from the Bayeux

Tapestry (created by William’s

supporters). The words in Latin say

‘This house is on fire.’

How the Normans changed England

The information below summarises some of the changes the Normans brought

to England:

Repression and resistance: the rebellion of 1069

Resistance to Norman colonial rule continued in England, Scotland and Wales

for many years. Some of the Anglo-Danish nobles joined an unsuccessful invasion

of England led by King Sweyn of Denmark in 1069.

Others took refuge in Scotland. King William was

forced to suppress resistance up and down the country,

and he laid waste to much of northern England in

order to end the constant REBELLIONS. Nevertheless,

resistance continued from the ‘SILVATICI’ or ‘green

men’ – the anti-colonial resistance fighters of the

forests. The most famous is probably the English

landholder Hereward, who based his GUERRILLA

operations in the FENS of the Isle of Ely. It became

so dangerous for the Normans that they reintroduced

murdrum, which was a special law dating from the time

of the Danes (the English word ‘murder’ is derived

from it). If a Norman was assassinated, a collective

fine was imposed on all those living in the area unless

the murderer was caught within five days.

Uncorrected proof

Source 4 Orderic Vitalis, an

English monk and historian

writing sometime between 1123

and 1131.

My narrative has frequently had

occasion to praise William, but

for this act which condemned the

innocent and guilty alike to slow

starvation I cannot commend

him. For when I think of helpless

children, young men in the prime

of life, and hoary grey-beards alike

perishing of hunger, I am so moved

to pity that I would rather lament

the griefs and sufferings of the

wretched people than make a vain

attempt to flatter the perpetrator

of such infamy.


1 Describe two ways in which

the Norman invaders exerted

control over England after

1066. (4)

2 Explain why the Normans

invaded England. (8)

3 Explain how William the

Conqueror dealt with

rebellions against his rule.


4 ‘The Norman Conquest did

not really change very much.’

How far do you agree? (24)

1 Study Source 2. Below are three interpretations of this image by historians.

Which do you think is most likely and why?

a The fact that a Black man is in a book listing people and land shows that

Black people were present doing useful work.

b The Black man is wearing a short tunic (a sign of low status) and striped

clothing (a sign of a troublemaker). It is a negative portrayal, suggesting

someone disruptive.

c The artist has just chosen an eye-catching image alongside all the others in

the book of mythical animals and long-dead people from history. Perhaps

the artist had seen Black people, perhaps not. It is not necessarily positive

or negative.

2 What impression of William’s actions do Sources 3 and 4 give? How useful are

they for historians wanting to find out about his actions?

3 Five hundred years after the Norman Conquest, the English would themselves

be invading and colonising other places. How far would their treatment of

people in Africa, Asia and the Americas echo the way they were treated by the

Normans? (You may wish to revisit this question during the depth study ‘Impact

of Empire’ (see page 139).


A How did the Norman Conquest affect England?

Look at the table you completed and use it to answer this question:

Describe the ways in which the Normans had an impact on people in England.

B How different was the Norman Conquest from the other

migrations in this story?

The Norman conquerors were very different migrants from those we met in

fifteenth-century Bristol. Using the table you completed, write three sentences

comparing their reasons, experiences and actions, and impact.

Look back at the definitions of different kinds of migration on page XX. Do any of

these apply to the Norman Conquest? If so, to what extent and why?

‘The Norman Conquest was very different from other medieval migrations.’ Do

you agree? Explain your answer.


The Norman Conquest

1 Before the Norman Conquest, the people of England had many different

cultures and languages. There was a continuous pattern of migration. The

ruling Anglo-Saxons and Danes had themselves been immigrants. People in

England were in contact with goods and ideas from other parts of the world.

2 William the Conqueror and his Norman army invaded England so that he could

be king.

3 William dealt violently with rebellions, especially those in the north and east of


4 After their successful invasion in 1066, the Normans took total control of the

land and government of England. They were foreign colonisers, speaking a

different language. Over time, however, the languages and cultures mixed and

Norman rulers came to think of themselves as English.

5 Although the Normans changed England in many ways, the lives of most

ordinary people living on the land did not change a great deal.



1.2 Jews in the Middle Ages: a hatred created

1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–c1500



Jews in the Middle Ages:

a hatred created

In this topic, you will investigate the story of Britain’s Jews in the early Middle Ages following the arrival of the

Norman invaders. It is a story in two parts:

• Settlement and impact: The Jews were invited to settle in England by the Norman kings, who needed their

skills. You will consider the impact the Jews had on England.

• Persecution and expulsion: Although they were invited to England, after two centuries they were violently

persecuted and expelled from England. You will try to understand and analyse how and why this happened.

How did Britain’s

relationship with the

wider world affect

Jewish immigration?

What was

their impact?


The big picture

European Jews

migrated to England

as a result of the

Norman Conquest,

invited by King


It was thanks to the Jews’

skills and investment that

many Norman castles

and cathedrals were

built. The way they were

treated had an impact on

the lives of Jews all over

Europe: the ‘Blood Libel’ started in

England and spread across the continent, leading

to many Jews being murdered.

A What was the impact of Jewish migrants

in early medieval England?

William the Conqueror invited Jews to settle in

England for a reason. He knew they could help

him. As you read this topic, make notes to answer

these questions:

a How were Jewish settlers useful to the


b How were Jewish settlers useful to the


c What services did Jewish settlers provide for

the wider population?

Reasons why they turned against the Jews

Who came

and why?

What were their


Jews from parts of Europe,

mainly France, were

invited by the king to

organise his finances

and lend him money.

A few become wealthy

moneylenders. Many

others were poorer

and worked in a range

of occupations. While

they were useful to the

authorities, they were

protected. However, when the

rulers stopped having any use for them, Jews

were persecuted and discriminated against.

They were finally expelled from England after a

wave of anti-Semitism stirred up by the Church

and the Crown.

B Why were England’s Jews expelled in


The story of England’s Jews in the Middle Ages

is a terrible one: they were invited, protected,

attacked, abandoned and then expelled.

As you follow what happened, think about why

people in England turned against the Jews and

what caused anti-Semitism. Who was to blame

for what happened? Copy and complete the table


Were these reasons religious, political or


Uncorrected proof


A map showing Jewish communities in early medieval England.





Invitation and settlement of the Jews 1070s–1189

In 1987, a small chamber cut into the rock above a warm spring was discovered

in Bristol. It had a Hebrew inscription. Archaeologists are not sure whether it

was a ritual bath or a place for washing bodies before burial, but it is a sign of the

thriving Jewish community that settled in Bristol and across England after the







Derby Nottingham



King’s Lynn





Huntindon Bury




Newport Bedford




St Edmund’s










Marlborough Reading




Devises Newbury





Wilton Winchester





There may have been a few Jews

in England before the Norman

Conquest, but most were invited

from Normandy by William

because they could read, write and

do accounts at a time when not even

kings were literate. He needed them

to help him control the land he had

seized. They settled in towns, living

together in small communities

called Jewries. In a country where

everyone else followed the same

faith, they were the only religious


Christians were told by the pope

that it was a sin to lend money and

gain interest. However, kings and

bishops wanted to borrow money

to build castles and cathedrals,

so Jews were pressed to become

moneylenders. To encourage them

to do this, laws were introduced

that banned them from many

other occupations. Some – such

as a man called Aaron in Lincoln

and a woman called Licoricia in

Oxford – became very rich indeed.

But there were also many poorer

Jews working a wide variety of

occupations: we know about a

fishmonger, a doctor, a goldsmith,

a crossbow maker, an artist, a

ladder maker and a cheese-maker. Through their kehila (community council) Jews

organised mikvehs (communal bathhouses), synagogues for worship, study centres,

cemeteries and kosher food preparation.

Treatment of Jews in the Middle Ages

At first Jews were allowed to trade and mix freely. King Henry I gave them a

Charter of Liberties. For as long as they needed and could use them, monarchs

protected Jews by allowing them access to castles if they were in danger – but they

had to pay higher taxes in return. This meant that they had to charge higher rates

of interest, and many Christians felt they were on the side of the hated Norman

rulers. Ill-feeling grew. All Jews, not just the wealthy moneylenders, were starting

to be seen as ‘the other’ because they were the only people living in England who

were not Christian. In 1095, instigated by the pope, Christians began to fight

what became known as the Crusades, with the aim of retaking Jerusalem from its

Muslim inhabitants. Muslims and Jews were now labelled as non-believers.




wider population


1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–c1500 1.2 Jews in the Middle Ages: a hatred created

Source 1 William of Norwich being

tortured and killed, c1500.

Source 2 William of Norwich as a

saint, 1500s.

‘Saint’ William of Norwich and the start of the ‘Blood Libel’

In Norwich on Good Friday 1144, the dead body of a boy called William was

found wearing only his jacket and shoes. A local priest and the boy’s family

accused the city’s Jews of the murder and the body was moved inside the cathedral.

Although money lent by Jews had helped build the cathedral and among the

200 Jews were many different occupations, including doctors and teachers, the

townspeople turned on them and the sheriff had to offer them safe shelter in

the castle.

Not long afterwards a book appeared, written by a local monk called Thomas of

Monmouth. The book was full of vicious hatred attacking Jews. He claimed to

have ‘insider knowledge’ from a Jewish convert to Christianity called Theobald.

He said that Jews were planning to ritually murder a Christian child every Good

Friday to commemorate the crucifixion of Jesus. This is known as the ‘BLOOD

LIBEL’. Monmouth also said that Jews had bribed the sheriff, who he referred to as

‘Protector of the Jews’. He claimed that miracles had happened around William’s

coffin and demanded that the boy be made a saint.

Why did Thomas write his vindictive book? Historians suggest he did it to boost

the reputation of his monastery. He was originally from Wales and a fairly new

arrival in Norwich so perhaps he was also promoting himself. We may never know

who really killed William.

Church and government propaganda

Instead of crushing this dangerous rumour, the Church encouraged it, through the

use of PROPAGANDA. For example, William was buried in a prominent place inside

the cathedral. Church paintings showed the boy as a saint in heaven or being

murdered by Jews. These paintings, produced over 100 years after William’s death,

can still be seen in Norfolk churches today (see Sources 1 and 2).

Meanwhile the Blood Libel rumour spread across England and then all over

Europe. In countries as far apart as France, Germany, Spain and Slovakia, Jews

were accused of child killings and were themselves murdered. This racist slur –

started deliberately by Thomas of Monmouth – is still repeated even today.

It was not just the Church that spread propaganda about the Jews; the government

did as well, as Source 3 shows.

1 What impression of Norwich’s Jews and the death of William is given by Sources

1, 2 and 3?

2 Sources 1, 2 and 3 were all produced many years after William’s death. What

does this tell us about the impact of the ‘Blood Libel’ accusation?

3 Thomas of Monmouth’s book is the only written account that survives of what

happened in Norwich. Why is this a problem? Does it mean that his book has no

value for historians?

Source 3 This cartoon showing

Norwich’s Jews is at the top of a

tax roll from 1233. It shows Isaac

with three heads and the couple

Arveghaye and her husband

Moses Mokke in Norwich Castle

with demons.

Uncorrected proof

Source 4 An artist’s impression of

the massacre of the Jews in York in



King John

seized Jewish


killing or


those who



Jews were

made to wear

a distinctive

yellow cloth.


Jews were

expelled from

many towns and

not allowed to

own anything

except their


Persecution of the Jews from 1189 to 1290:

descent to disaster

By the end of the twelfth century, hatred for Jews was being encouraged and

organised by people in government (kings and lords) and by priests and bishops

in the Church. This may often have been because they did not want to pay back

(with interest) the money they had borrowed. The idea that Jews and not Romans

had killed Jesus on Good Friday was spreading throughout Europe and began to

be reflected in church paintings of the time. This religious anti-Semitism was

taking hold.

For London’s Jews, 3 September 1189 was a terrible day. King Richard was

to be crowned and they prepared to offer gifts. Jews had lived happily under

the protection of his father Henry II, but the world was changing. Two years

earlier, Muslim armies had retaken Jerusalem from the crusaders and Richard

was preparing to lead an army of knights to the Middle East. A mood against

‘the other’ was sweeping England and Jews were seen as an enemy, especially

by knights who borrowed from them to travel and fight. Meanwhile, fears were

spreading that the world was ending, based on beliefs that the Last Judgement had

been foretold in the Bible. Religious hysteria, crusading violence and debt were

a dangerous mix. When Jewish leaders arrived at Westminster Hall – part of the

king’s palace (still standing today as part of the Houses of Parliament) – for the

coronation they were stripped, beaten, chased and killed. The next day, vicious

mobs ran through the Jewish quarter. Jews fought back bravely for hours but 30

Jews and some Christian servants were murdered.

The killing spread across England. Worst of all was what happened in York in

March 1190. Barons who did not want to pay back debts to Jews stirred people

up against them, so their families fled to the castle – the traditional place of

safety. There they were surrounded by a mob holding swords and torches, calling

on them to come out and convert to Christianity or be burnt alive. Those who

surrendered were murdered. The rest committed mass suicide, a traditional Jewish

act of defiance, cutting each others’ throats.

The situation became progressively worse for English Jews, as the timeline shows.


A new ‘Blood Libel’

when the body of a

boy called Hugh was

found at the bottom

of a well in Lincoln.

All Jews were

accused of planning

ritual murder. Henry

III arrested 90 Jews

and hanged those

who protested,

taking their property.


400 Jews

murdered on

Palm Sunday.


1,000 Jews

beaten to

death in



The pope allowed

Italian bankers

to charge

interest. Jewish

moneylenders no

longer needed.


Edward I made a

law (the Statute

of Jewry) that

Jews were not

allowed to collect

interest. Most

became so poor

that they were

forced to ‘clip’ the

edges of coins

and melt down

the metal to sell.


680 Jews


293 of them


22 23

1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–c1500

Source 5 The expulsion of Jews

from France in 1182, by a French

artist in the 1320s, 20 years after a

similar event in England.


1 List four ways in which Jews

were persecuted in the early

Middle Ages. (4)

2 Explain how Norman

England benefited from the

Jewish presence. (8)

3 What was the significance of

the ‘Blood Libel’? (14)

4 ‘Kings were mainly to blame

for anti-Semitism in medieval

England.’ How far do you

agree with this statement?


A terrible choice

Across the country, Jews were given the option of converting to Christianity,

and some did. In 1290, Edward I decided to expel the remaining 3,000 Jews,

who were so poor that they were ‘prowling about the city like dogs’. They were

forced to walk to the coast and take boats to Europe. Jews had lived and worked

in England for over 200 years, but now they were REFUGEES. Many suffered

terribly on the way to the continent. One sea captain dumped his passengers on a

sandbank and left them to drown when the tide rose. Edward I made a handsome

profit from the expulsion of the Jews. He seized their homes and gave them to his

favourites. He took their money and spent it on his father’s tomb and windows in

Westminster Abbey.

England’s rulers had imposed a yellow cloth, made racist laws, organised statesponsored

massacres and, finally, expelled the Jews. A few stayed behind, hiding

their identity, but apart from these, Jews would not return to England for more

than 350 years.


A What was the impact of Jewish migrants in early medieval


Look back at your notes and use them to answer the following question:

Explain why the Norman authorities invited Jews to come and settle in England.

B Why were England’s Jews expelled in 1290?

You have collected reasons why people of different classes turned against the

Jews in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

a Explain the religious reasons why Jews were attacked.

b Explain the political reasons why Jews were attacked.

c Explain the economic reasons why Jews were attacked.

d ‘The main reason for what happened to England’s Jews in the Middle Ages

was economic.’ How far do you agree? Explain your answer.


Jews in the Middle Ages

1 The Catholic Church did not allow Christians to lend money and charge interest,

so many Jews survived by becoming moneylenders. Sometimes it was the only

occupation allowed for them.

2 William the Conqueror invited Jewish people to come and settle in England so

that he could borrow money for projects such as castle-building.

3 The Church also borrowed from Jewish moneylenders to build churches and


4 Jews settled in many English towns. Some were moneylenders and some were

wealthy. Many were not rich and had a wide range of occupations.

5 Jews were at first given special protection by the Crown. They were also heavily

taxed, which meant that moneylenders had to charge high interest rates. This

made many people resent them.

6 In the twelfth century, at the time of the Crusades, anti-Semitic feeling grew

and was stirred up by the Church.

7 In 1144 in Norwich and again in 1255, Jews were falsely accused of the ritual

murder of Christian boys.

8 From 1189 onwards, English Jews suffered massacres, attacks by the

authorities and increasingly harsh laws. The Crown no longer protected them.

9 The king later banned Jews from moneylending. They were forced into poverty

and criminalised.

10 In 1290, all Jews who refused to become Christian were forced to leave

England. King Edward I seized all their property. A few Jews stayed secretly.

Uncorrected proof




A How widespread were England’s

immigrants in the later Middle Ages?

England’s immigrants in

the Middle Ages

In the Introduction, you read about the wide range of foreign-born people living in medieval Bristol. In this

topic, you will take a closer look at immigrants to England in the Middle Ages and look at the impact they had,

especially economically. You will see how there was disagreement at the time over whether immigration was

good or bad for the country.

How did Britain’s

relationship with the

wider world affect


Two factors driving

immigration were

war and trade.

Irish migrants

came because of

conflict caused by

English colonisation.

Immigrants from

Gascony and Brabant migrated as a result of

the upheaval caused by the Hundred Years’ War

between England and France. Flemish and Dutch

weavers were encouraged to come by kings who

wanted to change England’s trading relationship

with the rest of Europe.

What was

their impact?

Medieval immigrants

– weavers and other

craftspeople, as well as

merchants and bankers

– played a key role in

England’s transition from

an economy producing raw

materials to a manufacturing economy.

Thanks to the England’s Immigrants project at the

University of York, we know that immigrants were

widely dispersed all over England. As you read this

topic, create a list of evidence for the following:

a immigrants came from many different places

b immigrants came from different social classes

c immigrants settled in many different parts of


d immigrants had many different occupations.

B How welcome were they?

Look at the following statements. As you study the

topic, look for evidence to support each opinion.

a Immigrants settled happily in towns and

villages and were easily accepted.

The big picture

Most were artisans and

craftspeople who came

Who came in search of work –

and why? often welcomed by the

authorities – but some

were refugees from war.

Wealthy merchants and

bankers came to make money

from trade and investment.


What were their


Immigrants were dispersed

throughout the country,

even in the smallest

villages, and it appears

that they usually settled

in well. However, there

was resentment from craft

guilds, who felt that immigrants were a threat

to employment, and this occasionally exploded

into violence. Sometimes measures were

taken against immigrants, including the ‘aliens

register’ tax on all foreign-born residents.

Anti-immigrant feeling was common and

sometimes exploded into violence.

C What was their impact on England?

As you read this topic, make notes on the following

impacts of immigration on medieval England.

Include positive and negative impacts.

a the economic impact of immigration on life

in England (Hint: weaving skills, taxation, the


b the social impact of immigration (Hint: first

printers and opticians)

c The political impact of immigration (Hint:

tension between guilds and monarchs, riots)

d the impact of ideas – cultural and scientific –

from overseas (Hint: Islamic medicine)

1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–c1500



1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–c1500 1.3 England’s immigrants in the Middle Ages


A map showing English realms in the fifteenth century.





English realms in the

mid 15th century






Immigration in the Middle Ages

In the 1440s, about one in every 100 people in England was foreign-born. In

London, it was about six people in every 100. As immigrants had been arriving

for centuries, many English people were partly descended from migrants. They

settled all over the country, from the biggest towns to the smallest villages. They


• many Dutch and Flemish from Flanders and Brabant, bringing a wide range of

crafts, escaping war and poverty

English and Welsh from other parts of the country, moving for work

Scottish and Irish – some as a result of wars

Jews from France, invited to come and lend money to kings and bishops

German merchants and Italian bankers, coming to make money

• French speakers from Gascony, arriving first as traders and then refugees after

Gascony was seized by France

Icelandic children kidnapped by force and made to work as slaves

• smaller numbers of people from Portugal and Spain, looking for business


• a few from cities around the Baltic Sea or the Middle East – Jews or Muslims

with special permission from the king to remain in the country

foreign queens coming to marry kings and bringing many people with them

there is evidence of small numbers of Africans living in England but their

status and occupations are not known.

A large number of people were servants, but there were

also MARINERS as well as ARTISANS and craftspeople of

all kinds – weavers, leatherworkers, brewers, goldsmiths

and many more. Some were monks, priests, clerks and

academics. Others achieved high positions such as mayors.

A few were wealthy merchants and bankers.

Which migrants counted as English?

As you can see from the map, places in the Middle

Ages had different names and borders than they do

today. Gascony is now in south-west France. Flanders

and Brabant are now in Belgium and the Netherlands.

Lombardy is the area round Milan in Italy. England

included Wales and controlled much of Ireland. It did not

include Scotland, which was a separate country.

Someone born in a foreign country, outside the king’s

realm, was considered an ALIEN. However, this status

could be negotiated, and someone born overseas

could become ‘pure English’ by receiving a LETTER OF

DENIZATION from the king. This was always complicated:

by the early Middle Ages Wales, Ireland, the Isle of Man,

the Channel Islands, Normandy (northern France) and

Gascony (western France) were all ruled by English kings,

but their people were not always accepted as citizens.

On the other hand, there was an ancient tradition that

any foreign visitors should fall under the protection of

the king.

Uncorrected proof

1 Do you think that ‘aliens’

would been accepted or

resented by the native


2 In 1270, King Henry III wrote

a letter saying: ‘All workers

of woollen cloth, male and

female, as well of Flanders

as of other lands, may

safely come into our realm,

there to make cloth.’ What

do you think were Henry’s

motivations for writing this


3 Look at Source 1. Why do

you think the artist chose to

paint the Flemish weavers

in a series about the city’s


Source 1 The Establishment of

Flemish Weavers in Manchester,

AD 1363 by Ford Madox Brown.

This was painted in 1882, when

Manchester was at the height of its

success. It shows a visit by Queen

Philippa, the Flemish wife of King

Edward III. The painting is on a

panel in Manchester Town Hall.

Influence of Flemish migrants

One group of immigrants had a particularly significant effect on life in England.

They came from the Low Countries (a region including modern Belgium and

Netherlands) and were often referred to as Flemings or Dutch. Some came as

refugees because their land was torn apart by war. Many were skilled craftsmen

and women who wanted the better wages – and the better life – that were available

in England. They settled first in the south-east and then across the country,

becoming local artisans such as glaziers, tailors, shoemakers, saddlers, dyers and

barrel-makers. Dutch brewers – mainly women – introduced the use of hops to

brew beer rather than ale from barley. Flemings were some of the first printers,

clock-makers, opticians and brick-makers.

Most important of all were the hundreds of Flemish weavers, who were skilled at

making cloth. Until the fourteenth century, England’s economy had been based

on selling raw materials – especially wool – to merchants to be made into cloth

overseas. In the 1330s, King Edward III restricted wool exports in order to build

a cloth-making industry, and Flemings had just the skills needed to kick-start a

MANUFACTURING economy. They were welcomed by the English, and thanks to

them towns such as Lavenham in Suffolk and Castle Combe in Wiltshire became

wealthy by making and selling cloth.

Migrant craftsmen and women played a big part in England’s growing economy,

passing on skills and making money. They created more work for sheep-shearers,

fullers (who cleaned wool) and dyers. In places such as Worcester, wealthy

immigrant weavers organised production as a business: they supplied wool, paid

employees and sold cloth in much the same way as a modern company.

One group of Flemish weavers travelled north to set up their looms in the small

town of Manchester. Half a millennium later, the city’s TEXTILE trade – using

slave-grown cotton – would be a powerhouse of Britain’s wealth.

Hostility to Flemish workers

The weaver John Kempe arrived in 1331 with special permission from King

Edward III to settle and work in London under the king’s protection. Things

were not easy there due to the growing hostility towards foreign migrants who

were seen to be threatening English jobs. Nevertheless, Kempe and others

prospered and eventually set up a guild of Flemish weavers that reached agreement

with local workers.

26 27

1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–c1500 1.3 England’s immigrants in the Middle Ages

Source 2 The Hanseatic warehouse

in Kings Lynn – the only surviving

building of its kind in England.

Source 3 Georg Gisze from Danzig,

34-year-old merchant at the

Steelyard, painted by Hans Holbein

in 1532. Holbein, who painted

famous portraits of Henry VIII

and his advisers, was himself an


1 Why were London merchants

unhappy about the Lombardy


2 In what ways would foreign

merchants and bankers

have helped this country’s


However, as the Jews had discovered earlier, royal protection was not always a

good thing. During the Great Rebellion in 1381, when the people rose up against

the rulers who had favoured foreigners, migrant communities were targeted.

Around 140 foreigners were murdered: a story goes that they were asked to

say ‘bread and cheese’ and if they had a foreign accent they were beheaded and

their heads were piled in the streets. This took place 12 years after Kempe’s

last appearance in the records. We do not know if he was still alive when the

streets of London flowed with Flemish blood.

Influence of merchants on England’s economy

In the centre of London, on the River Thames, was a settlement called the

Steelyard. This was a base for merchants belonging to the Hanseatic League,

which traded between northern European cities around the Baltic and North

seas. The Steelyard was large enough to contain a warehouse, weighbridge,

church, offices and housing for the merchants that lived there. The Hanseatic

League in England emerged during the reign of Edward I, who granted the

League a Merchant’s Charter in 1303, giving it certain tax and CUSTOMS

privileges. Its members were given special protection and controlled most of

the wool trade. They were here to make money and were perhaps the first

people to make the City of London a world financial centre. The League

traded materials such as timber, furs and flax, and food such as honey, wheat

and rye. Wool and cloth from England were often exported. The Hanseatic

League had a significant effect on England’s economy, helping it become a rich

manufacturing and trading nation.

Relations between merchants and the local population

Although there is little evidence about contact between the Hansa merchants and

the local population, we do have some information. We know, for example, that

in Lynn, merchants from what is now Germany were allowed to have their own

houses rather than being forced to lodge with the locals to make

it easier to spy on them. This suggests that relations there at least

were good. This was not always the case, however. In 1381, during

the Great Rebellion, and again in 1492, the London Steelyard was

destroyed in anti-foreigner rioters. Poorer craft workers and English

merchants felt that the League had a negative effect on jobs and

profits, and they pressed the government to control them. The craft

guilds, in particular, hated the fact that control of the wool and cloth

trade was given over to foreign merchants. They felt these foreigners

were being given special treatment, taking local artisans’ jobs,

pushing up prices and causing a housing crisis. Eventually control

of trade passed to English merchants and in 1598 Queen Elizabeth I

closed down the Steelyard.

The influence of Lombard bankers on England’s


In the 1220s, rich banking families from Florence, Genoa and

Venice – all part of northern Italy, then known as Lombardy –

started arriving in England. They saw a chance to make a profit from

the growing trade in English wool. The pope had ruled that Italian

banks could charge interest on loans, so they also offered to lend large sums of

money to the king, Henry III, who was turning against Jewish moneylenders in

a climate of anti-Semitism. Families such as the Bardis from Florence were given

letters of protection and proceeded to set up business in England. The City of

London was a place for the rich to get richer. For over a hundred years bankers

and the Crown benefited – until Edward III’s debt crisis caused some of these

businesses to go bankrupt.

Uncorrected proof

Source 4 Bristol’s tax rolls.

3 Why are the aliens registers

a valuable source of

information for historians?

Source 5 A modern map from the

England’s Immigrants website,

showing numbers of foreign

migrants in Kent between 1440

and 1550 and where they lived,

according to the aliens register. As

the tax records were not complete,

the actual numbers will have been


4 What does the map in Source

5 suggest about the way

immigrants were received in


Relations between bankers and the local population

London merchants did not welcome foreign merchants and bankers, and regularly

demanded controls and restrictions on them – sometimes with success. Foreigners

were also often disliked by the general public, who felt that they would simply

make their money then leave. In fact, the money the foreign merchants invested

helped boost England’s economy in many ways, encouraging trade and building

works as well as financing foreign wars. The City of London’s status as a world

financial centre began at this time, and many of the words we use about money,

including ‘bank’, ‘credit’ and ‘debit’, come from Italian. The £ symbol is from the

initial letter ‘l’ of the Italian word for pound.

Sources of information about England’s medieval


In the late Middle Ages, about one in every 100 people in England was foreign

born; in London it was six in every 100. We know their stories because

governments imposed taxes called ALIENS REGISTERS on those who were born

outside the king’s realm. These were set up partly to collect money for war and

partly to respond to complaints about foreigners. Thanks to these tax records

we know the names of most immigrants, their occupations and where they

came from.


What do the tax records reveal?

The tax records do not give us a full

picture. To begin with they seldom

mention women. They are also much more

detailed in some places than others. They

only list people born outside England, so

second- or third-generation immigrants

are not shown. As they do not record

religion or ethnicity, there is a lot that we

do not know about the people listed – for

example whether any of them came from

beyond Europe. The tax records also

cannot tell us what immigrants thought,

felt or experienced. However, we do get

a window into the lives of immigrants

that we do not gain from the information

written by the rich and powerful.

Look up the England’s Immigrants project at www.englandsimmigrants.com.

Search the database and find out who was living in your city, town or village in 1300,

1450 and 1600. Find where they migrated from and what their occupations were.

What similarities and differences can you find?

Create one of the following:

– a presentation about medieval migration to your area, supported by maps, charts

and graphs you have created using the database

– a ‘time traveller’ story similar to the one about Bristol in the Introduction

– a poster describing medieval migration to your local area, to be displayed publicly

in your school

– a migration tourist trail, if there are still traces in your area of medieval

migrations (historic buildings, street names, monuments etc.).

28 29

1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–c1500 1.3 England’s immigrants in the Middle Ages

Source 6 A letter of denization

from 1541. For a fee, the person

receiving the letter would get the

same protection as any English


1 Study Source 6. Would it have

been equally easy for anyone

to get a letter of denization?

Reception of immigrants in


How were migrants treated? There is no

easy answer to this question. Migrants’

experiences differed greatly depending on

when they lived, where they lived and what

their occupations were.

Much depended on the strength of the ruler.

Strong kings saw that immigrants were needed

and welcomed them. However, under weak

kings immigrants were vulnerable:

How far immigrants really ‘belonged’ is open

to question. Terms like ‘foreigner’, ‘stranger’

and ‘alien’ had different meanings in the Middle Ages than they do today. All

those ruled by the English king were part of the nation and after the 1440s all

foreign-born people had to pay the aliens register tax. However, the system of

taxation was still complicated, as the diagram shows.

The case of migrants from Gascony shows how insecure someone’s status could

be. Although Gascony was ruled by the English Crown, at first Gascons living

in England were taxed as foreigners. They successfully argued that they were the

English king’s subjects and should not be taxed. However, after Gascony was taken

by the French in 1453, Gascons were seen as ‘foreign’ and no longer secure unless

they took denization.

Not taxed

Taxed at first

but later let off

English and Welsh. Foreigners who had a letter of

denization from the king, giving them the same rights

that English people had, after paying and swearing


Irish and Gascons.

French invasion.

In 1325, Edward II had all foreigners near

the south coast arrested when he feared a

Due to pressure on Richard II from trade

guilds, foreign merchants were forced to

live in the households of English people,

who were then told to spy on them.

In 1456, during the unstable reign of

Henry VI, Italian merchants in London

felt so threatened that they all moved to

Winchester for safety.

Uncorrected proof

Source 7 An image showing women

weaving silk.


A map showing the Muslim world in 1200.


Kings often used immigration in their own

interests – and they could be unpredictable.

In 1270, a month after welcoming Flemish

weavers warmly, Henry III ordered all

immigrants who were not weavers and had

not married locally or bought property, to

leave the country.

One story shows how difficult it is to define

who were aliens and who were citizens in

medieval England. In 1455, the rich men

controlling the City of London pressed

the government to impose restrictions on

foreign merchants. They felt the foreigners

were destroying the livelihood of local silkweaving

women. These women, however,

were themselves migrants from Italy and

the Middle East. As you have seen, how far

migrants were accepted depended in part

on who was in power and how strong the

economy was at the time.

Immigrants became the neighbours, friends, husbands, wives and parents of settled

people all across England. Hundreds of their words entered the language. Ideas

and culture flowed into England via French monks, Spanish doctors and German

artists. Immigrant craftsmen, merchants and bankers helped build England’s

growing economy based on wool and cloth. By the 1500s, England had changed

from an underdeveloped supplier of raw materials to a an important trading nation

in Europe. Immigration had played a key role in this transformation.


islamic empire


All other foreign-born men, including the Scots.

30 31

1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–c1500 1.3 England’s immigrants in the Middle Ages

Source 8 Pointed arches, such as

these in Lincoln Cathedral, were

copied from Islamic architecture.

The idea was probably brought

back by Crusaders.

Source 9 The skeleton of a

thirteenth-century man, discovered

in Ipswich in the early 1900s.

Cultural migration

Just as important as the movement of people to the

British Isles during the Middle Ages was the movement

of science, food, culture and ideas. Some of these came

from India and the Islamic world, which stretched from

Spain to Africa and China at that time.

Islamic influences

The most advanced ideas in science, medicine and

mathematics, as well as in philosophy and astronomy,

came to Britain and the rest of Europe from the Islamic

world. Muslim scholars had translated the work of

Greek scientists and philosophers such as Aristotle.

They had then made their own contributions to this

ancient knowledge. During the Middle Ages, especially from the late eleventh

century, this work was translated from Arabic into Latin. Many English words are

derived from Arabic, including ‘algebra’, ‘alchemy’, ‘zero’, ‘alcohol’, ‘sofa’, ‘arsenal’

and ‘cotton’. During this period, Arabic numerals – discovered by Europeans

in North Africa and derived from those used in India – gradually replaced the

cumbersome Roman numerals.

The movement of ideas from the Islamic world, India and Africa to Europe did not

always happen peacefully. It was partly a consequence of the Crusades: the wars

fought over a period of around 200 years from the late eleventh century. Crusaders

justified their actions on the grounds that, as a result of Muslim conquests,

Christians were denied access to places that were important to their religion.

However, the Crusades can also be seen as an attempt by powerful western nations

to expand their influence overseas. The Crusades brought Christian Europe into

closer contact with Islamic, Asian and African science and culture (see Source 8).

Important educational centres were established in Muslim Spain (Al-Andalus)

but also in those areas re-conquered by Christians, such as Toledo in 1085 and in

the Norman kingdom of Sicily in 1091. English scientists and translators travelled

to these centres to learn the latest ideas. Several medieval scholars translated

works from Arabic and introduced Islamic and Greek thinkers to English readers.

Robert of Chester was one such scholar, who translated the Persian mathematician

al-Khwarizmi’s Algebra. The mathematical term ‘algorithm’ is derived from the

Latinised form of al-Khwarismi’s name.

Muslim texts on mathematics, astronomy, medicine and physics had a major

impact on the European medieval world and then on the RENAISSANCE. Some

were still in use as late as the seventeenth century. They helped create the

conditions for the emergence of modern science.

New types of food, music and musical instruments, as well as games such as chess,

were also introduced to Europe from the Islamic world. In addition, a wide range

of skills came from the Muslim world, including irrigation, optics, perfumemaking,

pottery-glazing, paper-making, navigation, clock-making, soap-making

and ballistics.

The ‘Orient’ at home

Historians do not know exactly how many people from beyond Europe –

Muslims, secret Jews, Africans and Asians – were living in England in the Middle

Ages. There are clues that suggest their presence, however.

The skeleton in Source 10 was one of 150 skeletons found in Ipswich. In May

2010, forensic anthropologists from Dundee University revealed that this

particular skeleton was that of a thirteenth-century Tunisian Muslim. They knew

this from CARBON DATING, bone analysis, facial reconstruction and historical

Uncorrected proof

Source 10 In Beverly Minster and

St Mary’s Church, York, there are

wooden sculptures of elephants

among the misericords, under the

seats of the choir.


1 Describe how ‘aliens’ could

gain the rights of citizens in

medieval England. (4)

2 Explain why so many

Flemings and Dutch

migrated to England. (8)

3 How much impact did

immigration have on the lives

of people in England in the

Middle Ages? (14)

4 ‘England was a welcoming

place for immigrants in the

Middle Ages.’ How far do you

agree? (24)


A How widespread were

England’s immigrants

in the later Middle


B How welcome were


C What was their impact

on England?

Using the notes you have

collected, write a paragraph for

each of the Key Questions. Start

each paragraph with a topic

sentence that sums up the point

you want to make. Then support

your point with evidence.

Now write a final paragraph that

answers this question:

‘Immigrants brought far more

benefit than problems to medieval

England.’ Do you agree? Explain

your answer.

detective work. They think he may have been brought back to England after the

Ninth Crusade and had lived here for at least ten years before he died. The fact

that he was buried in the consecrated ground of a friary suggests he may have

converted to Christianity, but he could simply have been nursed by friars at the

end of his life. Several other Africans were buried with him.

Two entries in the aliens register refer to people from ‘Inde’, which could be

anywhere east of the Mediterranean. Did ‘Benedict and Antonia Calamon’ and

‘Jacobus Black’ (a servant in Dartmouth) take on Christian names that would help

them fit into Catholic England, or were they Muslim converts? Edward III had a

Muslim godson and there was a building in London called the House of Converts.

If many people in late medieval England had little direct contact with Africans,

Asians, Muslims or Jews, they certainly knew about them and their worlds. Books

from all over England told stories about Saracens, Muslims, Chinese, Africans,

Jews, Brahmins and Zoroastrians. Shops were full of spices from Arabia, Persia,

India, Sri Lanka, China, Thailand, Moluccas and Indonesia, being sold at prices

that ordinary people could afford. Crusader knights brought back many goods and

ideas from the East. Evidence of the ‘Orient’ can be seen today in the churches of

York, England’s second city (see Source 10).


England’s immigrants in the Middle Ages

1 Someone was defined as an ‘alien’ if they were born outside lands ruled by the


2 Immigrants from all over Europe lived in England in the Middle Ages. They

came for many different reasons. Most came to find work, some were refugees

from war and a few came by force.

3 Immigrants settled all over the country, in cities, towns and small villages.

Although the greatest number were servants, they filled a wide range of

occupations at all levels of society.

4 People who were foreign born could gain the rights of a citizen if they had a

letter of denization from the monarch.

5 The biggest group of migrants came from the Low Countries. They brought a

range of skills to England, from building to beer-making. Flemish craftspeople

brought the skill of weaving woollen cloth and helped create England’s

manufacturing economy.

6 Hanseatic merchants from northern Europe set up a base in London at the

Steelyard. Italian banking families, benefiting from the Church’s relaxed rules

on money-lending, set up business and lent large sums to kings in return for

special privileges. The trading and investment carried out by these foreign

merchants and bankers helped boost England’s economy.

7 In the fifteenth century, under pressure from those opposed to immigration,

Henry VI set up a tax that had to be paid by all foreign-born residents. The

record of those paying tax was the aliens register.

8 Foreigners had a mixed reception. They were often opposed by the guilds,

who pushed some kings to take action against them. At times of great tension,

such as the 1381 Great Rebellion, there were violent attacks on immigrants.

However, migrants with skills such as weaving and beer-making were often

welcomed by the authorities and it appears that most immigrants settled

successfully into their new communities.

9 There is evidence that there may have been some people living in England who

came from outside Europe. It is certain that ideas and goods from Asia and

Africa reached England at this time, due to trade and to the journeys made by

those involved in the Crusades.



1 Migration in the Middle Ages c1000–c1500



1.4 Review: Comparing migrations

Artisans and



and bankers


Comparing migrations

Stage 1: Record

Copy and complete the following table using the

information in this chapter.



Stage 2: Compare

Study your table carefully and look for similarities

and differences between the migrations. Write

sentences describing them. For example:

• The Normans and Jews came together from


• German merchants and Italian bankers came to

profit from trade.

Only the Normans were armed invaders.

• Some of the Flemings were refugees.

Stage 3: Judgement

What did

they do?

Uncorrected proof




Here are two statements about migration in the

Middle Ages:

1 Most immigrants were accepted into English life.

They settled down and became part of society

with very little trouble.

2 Immigrants to England were never really secure.

They were resented by many local people and

faced real danger at times of crisis.

From what you have studied, which statement do

you agree with and why? To help you analyse the

statements think through these questions:

• What evidence suggests that immigrants were


• What evidence suggests that immigrants were

not accepted?

What examples of change over the period can you


• What examples of continuity over the period can

you find?

You will need to consider the experiences of different

migrant groups. One example is the experience of

the Jews throughout the medieval period. You can

find some examples that address all bullet points,

because their experience moves from acceptance to




that show





Jews were



by various

kings of



that show



were not


There were

attacks on

Jews in York

in 1190.

Change and continuity




in the




Jews were

no longer


as money


after the

pope gave


for Italian


to charge





in the




Jews were


as long as

they were

able to make

a valued


Then you can start to make links between the

different aspects of the question. For example:

Initially there was some acceptance of the Jews in

England. This continued throughout the early

part of the period so long as the Jews were able to

keep the protection of the monarch. However this

began to change, partly through the rise of anti-

Semitism (hatred of the Jews) and partly through

economic factors, which resulted in an increase in

the attacks on Jews such as those in York in 1190.


Make sure you understand these key terms and

can use them confidently in your writing.

l alien

l letter of denization

l propaganda

l refugees


Introduction to the period

Review: Reasons for migration and experiences of immigrants

The topic sentence uses some of

the key words from the question to

make sure the answer is focused


Note the use of time connectives to

help the reader understand the order

of the examples.


How the thematic study will be assessed

The thematic study will be examined in Paper 2. The questions could be on any part of

the content, so you need to know it all. It is worth 30 per cent of the overall total for the

paper. There will be four questions, which test the first two assessment objectives:

AO1: knowledge and understanding

• AO2: explanation and analysis.

Above all, the paper is assessing your ability to think and work like a historian. In the

introduction, you looked at how historians work (page 4). There we set out some steps

that historians take:

1 focus

2 ask questions

3 select

4 organise

5 fine tune.

The exam questions have already chosen a focus (stage 1) and they have asked

questions (stage 2). What the examiner wants from you is stages 3, 4 and 5.

Question 1

Question 1 will ask you to describe something connected with migration. This question

is quite straightforward and is a great opportunity to score some marks in a relatively

easy way. An example of this type of question is:

Describe two of the measures taken by the authorities to control migrant groups

between c1000 and 1603. (4 marks)


There are no tricks to this question. It is simply testing your knowledge. However,

the examiner wants to see that you can select important events and describe them

accurately. Selection is vital. This is not asking you to write down everything you know.

Make sure that your examples are always relevant to the question. Do not go into too

much detail on this question. If you waste valuable time here you could run out of time

for the higher-scoring questions. This could damage your final grade.

You score marks for identifying the examples as well as describing them, but it is

not advisable to write in bullet points. Instead, you should write a brief paragraph

identifying each example in your opening sentence and then describing it in the

sentences that follow.

One of the ways that migrant groups were controlled between c1000 and 1603 was

by the government passing laws to restrict their freedom. Firstly, in 1275 Jews were

prevented from charging interest on any loans that they provided. This meant that

Jews lost a lot of their income and ultimately were expelled from England in 1290.

Another example was the introduction of the Alien Subsidies in 1440. This meant

that any foreigners (aliens) were charged taxes in return for being able to work in


Uncorrected proof

This answer is effective because it

contains a lot of good supporting


The final sentence uses a double

connective to link the answer closely

to the question.

Example answer

Question 2

Question 2 will ask you to explain something connected with migration. Here you need

to use connectives such as ‘therefore’ and ‘because’ to make sure that your answer is

not just telling the story but is also giving reasons. An example of this type of question


Explain the part played by members of migrant communities in movements for

change in Britain between 1772 and 1905. (8 marks)


You will score equal marks (four each) for:

showing your knowledge and understanding of the topic

• explaining your answer.

It is therefore important that you have enough evidence to support your arguments. The

most effective way to explain is by using a ‘double connective’ in your final sentences.

Look at the model answer below to see this in practice, but note that this paragraph is

only focusing on the experience of one community. The question asks you to write about

different migrant communities, so to get full marks you could also write about, for

example, the Irish contribution to the Chartist movement in the nineteenth century.

Example answer

Members of migrant communities played an important role in several movements

for change in this period. For example, British people of African origin such as

Olaudah Equiano and Ottobah Cugoano, played a pivotal role in the abolition of

slavery in the UK. Equiano was highly active in the movement; he published a

best-selling autobiography and was an active speaker and campaigner himself.

Autobiographical memoirs by people such as Ukawsaw Gronniosaw and Mary

Prince, relaying information about the slave trade, helped groups like the Society

for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade. Therefore the role of Africans was

significant in bringing about change in Britain because they were able to use their

own experiences to campaign successfully for the end of enslavement in parts of the

British Empire.

Question 3

Question 3 will ask you to explain and analyse historical events and periods using

what is called a ‘second order historical concept’. This might mean you are asked

about change and continuity, causation (why something happened) and consequence,

significance, or similarity and difference. An example of this type of question is:

How significant was migration between 1945 and 1981 for British society? (14 marks)


Examiners want you to produce a balanced answer. They want you to state your view

strongly and clearly, but you need to acknowledge other points of view even if you

disagree with them. Consider the factor mentioned in the question but also compare it

with another factor. You have to answer the question ‘How important was X’ but explain

why you think what you think.

Select: Focus on the effects of migration and how these changed British society.

Organise: The important thing is to organise your knowledge in a relevant way to

answer the question.

Fine tune: Check for correct spelling and punctuation (you should do this for every

answer) but make sure you say which of your reasons you think is more significant

and why.

134 135

Introduction to the period

Review: Reasons for migration and experiences of immigrants

The Question 3 medal ceremony

•Bronze (up to 25% of marks): You describe some effects

of migration (e.g. that migrant workers helped Britain

recover after the Second World War) but do not use

these to analyse how significant it was.


As this question asks ‘How far do you agree…?’ you will need to show both sides of the


Select: Focus on examples of struggle and non-struggle across all the periods of

history (medieval, early modern, industrial and modern).

Organise: The important thing is to organise your knowledge in a relevant way to

answer the question. You could start by showing examples of how you agree with the

statement, then show how you disagree with the statement. In your conclusion you can

explain the extent of your agreement.

This answer is effective because

the qualifiers help the reader to

understand how the arguments have

been prioritised.

The combination of qualifiers and

connectives in the final sentences

make the analysis really strong.

•Silver (up to 60% of marks): You give a much fuller

explanation of the effects of migration – political,

cultural and economic – and some analysis of how

significant it was.

•Gold (up to 100% of marks): You show a wide range of

knowledge and give a full and detailed explanation and

analysis of how significant migration was.

Even a Gold answer can be improved by ensuring you have:

a clear conclusion that rounds off your argument

• supporting evidence, using relevant and detailed knowledge in your supporting


• a balanced answer that shows you understand that there might be more than one

view about the question or explains how the different factors are connected.

The key to success is in being able to make a judgement about the question you are

answering. One way in which you can do this is by using a ‘qualifier’, which will help you

to prioritise your examples and allow you to show which is the most important. Look at

the model answer below to see this in practice.

Example answer

It can be argued that migration had a very significant impact on British society in

a number of ways as a result of cultural, social and, most importantly, economic

changes. Firstly in the years after the Second World War, migration helped

Britain to solve a labour shortage, clearly a vital economic contribution. Groups

from countries like Poland came and settled in the UK. Organisations such as the

Polish Resettlement Corps were set up in order to provide labour to industries that

were required to aid economic recovery after the war. Soon afterwards, significant

numbers of men and women from the Caribbean started arriving, in many cases

as a result of invitations to work in the transport and health services. Therefore the

economic changes were very significant because of the contribution that migrants

made to rebuilding Britain’s economy after the Second World War.

Another significant change took place in the way that race relations were affected

by migration (or some people’s perceptions of migration and migrants). At times

during this period – in particular the economic downturns of the late 1950s and

the 1970s – there was a rise in anti-immigrant sentiments. These views were most

noticeably highlighted in the 1964 Smethwick by-election and by Enoch Powell,

when he gave his ‘Rivers of Blood’ speech in 1968. However these anti-immigrant

feelings were also challenged by movements such as Rock Against Racism and the

Anti-Nazi League, which suggests that some people were positive about the impact

of migration during this period. Therefore the impact of migration on race relations

was significant because it was an issue that was hotly contested at the time.

Question 4

Question 4 will always be an essay question. You will be given a statement and asked to

explain how far you agree or disagree with it. It is worth 24 marks so you will need to

spend approximately 25 minutes answering it to make sure you go into enough depth.

As the question covers such a wide time frame, you must use examples from different

periods to compare and contrast.

‘Between c1440 and c2010 migrant communities have had to struggle for acceptance

within British society.’ How far do you agree with this statement?

Uncorrected proof

This answer is very effective because

it combines qualifiers to make a

judgement, time connectives to

organise the examples, linking

phrases to combine examples

together and double connectives to

really focus on the question.

Fine tune: Do all the usual checking, but make sure you make a clear judgement and

explain you view with the support of evidence.


Question 4 medal ceremony

Bronze (up to 9 marks): You give some examples of struggle or non-struggle

from one or two periods and make a limited judgement.

•Silver (up to 18 marks): You select relevant examples of struggle and nonstruggle

from different periods to support a balanced argument. You give

reasons to agree and disagree with the statement.

Gold (up to 24 marks): You select a range of relevant examples from all the

periods to support a balanced argument and reach a valid conclusion.

One of the ways that you can gain high marks for your analysis is to use qualifiers to

prioritise your examples but also show any links between your examples. In your final

sentences – and especially in your conclusion – you should use double connectives to

make sure that you are focusing tightly on the question. Look at the model paragraphs

below to see this in practice.

Example answer

One of the best examples of a community that was accepted and made a lasting

contribution to British society was the Huguenots. They were French Protestants

who came to England in the seventeenth century to escape persecution. A significant

reason for their acceptance was that there were many Protestants in England who

wanted to help them and provided money and support. Another important reason was

that many Huguenots were able to find work in similar occupations to those that

they had in France. This meant that they were able to make a positive contribution

to the economy and even brought new techniques to England for the silk industry.

This links to the fact that some Huguenots became very wealthy and were even

involved in the setting up of the Bank of England. Therefore the Huguenots

were accepted because they were Protestants who were able to make a significant

contribution to the economic and social life of the country.

However, in contrast to the Huguenots, the West Indian migrants that arrived after

the Second World War faced some significant challenges. Although many were

able to find employment, they had difficulty in finding accommodation, with

signs saying ‘No Blacks, No Irish, No dogs’ being frequently displayed. Another

problem that some West Indian migrants faced were physical attacks such as those

carried out in the Notting Hill race riots and the attack that led to the death of Kelso

Cochrane. A very important reason for these difficulties was the racist attitudes that

some people held towards West Indian migrants. This can be linked to the concerns

that some people had that their jobs were being taken by West Indian workers.

Therefore the West Indians initially struggled for acceptance in Britain because

unlike the Huguenots, they were seen, by some, as an economic burden rather than a

group that could make a positive contribution.

136 137

Introduction to the period

Keys to success

As long as you know the content and have learned how to think, this exam should not be

too scary. The keys to success are:

1 Read the question carefully. This may sound obvious, but there is a skill to it.

Sometimes students answer the question they wish had been asked rather than the

one that has actually been asked. So identify the skill focus (what they are asking

you to do). Do they want you to write a description, an explanation or a comparison?

Identify the content focus (what it is about) and select from your knowledge


2 Note the marks available. That helps you work out how much time to spend on

answering each question. Time is precious – if you spend too long on low-mark

questions you will run out of time for the high-mark ones.

3 Plan your answer before you start writing. For essays this is particularly important.

The golden rule is: know what you are going to say; then say it clearly and logically.

4 Aim for quality not quantity: in the time limits of an exam you will not be able to

write down everything you know and can think of – even if it is relevant. The marker

would much rather read a short answer that really tackles the question than page

after page of material that is not relevant.

5 Check your work. You will never have time in an exam to rewrite an answer but try

to leave some time at the end to check for obvious spelling mistakes, missing words

or other writing errors that might cost you marks.

Uncorrected proof

Part 2

British depth study:

Impact of empire



Source 1 The departure of William

of Orange from Hellevoetsluis, 19

October 1688.

Source 2 The arrival of William of

Orange in England, 5 November


1 Look closely at Sources 1

and 2. They are both by Dutch

artists and both are full of

detail. What impressions do

they give of each event and

how do the artists convey

these impressions?

Introduction to the depth study

Source 1 is a painting of a Dutch naval fleet comprising 463 ships setting off

from the Netherlands. The jetty is crowded with people and luggage getting

ready to board the small boats taking them to the warships. In the lower middle

of the painting, at the end of the jetty, people are kneeling to an important man.

His name was William, Prince of Orange, and he was soon to become king of


Strong winds forced William’s fleet to turn back and they finally sailed on 1

November, reaching Brixham in Devon four days later. Source 2 shows some of

his 15,000 or more soldiers lining up on the beach. Horses and provisions have

been unloaded. This was a massive invasion force, far bigger than the Spanish

Armada in 1588 and probably bigger than the Norman invasion of 1066. William’s

army was multinational: as well as Dutch soldiers there were Scottish, English,

Swedish, German and Swiss troops, together with about 200 Africans from Dutch

plantations in South America. On arrival William was welcomed warmly by

English members of parliament who had invited him to come and seize power.

Why was this happening?

England was changing in ways that were making some people very rich. As a

result of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (also known as the Civil Wars) in the

1640s, power rested increasingly with the growing class of merchants, bankers and

private businessmen represented in parliament. Any monarch would have to serve

their interests. Trade with Asia was growing. Sugar and tobacco PLANTATIONS in

the Americas were being worked by kidnapped, forced migrants from the rest of

the British Isles and from Africa. This new global empire was bringing in wealth.

Equally important to the powerful men in parliament was for England to be

a firmly Protestant nation, strong in Europe. James II of England and VII of

Scotland, who became king in 1685, was a Catholic who was on good terms with

England’s main enemy France. He wanted the monarchy, rather than private

companies, to control trade and business. When his wife gave birth to a baby boy

in 1688, it became clear that there would be a line of Catholic kings if James stayed

on the throne. Members of both main parties in parliament decided to act.

William of Orange, a Dutch prince, suited them perfectly. He was a Protestant at

war with the French king Louis XIV and was married to James’s daughter Mary.

If she shared the throne with her husband, it could be argued that William’s claim

was legitimate. He was an effective military leader and political operator, and

would allow the spread of an empire based on private business and trade.

What happened next?

James sent an army to face William, whose troops were advancing through the

west of England and were being welcomed in many towns. After William’s forces

won a few small battles, James’s supporters began to desert him and in December

1688 he fled to France. Meanwhile there were violent anti-Catholic riots in many

towns and cities. In London, Catholic churches, chapels, libraries and foreign

embassies were attacked and in some cases ransacked and burned down.

After William reached the capital, an agreement with parliament resulted in him

and Mary being crowned together as Mary II and William III. The agreement

restricted the powers of the monarch. From now on the king or queen agreed to

defend ‘ancient rights and liberties’.

Uncorrected proof

Source 3 The Coronation Oath

sworn by William and Mary,


We solemnly promise and swear to

govern the people of this kingdom

of England, and the dominions

thereunto belonging, according to

the statutes in parliament agreed

on, and the laws and customs of

the same.

Source 4 Some of the points

outlined in the Bill of Rights,


• Laws should not be removed

without the consent of


No taxes should be imposed

without the authority of


People should have the right to

petition the monarch without

fear of punishment.


standing army may be

maintained during peacetime

without the consent of


Bail and fines should not be too


Cruel and unusual punishment

should not be allowed.

Parliaments should be held


England or Britain?

In 1707, the kingdoms of England

and Scotland came together as

Great Britain. For this reason, we

refer to the nation as England for

events before 1707. For events

from 1707 onwards or across the

whole period 1688 to 1730, we

use the term Britain.

As you will discover, the invasion of 1688 had many effects. Its impact was felt

throughout the British Isles and across four continents. The events of the next few

years shaped this nation and its relation with the wider world. In many ways, they

created the Britain we know today.

How glorious?

John Hampden, an MP at the time, called these events ‘the Glorious Revolution’,

a name it is still known by. Many historians have seen this as a turning-point in

England’s history, but they disagree why. Some argue that it was ‘glorious’ because

it brought new freedoms and opportunities for the people of Britain and marked

the end of absolute rule by kings and queens. Others argue that it was the opposite

of ‘glorious’, bringing misery to people across the world and removing their

freedoms. In this chapter, you will look at how Britain’s growing empire affected

people’s lives in the British Isles. At the end of the section you will be asked to

join the historians’ debate and offer your own opinion about how glorious this

‘Glorious Revolution’ really was and why.

The OCR course – Explaining the modern world:

British depth study

In your depth study exam you will be asked two questions.

Question 1 carries 10 marks and asks you to:

show your knowledge and understanding of one aspect of the course

• use that knowledge to explain and analyse

Question 2 carries 20 marks and gives you contemporary sources from the period.

You will be given a statement and asked how far those sources convince you that

the statement is true. To answer this question you will need to:

use your knowledge and understanding to explain and analyse

• use the sources and your own knowledge to make a judgement backed up by


To help you with this question through this part of the book you will find nearly

a hundred contemporary sources – images and text – with many exam-style

questions to give you lots of practice. The sources are central to this unit: study

them carefully. With each source, think about what is being said, who is saying it,

why and how they are saying it, and whether it supports or contradicts the statement you

are judging.

The limits of sources

This part of the book is a study of events that affected the lives of millions of

women, men and children in Ireland, Scotland, England, India, West Africa,

North America and the Caribbean. However, few of those most affected could

read, write or had any access to publishers. We therefore do not know directly

what the ‘ordinary’ poorer majority thought or felt. We seldom find women’s

voices. Almost always, sources come from wealthy, powerful White men. We are

forced to look at the world mainly through their eyes.

The big story

However, you cannot make a judgement without understanding what happened

and why. This unit is packed with big stories that help us understand the roots of

the world we live in now. Find out about these stories, discuss and debate them,

and think about how and why they are important.

140 141

5.1 Ireland 1688–c1730

5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland

5.1 Ireland 1688–c1730

1 Between the

twelfth and


centuries, how did

England tighten its

grip on Ireland?

2 Why did King

James II have

strong support

from Irish



The events of 1688 had a significant impact on Ireland and Scotland. Throughout

this chapter you will investigate these impacts. This topic focuses on Ireland, which

soon found itself engulfed in a war that led to English colonisation of Ireland a

conflict that still echoes in Ireland today and which affects relationships between

the English, Irish Protestants and Irish Catholics. This topic investigates the

reasons this happened and the results for Ireland.


A How and why did the English gain control of Ireland?

As you study this topic, use the sources and the text to make notes about the


a How did the English gain control of Ireland?

b Why did the English gain control of Ireland?

Why did war engulf Ireland 1689–90?

The historical background

In 1169, King Henry II of England invaded Ireland and started an English colony

around Dublin. From then on English kings saw themselves as rulers of Ireland.

In reality they only controlled a small part of the country, an area called the Pale.

Irish people living ‘beyond the Pale’ were portrayed as being wild, savage and

uneducated – the beginning of a long history of anti-Irish racism. By the end of

the Middle Ages, the Pale had shrunk in area and English control had weakened.

At this time Ireland and England were both Catholic, but when England became a

Protestant country in the mid-sixteenth century, Ireland remained Catholic.

In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, English monarchs asserted

direct control over Ireland. They encouraged tens of thousands of Scottish

and English Protestant settlers to take over large areas of Irish land and set up

plantations (see below). Ireland was governed by a LORD DEPUTY appointed by the

English monarch. The Irish parliament was Protestant-dominated and had limited

powers. Only the wealthy – and therefore mainly Protestants – had a vote.

In the 1640s, the Irish Catholic majority supported Charles I against the English

parliament in the WARS OF THE THREE KINGDOMS. Their uprising against English

rule was put down violently by Oliver Cromwell’s soldiers. More large areas of

land were confiscated from Catholic landowners and handed to Protestants. Large

numbers of poorer Irish emigrated across the Atlantic to the Americas, looking for

a better life. Many Irish rebels were transported to harsh convict settlements.

Most Irish Catholics strongly supported King James II. His Declaration for the

Liberty of Conscience in 1687, which granted religious freedom to all Christians

including Catholics, was very popular. So was his promise to give the Irish

parliament greater powers. James made an Irish Catholic – Richard Talbot, Earl of

Tyrconnell – the lord deputy and he built up Catholic membership of the army in

Ireland, bringing in many Catholic officers.

Uncorrected proof


A map showing English plantations in Ireland.

Areas of English plantations


Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of

Tyrconnell (1630–91)

• Fought on the Royalist side

in the War of the Three

Kingdoms, when he was

captured and then ransomed


He escaped from the town

of Drogheda before its

people were massacred by

Cromwell’s army in 1649. He

then spent time in exile in


After the execution of Charles I, he worked as a Royalist

secret agent involved in plots to kill Cromwell, who questioned

him after he was arrested. He escaped again: some claim

Cromwell bribed him to be a double agent.

When the monarchy was restored in 1660 he was part of the

Duke of York’s household until he was accused of involvement

in the Popish Plot – an invented scare story about a Catholic

plot to kill the king – and had to go into exile again.

When the duke became King James II Talbot was made Earl of

Tyrconnell and lord deputy of Ireland, with the task of putting

Catholics in key positions of leadership in the army in Ireland.

Nearly all the Catholic population of Ireland supported the

Jacobite cause. Tyrconnell brought an Irish army to meet

James when he landed with French troops in Ireland which

in turn caused William to decide the wider war had first to be

fought in Ireland.

The Protestant settlements were called plantations because

people were being ‘planted’ in Ireland to colonise it. Vast areas

of land were confiscated from their Catholic owners and handed

to Protestant settlers. The northern province of Ulster had been

the heart of rebellion against the English, so the plantations

were concentrated there. What had been a centre of Catholic

resistance became a Protestant heartland. One MP, Sir John

Davies, described the settlers as ‘good corn’ and the native Irish

as ‘weeds’ to be removed.

The intention was for these settlers who were loyal to the

English Crown to control Ireland. The plantations included

army garrisons and new towns where only English laws and

customs were permitted. The city of Derry was rebuilt with

high walls to protect Protestants from Irish rebels. Catholics

were forced to live outside the walls in the Bogside. (The city’s

name was changed officially to Londonderry but the majority of

its residents prefer to call it Derry.) The Irish Catholic majority

deeply resented the plantations and there were many uprisings

against them. English policy had created a deep and dangerous

religious and class divide that would last centuries and often

erupt into war.

Source 1 Extracts from ‘Lillibulero’, a popular

song still well known in Ireland today.

Ho, brother Teague, dost hear the decree?

We are to have a new deputy

Oh by my soul it is a Talbot

And he will cut every Englishman’s throat

Now Tyrconnell is come ashore

And we shall have commissions galore

And everyone that won’t go to Mass

He will be turned out to look like an ass

Now the heretics all go down

By Christ and St Patrick the nation’s our own.


The composition of the two European armies in



Approximately 23,500


Irish Catholic







Approximately 36,000



Irish Protestant



French Huguenot






5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland 5.1 Ireland 1688–c1730

Source 2 A satirical playing card

from the time, showing Tyrconnell

arming Irish Catholics.

1 Sources 1 and 2 are both

comments on Tyrconnell

made at the time.

a Do you think each source

supports or attacks


b How can you tell?

c What points are being

made by each source?


A map of Ireland showing where the main

events in the war happened.






1688: Ireland as a theatre of a wider war

When James was forced to escape from England after William’s invasion in 1688

he was pressed by the French king, Louis XIV, to return and win back the ‘three

kingdoms’ (Ireland, Scotland and England) by military force. Most Irish Catholics

were JACOBITES (supporters of James) and Tyrconnell, the lord deputy of Ireland,

formed a Jacobite army. James landed in Ireland in March 1689 with 6,000 French

troops and held a parliament in Dublin. This passed a law giving confiscated land

back to the former Catholic owners and declared that the English parliament had

no right to make laws governing Ireland.

James had the backing of King Louis as well as wide support in Ireland. In

William’s eyes, therefore, battling the Jacobites was not only about who ruled

England; it was also part of the wider European war he was committed to, the

War of the Grand Alliance or NINE YEARS’ WAR. Although his priority was fighting

France, William felt forced to face James in Ireland. So when the Protestant

residents of Derry were surrounded by Jacobite forces in April, William sent

warships and troops with the aim of breaking the siege. Over the next two and a

half years, two international armies would face each other.

How disastrous was the


The war of 1689–91

In the first half of 1689 the war went

the Jacobites’ way. Their army under

Tyrconnell swept north, seizing back

land from Protestant plantation owners

and besieging the city of Derry. But

on 28 July William’s ships broke the

siege from the River Foyle and freed

the Protestant inhabitants. In the

following weeks, some of

the Williamite army landed

near Belfast and marched towards Dundalk, where they camped for the



winter on low, wet ground. Disease struck and killed over 5,500 men,

one-third of William’s army.

The two sides met at the Battle of the Boyne on 1 July 1690. There was

no clear winner in a confused encounter, but James lost heart and left

Ireland. Demoralised and with many soldiers deserting, the Jacobites

retreated from Dublin and William entered in triumph. Desoute this,

the war dragged on for another year and a half.

After months of battles and sieges, the two sides met in at Aughrim

on 12 July 1691. This was the final decisive battle of the war. Seven

thousand were killed on both sides but it was a clear victory for

William. The contemporary Gaelic poet Séamas Dall Mac Cuarta

wrote of ‘Aughrim of the slaughter where they are to be found, their

damp bones lying uncoffined’. Although the war continued for a

while, it was clear that the Jacobites had lost. Irish historians call these

three years ‘the shipwreck’.

This war was not a simple conflict between Catholics and Protestants.

There were some Irish Protestants who supported the Jacobites because

they believed William had no legal right to be king, while many of

those fighting on William’s side were European Catholics. He even

had the support of the pope, head of the Catholic Church. Many

who joined the Jacobite cause were not great lovers of James – his

61mm x 62mm

Uncorrected proof

Source 3 The Siege of Londonderry

by Dutch artist Romeyne de

Hooghe, showing several different

events. In the distance is William’s


Source 4 A silver medal

commemorating the Battle of the

Boyne, by Jan Luder. The words in

Latin say: ‘He arrived and removed

them. Liberator of Ireland 1689.’

Source 5 James’s words to his

advisers after the Battle of the

Boyne, criticising his own Irish

soldiers (his words have been

translated into modern English),


When the Irish soldiers faced the

challenge of battle they fled from

the field like cowards, allowing the

enemy to seize our provisions. They

could not be persuaded to come

back and fight even though our

losses were only small. From now

on I have decided never to lead an

Irish army. I now resolve to look

after myself, and so, gentlemen,

must you.

grandfather, James I, had been one of the monarchs who started the

Protestant settlements – but they saw it as a way to fight for Ireland against

English domination.

Four of the top commanders were foreigners. The Irish who fought and died on

both sides were participants in a great international conflict. Aughrim, one of the

most significant battles in Irish history, was in fact fought by armies under Dutch

and French command!

The outcome

On 3 October 1691, both sides signed the Treaty of Limerick and marked the end

of the war. Irishmen who had fought for James were given three choices: they

could join William’s army, return home or continue following James in the French

army, which would mean leaving Ireland forever.

Fourteen thousand soldiers chose to leave for France in what became known as

‘the flight of the Wild Geese’. The king knew that Catholic GUERRILLA fighters

had inflicted real damage in Williamite areas, so by sending the most committed

fighters to France, he removed the risk of the fighting continuing. Meanwhile,

Jacobite landowners were told they could keep their land if they swore allegiance

to William and Mary.

Many Protestants thought at first that the king had been too generous to the losers.

In fact, harsh measures against Catholics followed. William did not stick to the

promises in the treaty and many Catholic landowners who did not swear the oath

quickly enough had their land taken away.

Irish Catholics had lost their army, their land and their political power. They

would now be totally excluded from government for nearly 200 years. What

the historian R. F. Foster calls ‘the last stand of Catholic Ireland’ had failed.

Ireland was now quite clearly a British colony, and English attitudes to the Irish

reflected this.

Source 6 An extract from the prologue to ‘The Prophetess’ by English poet John

Dryden, 1690.

Each bring his love, a bogland captive home,

Such proper pages, will long trains become;

With copper collars, and with brawny backs,

Quite to put down the fashion of our Blacks.

2 In his poem (Source 6), Dryden is ‘jokingly’ suggesting that English soldiers may

come home with Irish prisoners. How does he describe them and who does he

compare them to?

3 Compare Dryden’s attitude to the Irish with the view expressed by James in

Source 5. How similar or different are they?

144 145

5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland 5.1 Ireland 1688–c1730


74mm x 62mm

Source 7 Castletown House, the

mansion William Conolly had built

for himself.

What was the impact on Ireland of British control

after 1691?

R. F. Foster commented: ‘By the early eighteenth century, Irish society and

politics had undergone a series of seismic shocks.’ For Irish Catholics, if the

Williamite war was a devastating earthquake, the years immediately following

brought a series of harsh aftershocks. The Irish parliament was entirely Protestant

and the winners began to punish the losers. Catholics lost land, religious freedoms

and political power.

The Penal Laws: seismic shocks for Irish Catholics 1691–1728

Although these measures were harsh, they were not always

imposed and laws against Catholics were even harsher in

England. Although Catholics formed three-quarters of the

population of 4 million, the arrival in force – in the north

especially – of 50,000 more Scottish families between 1690 and

1715 led to them owning only 14 per cent of the land. There

would be no Catholic in parliament until 1828. These measures

affected wealthier Catholics. The majority of the Irish population

lived as poor tenant farmers on the estates of the rich.

While the Irish Parliament now had no connection at all with

the majority of the population, real power rested with the

English based at Dublin Castle. The LORD LIEUTENANT of Ireland

and all his staff – chief secretary, lord chancellor, attorney,

solicitor-generals and undersecretaries – were all appointed by

the government in London, and accountable to it.

The Ascendancy

The main winners in Ireland after 1691 were the wealthy Protestants, Irelandborn

but of English origin. The whole system favoured them. They formed an

elite group centred around the Anglican Church, Dublin Castle and English

fashions. Many were extravagantly rich. They came to be known as the Protestant

ASCENDANCY and saw themselves as the only true Irish ‘nation’ whose God-given

right to rule was proved, in their eyes, by the Williamite victories in battle. They

were not all wealthy: several rose from poverty. For example, William Conolly

was the son of a blacksmith in Donegal and became Speaker of the House of

Commons in the Irish parliament (see Source 7).

There were deep class divides among Protestants, too. The Ascendancy class

belonged to the Church of Ireland, an offshoot of the Church of England. Most of

the Scottish settlers, however, were

Presbyterians – a Protestant church

and, like Catholics, suffered from

laws discriminating against them.

Some of them were tenants of the

rich landowners, with lives similar

to their Catholic neighbours. There

was always a tension between the

division of faith (between Protestant

and Catholic) and the division

of class (between the Protestant

Ascendancy and the Catholic and

Protestant poor).

Uncorrected proof

Source 9 Archbishop William

King, State of the Protestants of

Ireland, 1691.

Papists [Catholics] should be

debarred all public trust ... [but it

is wrong] to take away all men’s

estates, liberties or lives, merely

because they differ in estimate of


1 Look at Source 8. What

is Swift’s view of Irish

Protestant society?

2 What is King’s attitude to

Catholics in Source 9?

3 What is Molyneux claiming

about the Protestant Irish in

Source 10?

As the years after 1691 passed, another contradiction arose. While the Protestant

Ascendancy saw their relationship with England as one of ‘sisters’ or ‘brothers’ –

two parallel kingdoms – the view from London was very different. Ireland was

clearly a colony and the metaphor often used was that England was the parent

and Ireland was the child. Ireland was there to benefit England. In return for

protecting them, London expected that Irish Protestants would accept secondclass

status. This was made very clear by a series of events that outraged the


‘Parent’ impositions on the ‘child’ of Ireland

• In 1699, to protect English exports, the English Woollen Act made it illegal for

the Irish to export woollen cloth beyond the British Isles.

• In 1720, the Declaratory Act ruled that the British Parliament had the right to

make laws for Ireland ‘in all cases whatsoever’. The Irish House of Lords no

longer had the right to be a final court of appeal.

• From 1722 to 1725, the British government gave the right to manufacture Irish

halfpennies to an English entrepreneur, William Wood, against the will of

Irish Protestants.

Although protests against ‘Wood’s halfpenny’ eventually succeeded, it was clear

that both political parties in England – the Whigs and the Tories – saw all the Irish

(Catholic and Protestant) as a conquered people. Indeed, the negative stereotypes

used against Catholics were used more and more against all the Irish.

Source 8 Jonathan Swift, an Irish Protestant writer, commenting on Ireland, 1727.

Remove me from this land of slaves,

Where all are fools, and all are knaves;

Where every knave and fool is bought,

Yet kindly sells himself for naught;

Where Whig and Tory fiercely fight

Who’s in the wrong, who in the right;

And when their country lies at stake

They only fight for fighting’s sake

While English sharpers take the pay,

And then stand by to see fair play.

Source 10 Protestant politician William Molyneux, asserting that his people are

the true Irish, 1690s.

The great body of the present people of Ireland are the children of the English ... that from

time to time have come over into this kingdom; and there remains but a mere handful of

the Ancient Irish at this day, I may say, not one in a thousand.

Changes on the land

In the years following the chaos of war, the Irish countryside was changing.

Woods were cleared to make way for cattle (easier than grain to move in a hurry

in time of war) and a new crop took over. The potato – brought over from the

Americas – proved to be well-suited to Irish conditions. Nutritious, easy to grow

and capable of producing large crops, by the 1700s it was the staple diet in many

homes. People still ate cereals, dairy products, fish and jellied blood, but the

healthier diet centred round the potato reduced mortality and increased fertility,

with more children surviving infancy.

There was very little manufacturing in Ireland, although Huguenot refugees

brought an improvement in the quality of linen cloth in the 1690s and helped

Belfast grow rapidly. Most people, though, were entirely dependent on the food

they could grow. When crops failed, as they did dramatically in 1729, there was

serious famine.



5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland


A Why did the English gain control of Ireland?

Use the you have gathered in this topic to answer the following question:

‘The main reason why England gained control was because Ireland was divided.’

How far are you convinced that this view is correct?

You will need to look back at your notes on how and why England gained control

of Ireland after 1688. Consider the following:

a What were the reasons why England succeeded in gaining control of


b Was the main reason because Ireland was divided, or was another reason

more important?

c Do you agree with the statement, or not?

Use information and sources in this section to support your argument.


1 Explain why there was war in Ireland between 1689 and 1691. (10)

(You will need to give several reasons covering the situation in Ireland, England

and Europe.)

2 Explain in your own words how the ‘Glorious Revolution’ led to such bloodshed

in Ireland. (10)

(You will need to explain both why most Irish supported James but others

supported William, and how Ireland came to be at war.)

3 ‘Most Irish Protestants saw themselves as superior to, and different from, the

Catholic majority.’ How far do Sources 3, 4 and 5 in this topic convince you that

this view is correct? (20)

(You will need to consider: what the sources say and whether they support the

statement; who the writers were and whether they represented ‘most Irish

Protestants’; what you know about Protestants and Catholics in Ireland.)


1 There was already a long history of English colonisation of Ireland. Although the

majority of Irish people were Catholic, large areas – especially in the north –

were now Protestant plantations.

2 In 1688, William of Orange became king of England and Catholic James II was

forced to flee to France. Most Irish Catholics supported James, while most

Protestants supported William.

3 James landed in Ireland with French troops and was joined by Tyrconnell’s

Irish Catholic army. William sent ships and troops to break the Jacobite siege of


4 The war went well at first for the Jacobites, but after the Battle of the Boyne in

1690 James left Ireland and the Jacobites retreated. The Battle of Aughrim in

1691 was a clear victory for the Williamite forces.

5 Under the Treaty of Limerick many Jacobite soldiers left for France. Many

Catholic landowners lost their land. Catholics no longer had a say in

government and lost all military and political power. Ireland was under English


6 After William’s victory, harsh laws took away the rights of Irish Catholics.

Power rested with the British rulers in Dublin Castle.

7 Members of the Protestant Ascendancy became very rich and powerful,

but there were divisions between the Ascendancy and poorer Protestants.

Protestants began to resent the way the British government treated them as a

colonised, second class people.

Uncorrected proof


Source 1 The Massacre of Glencoe

by Peter Jackson. late twentieth


Source 2 The Massacre of Glencoe by

James Hamilton, 1880s.

1 What aspects of the Glencoe

Massacre are shown in

Sources 1 and 2? What

impression does each artist

give of the event?

Scotland 1688–1730


When William III came to power, he ruled two separate kingdoms. Scotland was an

independent nation with its own laws and parliament. During this period, however,

England and Scotland became one nation ruled from London. In this topic, you will

investigate why this massive change happened and consider whether it was good or

bad for people in Scotland.


A Was the Act of Union good or bad for Scotland?

As you study the text and sources in this section, make notes on:

a problems Scotland faced before 1707

b effects on Scotland of the Act of Union.

Why did the Glorious

Revolution lead to

murder in the Scottish


These two paintings represent – in

very different ways – the same event.

It took place in 1692, in a bitterly

cold mountain valley in the Scottish

Highlands. Thirty-eight women,

men and children belonging to the

clan McDonald were murdered by

government troops. Forty more died

of exposure in freezing conditions

after their homes were burned down.

They were killed by Scottish soldiers

(acting on behalf of King William)

who had spent ten days as guests of

the McDonalds, enjoying their food and drink before cutting them down. The

Massacre of Glencoe happened in the context of deep divisions in Scotland.

5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland



5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland 5.2 Scotland 1688–1730


A map of Scotland showing the Highland

and Lowland regions.
















Source 3 A detail from John Speed’s 1610

map of Scotland, showing Lowland and

Highland women. You can see their very

different clothing: the Lowland woman follows

mainstream European fashion while the

Highland dress is entirely different.

Hostility between Lowland and Highland Scots

The HIGHLANDERS were a native Gaelic-speaking people with their

own culture and traditions. They lived in family communities

(clans) in the harsh conditions of the northern mountains. They had

a strong warrior tradition and believed, with justification, that their

way of life was under threat. They were feared and looked down on

by the English-speaking LOWLANDERS who dominated the Scottish

Parliament in Edinburgh.

When William of Orange seized the throne from James, many

Highlanders supported the Jacobites, for several reasons:

• belief that James was the rightful king of Scotland according to

ancient traditions

hatred and fear of Lowlanders

conditions of poverty and frequent hunger

• mistrust of contradictory government policies, sometimes

threatening and sometimes bribing

resentment of the Campbells, a powerful clan that was close to

William. Archibald Campbell (Duke of Argyll) was William’s

military commander and chief adviser in Scotland, while John

Campbell (Earl of Breadalbane) was William’s main negotiator

with the clan chiefs.

Conflict between the Williamites and Jacobites

In 1603, Queen Elizabeth I had died without children so her nearest relative, the

king of Scotland, became king of England and Ireland. This meant that England

and Scotland, which had been two separate nations with their own parliaments,

were ruled by the same king, although retained their own parliaments. This

arrangement was called the UNION OF CROWNS. In 1688, when James VII of

Scotland and II of England was forced to give up his throne to William of Orange,

Scottish people were divided. Both James and William wrote to the Scottish

parliament asking for backing.

Reasons for Scots to support James

He was a Stuart, from the ancient Scottish

royal family.

He was still legally king according to Scottish


Scotland had not been consulted about the

invitation to become king from Members of

Parliament to William of Orange.

Reasons for Scots to support William

He was Protestant, like most Scots, and

James’s attempts to increase rights for

Catholics had been unpopular in Scotland.

He was ruling jointly with his wife Mary, who

was James’s daughter and therefore also a

Stuart from the Scottish royal family.

Uncorrected proof

Source 4 John Dalrymple,

secretary of state for Scotland,

on hearing that MacIain had

missed the deadline to swear

allegiance to King William, 1692.

My Lord Argyle tells me that

Glencoe has not taken the oath, at

which I rejoice. It is a great work of

charity to be exact in the rooting

out of that damnable sect, the

worst in all the Highlands.

1 Look at Source 4. Why was

Dalrymple pleased that the

oath had been missed?

2 Does Source 5 prove that

William knew about the


3 Is Breadalbane expressing

support for the massacre in

Source 6, or not? Why?

Source 6 John Campbell, Earl of

Breadalbane, in a letter to Colin

Campbell, 15 March 1692.

That precipitate action in Glencoe

... will produce events which are

contrary to what I have ventured

my life and fortune to have

completed in the Highlands, and

that is peace.

Source 7 Writer Daniel Defoe,

writing in 1727 about a visit

he made to Glasgow 30 years


It is a stately and well-built city

... and the finest built I have ever

seen in one city together. ... In a

word, ’tis one of the cleanliest, most

beautiful and best built cities in

Great Britain.

In 1689, the Scottish parliament backed William in a ‘Claim of Right’ that blamed

James for the troubles and said that no Catholic could ever be king again. Jacobites

rose up in anger and government troops fought them at the Battle of Killiecrankie.

Although the Jacobites won the battle, their leader and a third of their army were

killed. One month later, their rebellion collapsed at the Battle of Dunkeld.

William was determined to prevent a repeat of the rebellion. He organised a

military occupation of the Highlands, centred on a new army base he called Fort

William. In 1691, he announced that the clans who had supported James would

be pardoned if they came to swear allegiance to him before 1 January 1692.

Clan chiefs would have to swear an oath in the presence of a magistrate. The

chief of Glencoe, Alasdair MacIain, arrived in Fort William just in time, on 31

December, but was told he would have to make journey of more than 100 km to

Inveraray. He arrived there and took the oath on 2 January. He was a day late, but

nonetheless, he was promised that his people, the McDonalds, were safe. They

were not. The king in London and his representatives in Edinburgh wanted to

make an example of one of the Highland clans and MacIain’s delayed signature to

the oath gave them their excuse.

Under Scottish law the Massacre of Glencoe was ‘murder by trust’, which

meant that the killers had accepted their victims’ hospitality before committing

the crime. The Scottish parliament condemned the action and the London

government tried to cover up who was responsible. William was forced to order an

enquiry, but no one was ever punished.

Did William himself order the murders? How far were the powerful Campbells

involved? Historians disagree and the evidence is not conclusive.

Source 5 The order for the massacre, received on 12 February 1692 by Captain

Robert Campbell from his superior officer, Major Duncanson.

Whatever the truth about who was involved, the massacre created a climate of fear

and anger in the Highlands. It deepened the division between Highlanders and both

the English and Scottish governments. For many, it strengthened their attachment

to the Jacobite cause while making it clear that the monarchy in London and its

parliamentary backers were ready to use ruthless means to assert control.

Why did Scotland face economic ruin?

You are hereby ordered to fall upon the

rebels, the McDonalds of Glencoe, and put

all to the sword under seventy. You are to

have a special care that the old Fox and

his sons do upon no account escape your

hands, you are to secure all the avenues

that no man escape. ...This is by the King’s

special command, for the good and safety

of the country, that these miscreants

[criminals] be cut off root and branch.

Scotland at the end of the seventeenth century was one of the most advanced

centres of learning in Europe. Its universities were famous across the world. It had

high standards of science, medicine and town planning, especially in Edinburgh

and Glasgow.

150 151

5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland 5.2 Scotland 1688–1730

Source 8 Sir Robert Sibbald,

in his booklet ‘Provision for

the Poor in time of Dearth and

Scarcity’, 1699.

Some die by the wayside, some

drop down on the streets ...

everyone may see death in the

face of the poor, that abound

everywhere; the thinness of their

visage, their ghostly looks, their

feebleness, their illnesses threaten

them with sudden death.

Figure 9 A map showing the

location of the Darien settlement.

Source 10 William Paterson

explaining the benefits of his

scheme, 1695.

Trade will increase trade, and

money will beget money. ... Thus,

this door of the seas and the key

of the universe ... will of course

enable the proprietors to ... become

arbitrators of the commercial

world, without being liable to the

fatigues, expenses and dangers.

1 Look at Figure 9 and Source

10. What were the apparent

advantages of the scheme?

2 Look at the occupations of

contributors listed in Source

11 and the amounts. What

does this tell you about the

level of support from Scottish

people for the scheme?

On the other hand, many Scottish people lived in extreme poverty. This was

partly due to the unequal relationship with England. Scotland had its own

parliament, but its ministers were appointed by the king, who was based in

London. Neglected by kings in England and dragged into their foreign wars,

Scotland became increasingly poor. Throughout the 1690s, harvests failed

and there were severe famines during which between a fifth and a third of the

population died or emigrated. Inequalities were made worse by English policies

that held the Scottish economy back:

• The Navigation Act prevented Scottish ships from being involved in trade to

England and the colonies from overseas.

• Two powerful English companies, the East India Company and the Royal

Africa Company, were granted a MONOPOLY of trade – in goods and enslaved

people – with India and Africa. Scottish companies had no access to this trade.

England’s involvement in foreign wars meant that trade with much of Europe

was often cut off.

William’s government was widely blamed for Scotland’s problems.

The Darien Scheme

The Edinburgh government searched desperately for ways

to help the economy grow. In 1695, a highly respected

banker called William Paterson proposed an apparent

solution. He suggested the formation of a Scottish colony

in Central America, on a strip of land in Panama called

the Isthmus of Darien. The idea was that this settlement

could control trade between North and South America,

and between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

The idea caught the imagination of the Scottish people.

Paterson helped set up the Bank of Scotland and

parliament created the ‘Company of Scotland Trading to

Africa and the Indies’. Scottish nobles invested £400,000

(about £80 million in today’s money), nearly a quarter of Scotland’s cash wealth,

and a wide range of ordinary Scots contributed. Several English merchants and

bankers also backed the scheme.

Reasons for the failure of the Darien scheme

With high hopes of success, the first expedition – 1,200 people including William

Paterson, his wife and child – sailed in 1698 and established a settlement of huts

(New Edinburgh) and a defensive fort (St Andrew). It lasted only a year. The

diagram below explains the problems they faced and why it ended in failure.

The Tule had a complex culture and 100 years of experience fighting the Spanish.

They had no interest in the trinkets they were offered and could see no advantage

Source 11 An extract from

the Company of Scotland

subscription list, 1696. (£100

was a lot of money when the

average wage for about £15 a


Uncorrected proof

Source 12 The title page of the

Company of Scotland’s minute

book, 1696.

Source 13 John Dalrymple,

Earl of Stair and secretary of

state for Scotland, debating in

parliament, 1700.

What we lacked were not men at

arms, or courage, but the one thing

most needful: the friendly cooperation

of ... the English [who] did

not treat us as partners or friends

or fellow-subjects of a British king

but as pirates and enemy aliens.

Source 14 The Duke of

Queensberry, speaking in the

Scottish parliament, 1700.

The king was resolved that no man

that opposed him should enjoy

either place or pension of him.

Source 16 Reverend Francis

Borland, writing in 1715.

What with bad water, salt

spoiled provisions, and absence of

medicines, the fort was indeed like

an hospital of sick and dying men.

4 What reasons do Sources

13–16 suggest for the failure

of the Darien Scheme?

3 Look closely at the Company of Scotland’s coat of arms in Source 12. What does

the design tell you about the aims and objectives of the company?

in an alliance with settlers who would antagonise the Spanish without having the

weapons to fight them. William was against the Darien settlement because it got

in the way of his negotiations with the Spanish. He stopped all English ships and

colonies from trading with the settlers. He also convinced the Dutch investors to

withdraw and refuse to sell ships to the company. The East India Company saw

the scheme as a threat to its profits. Pressure from them and the king got English

investors – who had provided about half the funds for the project – to pull out.


by the settlers

poor supplies; inappropriate

farming skills; lack of fresh

water; settlement in an area

the Spanish regarded as

part of their empire; failed

negotiations with the

local Tule people


from England

opposition from King

William and from the

East India Company;

withdrawal of support

by English directors



they faced

hot, humid, swampy

marshland; torrential rain;

disease that spread rapidly;

malnutrition; difficult terrain

for transporting goods –

marshland, mountains

and thick rainforest

By March 1699, 200 people had died, including Paterson’s wife and child. Around

ten more were dying each day. In July 1699, the 300 surviving residents abandoned

the settlement. A month later another expedition left Scotland for Panama. They

did not know the first settlement had failed and arrived to find New Edinburgh

deserted. They tried to rebuild the colony, making many of the same mistakes as

the first expedition. There were also deep divisions within the group about how

the settlement should be organised, as well as personality clashes. In 1700, they did

manage to defeat a Spanish force, though this provoked the Spanish to attack later.

After a month’s siege, the Scottish settlers surrendered to the Spanish and were

allowed to leave.

Darien was a total disaster for Scotland. The company’s losses were over £20

million in today’s money and much of it was the life savings of individual people.

The country was in economic crisis.

Source 15 Roger Oswald, one of the settlers in New Edinburgh, c1700.

Every man (let him never be so weak) daily turned out to work by daylight ...and stayed till

night, sometimes working all day up to the headbands of the breeches [trousers] in water

at the trenches. ... Our Councillors [leaders] all the while lying at their ease, sometimes

divided into factions and, being swayed by particular interest, ruined the public.

152 153

5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland 5.2 Scotland 1688–1730

Source 17 Parliament in Edinburgh,

from Nicholas de Gueudeville’s

Atlas Historique, 1720.

Why did the Scottish parliament close

itself down?

In the early 1700s, England was deeply unpopular with

many Scots, and anti-English riots were common. Anger

over famine, war, Glencoe, Darien and the defeat of the

Jacobites came to a head in the case of Captain Thomas

Green, an English sailor accused of being a pirate. He was

hanged, along with two others, on Leith Sands in 1705. The

idea that Scotland would give up its parliament and allow

itself to be ruled from London seemed highly unlikely. In

1707, though, it happened.

Source 17 shows the Scottish parliament in session in the

1680s, with the procession known as the ‘riding’, which

happened at the opening and closing of sessions. When the

parliament was set up in the thirteenth century, Scotland

was an independent kingdom. After the Union of Crowns in 1603, the Edinburgh

parliament still had considerable political and economic control of Scotland.

Disputes over the succession

In the first years of the eighteenth century, laws passed in London and Edinburgh

pulled England and Scotland further apart. The English 1701 Act of Settlement

established that the German Hanoverians would eventually succeed to the English

throne. Members of the Scottish parliament refused to agree to this. They passed

an Act of Security, which asserted that they could decide independently who

should be their next monarch. In 1703, the

Scottish parliament passed a law saying it could

trade wool with countries at war with England,

and the Act Anent Peace and War (‘anent’ was

Scottish for ‘about’) said that only the Scottish

parliament, not the monarch, could declare

war on an enemy nation. In response, the

English Aliens Act of 1705 threatened to punish

Scotland economically with a ban on exports

to England – treating all Scots as aliens – if the

Hanoverian succession was not accepted.

Meanwhile, English politicians started pushing

for full union with Scotland, under one

parliament, for military and security reasons.

They wanted this to end the threat of war with

Scotland at a time when England was facing

the possibility of a French invasion. They also

wanted to end the risk of a Jacobite such as

the ‘Old Pretender’ (see Factfile) taking the

Scottish throne.

Discussions in the Scottish parliament

continued for nearly a year. The main

arguments for and against union with England

are summarised in the diagram below.

Uncorrected proof

Source 18 William Seton of

Pitmedden, in a speech to the

Scottish parliament, 1706.

Every monarch, having two or more

kingdoms, will be obliged to prefer

the counsel and interest of the

stronger to that of the weaker. ...

This nation being poor and without

force to protect it, its commerce

cannot reap great advantages by

it, till it becomes part of the trade

and protection of some powerful

neighbour nation, that can

communicate both these.

1 Read Source 18. Was Seton

for or against union with

England? What were his


Source 19 A commemorative medal

of ‘James VIII and III’ (the ‘Old

Pretender’), with the word ‘reddite’

in Latin, meaning ‘give it back’.

In the end, despite mass protests against the union in the streets and general

opposition across Scotland, the majority in parliament supported the union.

One of the main reasons for this was clever tactics by the English politicians.

They wanted union for security reasons, so they were willing to make economic

concessions. They agreed to greater trade freedom and promised to write off the

debt from the Darien Scheme if Scotland agreed to the union. They also said that

Scottish institutions such as the Church and legal system would not be changed.

Many Scottish politicians were bribed with large amounts of money and seats in

the House of Lords. At the same time, English troops were moved northwards and

the Scots began to fear an English invasion if they did not agree.

And so, on 11 July 1706, the English and Scottish parliaments agreed a Treaty of

Union. Later that year the English parliament passed the Union with Scotland Act,

and the following year the Scottish parliament passed the Union with England

Act. From May 1707, under the ACT OF UNION, Scotland and England became

one country – Great Britain – ruled not only by one monarch but also by one

parliament in London. The Scottish parliament had voted itself out of existence.


The Hanoverian succession

• James VII and II died in exile in France in 1701. William died in 1702. As he had no

children, the throne was passed next to his sister-in-law Anne who, in spite of 17

pregnancies, had no surviving children.

• Worried that the throne might pass to a Catholic, in 1701 the English Parliament

passed the Act of Settlement, which said that after Anne’s death the throne would

pass to her nearest Protestant relative (even though over 50 Catholics had a

stronger claim to the throne). This relative was a German noblewoman called

Sophia, the Electress of Hanover. The Scottish parliament did not agree to the Act of


• Sophia died two months before Anne in 1714, so her son George – who spoke only

German – became king of Great Britain. By this time the Scottish parliament no

longer existed.

• Meanwhile the Jacobites had a new hope: James’s son, James Edward Stuart,

known as the ‘Old Pretender’. They saw him as the rightful monarch and King Louis

of France proclaimed him ‘King of England, Scotland and Ireland’.

The 1715 Rebellion

After one unsuccessful Jacobite uprising in 1708, the Old Pretender made a serious

bid for power in 1715 after George of Hanover became king without the Scots

being consulted. The Earl of Mar organised an uprising with the intention to put

James Edward on the throne, with the promise that the Scottish parliament would

be restored. He gathered 10,000 INFANTRY and CAVALRY against the government’s

4,000 and was supported not only by Highlanders but also by some Lowland lords.

There was also an uprising in the north-east of England by people opposed to

Hanoverian rule. After an inconclusive battle at Sheriffmuir, the uprising failed

and James Edward was forced to leave with Mar in 1716.

2 Look closely at both sides of the coin in Source 19.

a What point is being made by the word ‘reddite’?

b What is the significance of the map?

c Why is James Edward Stuart shown wearing a laurel wreath on his head?

154 155

5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland 5.2 Scotland 1688–1730

The impact on Scotland of the Act of Union












The diagram below summarises the main impacts of the Act of Succession on Scotland.

• The English government now had ultimate responsibility for law and order in Scotland.

In the Scottish Highlands, it formed an occupying army of well-equipped, ruthless forces

supported by vast sums of money gained from heavily increased taxes.

• The government in London reacted firmly after the 1715 rising. The 1716 Disarming Act made

it illegal for Highlanders to carry weapons.

• The English kept a standing army in the north of Scotland.

• From 1725 onwards, General George Wade was given the task of building a network of

military roads and bridges through the Highlands that would enable government troops

to move quickly in case of trouble. These were so well constructed that they remain key

features of the transport network today.

• The 1708 Cruiser and Convoy Act enabled protection of Scotland by the Royal Navy from any

threat to British security – Jacobites as well as the French and Spanish.

• There were new career opportunities for leading Scottish politicians and other wealthy


• There was competition for places in the House of Lords and other key positions.

• Several high-ranking Scots were implicated in cases of corruption and bribery within

London politics and business.

• With no Scottish parliament, government was even more distant from the lives of ordinary

Scottish people, especially Highlanders who felt they were being ruled by a colonial power.

• Many Scottish people became involved at all levels in the growth of the British Empire – as

administrators, soldiers, planters and, later, even governors

• Those who had lost in the Darien Scheme got their money back with added interest and

several invested it in a new bank, the Royal Bank of Scotland.

• Immigrant Flemish and Irish weavers helped the linen industry to grow and Glasgow

became a major international port, benefiting especially from trade in tobacco from North


• Thanks to freer trade, exports of grain and oatmeal more than doubled between 1707 and

1722. Agricultural techniques improved.

• By the 1730s Scotland’s economy was starting to boom, largely due to the exploitation of the

growing British Empire. Merchant shipping benefited hugely.

• Many Scottish merchants set up profitable businesses in London.

• There was no sudden prosperity and many industries – such as the paper industry –


• After 1710, taxes and customs duties were heavily increased, causing suffering for many.

• As a result of high taxation, smuggling was common. A customs investigation in 1715–17

found that over 60 per cent of tobacco had been smuggled.

• Scottish industry could not compete with that of England, and much of Scotland’s capital

wealth was moved to London.

• There were regular protests against the union.

• The Malt Tax led to riots across Scotland in 1725. In Glasgow, eight people died and a mob

drove troops out of city until General Wade arrived with 400 troops. Rioters were punished


• The 1724 Levellers ‘fence-smashing’ movement was a response to landlords who were

enclosing their land for sheep farming and evicting their poor tenants who became homeless

and unemployed.

• Being in Great Britain meant prosperity and a higher standard of living for many Lowlanders,

but it resulted in greater poverty for Highlanders – and eventually the destruction of their

way of life.

Uncorrected proof

Source 23 General Wade’s Bridge

at Aberfeldy, Perthshire.

1 The diagram shows the many ways union with England affected Scotland. Sort

these into negative and positive effects.

2 Which sectors of Scottish society do you think benefited most from the Union,

and who benefited least?

Source 20 Writer Daniel Defoe, who acted as an English agent in Edinburgh.

The great [Scottish]men are posting to London for places and honours, every man full of

his own merit and afraid of everyone near him: I never saw so much trick, sham, pride,

jealousy and cutting of friends’ throats as there is among the noblemen.

Source 21 An extract from a folk song called ‘The Levellers’ Lines’.

Against the poor the lairds [lords] prevail

With all their wicked works,

Who will enclose both hill and dale,

And turn corn-fields into parks.

The lords and lairds they drive us out

From mailings [main roads] where we dwell;

The poor man cries, ‘Where shall we go?’

The rich says, ‘Go to hell!’

Source 22 Captain Burt, an English officer and road surveyor with General Wade,

who spent time in the Highlands in the 1730s.

The young children of the ordinary Highlanders are miserable objects indeed. ... I have

often seen them come out of their huts early in a cold morning stark naked, and squat

themselves down (if I might decently use the comparison) like dogs on a dunghill. … [In

spring] their provision of oatmeal begins to fail, and for a supply they bleed their cattle,

and boil their blood into cakes, which, together with a little milk and a short allowance of

oatmeal is their food.

156 157

5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland


A Was the Act of Union good or bad for Scotland?

Use the evidence you have gathered in this topic to answer the following


‘Scotland gained more than it lost from the Act of Union.’ How far are you convinced

that this view is correct?

You will need to look back at your notes on the problems Scotland faced

before 1707. Did union with England help solve these problems? Look also at

your notes on the effect of union on Scotland. On balance, did union help or

harm Scotland? Use information and sources in this section to support your



1 Explain why the Scottish parliament voted for union with England in 1707. (10)

2 ‘The massacre of Glencoe was planned from the very top of government.’ How

far do Sources 3, 4 and 5 in this topic convince you that this view is correct? (20)

3 ‘The English destroyed Darien.’ How far do Sources 13, 14 and 15 in this topic

convince you that this view is correct? (20)


Scotland 1688–c1730

1 In 1688 Scotland and England were separate kingdoms, with separate

parliaments, under one king. There were deep divisions between the Highland

and Lowland Scots, and between Jacobites and Williamites.

2 The Scottish parliament backed William and his forces defeated a Jacobite

rebellion. William imposed military control of the Highlands, forcing all clan

chiefs to swear an oath of loyalty.

3 After the chief of clan McDonald swore the oath a day later than the deadline,

Williamite soldiers massacred 38 of the clan in Glencoe. Forty more died of cold

and hunger.

4 In the 1690s, Scotland’s economy was in crisis. Large numbers of Scottish

people invested in a scheme to settle and trade at Darien in Panama. The

project was a disaster and many felt that the English had undermined it.

5 In the early 1700s, relations between the English and Scottish governments

worsened. However, as a result of a combination of economic and political

pressure and bribery, the Scottish parliament agreed to union with England.

6 The Act of Union was passed in 1707, creating the kingdom of Great Britain.

The act was very unpopular with many Scots. The Scottish parliament was


7 Union with England brought economic benefits to many Scots, especially

Lowlanders. Union was a disaster for Highlanders, bringing poverty and

military occupation.

8 After a German nobleman became King George I, Jacobites rose up in an

attempt to try to put the son of James II, known as the ‘Old Pretender’, on the

throne. They were defeated.

Uncorrected proof


Emigration 1688–c1730:

an overview


In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, hundreds of thousands of

Irish, Scottish and English people left for a new life in other countries. Most left

unwillingly, as captives or because life in the British Isles was intolerable. In this

topic, you will investigate the reasons for this dramatic increase in emigration. You

will also examine some of the outcomes for different groups of migrants.


A Why did so many people emigrate 1688–c1730?

These pages give a snapshot of different emigrant groups. As you read the

topic, fill out a table like the one below to record the information.


Reasons for emigration

Reasons for

emigration Destination Outcomes


After the 1715 Jacobite uprising, the British authorities brought 1,259 Scottish

rebels to London to stand trial. Many of them were persuaded to ‘petition for

transportation’ to avoid execution. This meant they would be shipped to the

Americas to live out their sentence there as labourers. The first shipload took

638 people; more than 450 went to North America and about 170 to the

Caribbean. On arrival, most were sold as field workers. In South Carolina,

185 people were bought and then used as soldiers to fight the Native American

Yammasee people. A few were bought and then set free by people sympathetic

to their cause. This BANISHMENT of political enemies to the Americas had been

started by Cromwell in the 1640s and 1650s, when he forcibly transported Irish

and Scottish political prisoners.

Convict transportation

The 1718 Transportation Act allowed the shipment of convicted criminals across

the Atlantic, partly to ease the overcrowded prisons. Over the following 60 years,

more than 50,000 men, women and children were transported in convict ships

from England, Scotland and particularly Ireland. The system was used to get

rid of any groups who were regarded as undesirable: Roma Gypsies, vagrants,

prostitutes and Scottish Highlanders as well as political enemies. Sold on arrival,

most ended up on tobacco plantations where they served up to seven years, after

which they were freed. One merchant claimed that the trade in convicts was twice

as profitable as the trade in enslaved Africans.

5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland



5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland 5.3 Emigration 1688–c1730: an overview

Volunteer indentured servants

Not all who emigrated were captives: many chose to travel as indentured

labourers, who agreed to work unpaid as someone’s property for seven or eight

years, after which they would be freed. In effect, they were temporary slaves. It

was a dangerous choice: conditions were harsh and about a quarter of those who

made this choice did not survive the period of indenture. The fact that so many

thought it was worth the risk tells us how hard their life in Britain must have

been. Some of these servants were reasonably well off, hoping to build a new life

after their period of indenture. Others were craftsmen, offering a skill they hoped

would be valued. The majority, though, were poor people who sold themselves to

ships’ captains and were auctioned on arrival.

The main reason that people went was poverty and a lack of opportunity in

their native countries. In Ireland and Scotland in the 1690s they were driven by

harvest failures and famine. In England and Scotland they were victims of land

ENCLOSURES, which meant there was no longer enough work in the countryside

for all those in need of it. Many Irish families had been forced off their land by the

Ulster plantations (see page XX).

Many died before gaining their freedom, as a result of climate, disease or

maltreatment. Of those who survived, many joined militias to protect settler

communities, either from the Native Americans whose land had been stolen or

from feared uprisings by enslaved Africans. Some Scots found advancement in

Jamaica: John Campbell, a Darien survivor, became a planter and member of the

Jamaica Assembly. Others were politically active: on the island of St Kitts in 1689 a

Jacobite governor-general encouraged Irish workers to destroy English plantations

before allowing the French to take the island!

The Ulster Scots

During this period the great majority of Scots who emigrated did not go to

the Americas, but to Ireland, taking advantage of its better weather and soil for

cultivation, as well as the easy journey from Western Scotland. After the Treaty of

Limerick in 1691 Scottish Protestants were given attractive offers by the English

government to settle in Ulster on land that the Irish had been forced to leave.


There were other reasons why people emigrated. Scottish merchant adventurers

roamed Asia and the Caribbean looking for opportunities to trade. Large numbers

of Scots served as MERCENARY SOLDIERS in European wars, particularly in Russia

and Scandinavia, as Irishmen did in the French army. After the Act of Union,

increasing numbers of Scots served as administrators for the East India Company.

One of them, John Drummond, became a director. Between 1720 and 1757, all

the principal medical officers in Madras were Scottish, and the Scottish naval

surgeon William Hamilton treated the emperor of India for a sexually transmitted

disease in 1711. He was showered with gifts!

Source 1 Writer Daniel Defoe, commenting on emigration from Glasgow in the


The poor people offering themselves fast enough, and thinking it their advantage to go; as

indeed it is, to those who go with sober resolutions, namely to serve out their times, and

then become diligent [hardworking] planters for themselves ... if it goes on for many years

more Virginia may be rather called a Scots than an English plantation.

The planters employing them were mainly English settlers. Many also employed enslaved

Africans, sometimes working alongside the indentured servants.

Uncorrected proof

Figure 3 A graph showing British

net emigration 1631–1731 (‘net’

emigration is the number of

emigrants minus the number of

immigrants, so it is the overall

decrease in population as a result

of migration).

Source 2 An extract from Daniel Defoe’s novel Moll Flanders, describing arrivals in

Virginia from England, 1722.

They were of two sorts. Either (1) such as were brought over by masters of ships to be sold

as servants, such as we call them, my dear, but they are more properly called slaves. Or (2)

such as are transported from Newgate and other prisons, after having been found guilty of

crimes punishable with death. When they come here we make no difference: the planters

buy them, and they work together in the field till their time is out.

1631– 41

1641– 51

1651– 61

1661– 71

1671– 81

1681– 91

1691– 1701

1701– 11

1711– 21

1721– 31


















Source 4 An extract from a contemporary account of the English sugar

plantations, 1700s.

The colonies were plentifully supplied with Christian servants ... being excellent planters

and soldiers ... that they neither feared the insurrection [uprising] of their Negroes, nor any

invasion of a foreign enemy.


1 ‘The main reason for emigration from the British Isles was the authorities’

attack on the poor.’ Is this an accurate summary of Irish, Scottish and English

emigration during this period?


Emigration 1688–c1730

1 Large numbers of people emigrated from England, Scotland and Ireland to the


2 Many were forced to leave, by banishment or as convicts.

3 Many others went as indentured labourers, forced to work unpaid as their

owners’ property for several years, after which they were freed.

4 Most emigrated because of poverty or being forced off their land.

5 Many Scots emigrated to Ireland. Others joined the army or worked as

administrators for overseas trading and enslaving companies.

6 Emigrants had a range of experiences, ranging from violence and disease to

eventual success.


160 161

5.4 Review: English control

5 The three kingdoms: England, Ireland and Scotland

5.4 Review: English control


You will need to explain how the English controlled Ireland and Scotland and

assess the impact this control had on those countries. You will also need to make a

judgement using contemporary sources and your own knowledge.

1 Copy and complete the table below, using as much detail as you can.



How the English

gained military


How the English

gained political control

How the English gained

economic control

Compare the ways in which the English gained military control of Ireland and

Scotland. Do the same for political and economic control.

2 Copy and complete the table below using as much detail as you can.



Social impact of

English rule

Political impact of

English rule

Economic impact of

English rule

Do you think England had a largely positive or negative impact on Ireland and

Scotland during this period?

3 ‘By 1730, English control of the British Isles was largely successful.’ Do the

sources in this chapter and your own knowledge convince you that this statement

is true?


Make sure you understand these key terms and can use them

confidently in your writing.

l Act of Union

l Ascendancy

l Highlanders

l Jacobites

l Lowlanders

l plantations

l Wars of the three Kingdoms

Uncorrected proof

Migration links

You already know about the tax on foreigners in the late Middle Ages, when

those born outside the king’s realm were classed as ‘aliens’. However, even

though English kings asserted their rule over Ireland, the Irish in England

were counted as aliens and taxed. From medieval times their status in English

eyes was therefore as colonised people – invaded and then controlled and

treated as inferior – rather than equal citizens.

In the seventeenth century, the Irish were already being portrayed as slaves,

cowards and ‘weeds’. These dehumanising, racist attitudes would worsen in

the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, when poverty forced mass migration

to England.

Loss of land and harsh laws aimed at Catholics forced many more poorer Irish

people to emigrate across the Atlantic. The potato crop, seen as a lifesaver in

the 1700s, would be a major cause of famine and mass migration in the 1840s

(see Topic 3.3).

The attacks on the Scottish Highland way of life that began in this period

intensified over the next century and ended with the Clearances in the

mid nineteenth century that emptied the land of people and forced mass

emigration to Scottish and English industrial cities.

Impact on today’s world

Ireland is still deeply affected by the events of the 1690s. The divisions

between the majority Protestant north and the mainly Catholic south remain.

In Northern Ireland, although political power is shared, tension remains

between the mainly Protestant Loyalists, who want to remain in the UK,

and largely Catholic Nationalists, who want a united Ireland. On 12 July

each year, the anniversary of the Battle of Aughrim, Ulster Protestants

commemorate the Williamite victory with marches led by the Orange Order,

an Ulster Protestant organisation named in William’s honour. Disputes over

the naming of (London)derry continue.

After the defeat of the Scottish rising in 1715, one more Jacobite rebellion in

1745 failed and resulted in the total defeat of the Highland clans. Their way

of life has gone and the once populated glens and hills are largely empty of

people. Much of the Highlands and Islands still belongs to absentee private

landowners. Scotland remains part of Great Britain and the Act of Union is

still intact. However, Scotland now has its own parliament again, and the

Scottish Nationalists – who want independence – are by far the strongest

party in Scotland.



7 The social and political impact of empire on Britain 1688–c1730 Conclusion: how glorious was the revolution?

This answer is effective because

it combines precisely selected

examples to back up the different

points that are being made.

There are also lots of different

connectives being used to reinforce

the analysis and consistently focus

on the question.


The British depth study will be assessed by two questions. In both questions, you will

be required to understand second-order historical concepts such as continuity, change,

cause, consequence, significance and similarity and difference within situations.

There are 35 marks available in total for the British depth stud, and it is recommended

that you spend 45 minutes on this part of the exam.

Question 1

Question 1 will always be an ‘Explain’ question worth 10 marks. Spend about 15

minutes on this question. You should be able to produce two or three paragraphs and a

brief conclusion in your answer. An example of this type of question is:

1 Explain why so many people emigrated from Scotland and Ireland during this



This will be similar to Question 2 in the thematic exam: you will need to write an

effective piece of analysis rather than description. The best way to write an analysis

is by using qualifiers such as ‘most significant’ or ‘least important’ to order your

examples and to use double connectives such as ‘Therefore’ … ‘because’ to emphasise

your arguments.

Example answer

Note that this example only focuses on Scotland. To get full marks you would also need

to write about Ireland. In your conclusion you could also identify any similarities or

differences between the Scottish and Irish experiences.

A significant reason why many Scots left their homes was problems with the

Scottish economy, which had increased the amount of poverty they faced. Many

moved to places with stronger economies like England to get better jobs in order to

escape this. As a result of the Act of Union, for example, the Scottish textile industry

found that it could not compete with the English textile industry, which led to many

moving to England or abroad for work with groups like the East India Company.

Another important reason why large-scale emigration began from Highland areas

was rent increases and the beginning of the enclosure of the common land. This

meant that many Scots were forced off their land because they could no longer

afford to stay there and as a result many decided to emigrate in the hope of a better

life elsewhere. These problems were increased during the famine years of the 1690s,

when between one-fifth and one-third of Scots emigrated.

In addition to the factors pushing Scottish people to leave, the system of indentured

labour on plantations in the Americas, although harsh, attracted some because of

the promise of freedom to settle afterwards. A larger number were attracted to the

prospect of a better life on the plantations in Ireland, where the English government

was encouraging Scottish Protestants to settle. Some Scots, however, had no choice.

Many who fought for the Jacobite cause were banished and forced to leave.

Question 2

Question carries 20 marks, with another 5 marks available for spelling, punctuation

and grammar. This will involve the use of historical sources from the period of the

depth study. You will be provided with a statement and asked to make a judgement

about how far you agree with it using evidence from the sources and your own

knowledge. An example of this type of question is:

Study Sources A–C. ‘British people grew rich from empire and trade in this period.’

How far do Sources A–C convince you that this statement is correct? Use the sources

and your knowledge to explain your answer.

Uncorrected proof

Source A An extract from The History of Moll Flanders, a novel by Daniel Defoe

published in 1722. In this extract, a member of the American colony is talking to a

newcomer about the colony.

Most of the inhabitants of the colony from England are of two sorts. Some are brought

over by masters of ships to be sold as servants. We call them servants my dear but they

are more properly called slaves. Others are transported from Newgate and other prisons.

When they come here the servants and the prisoners are treated the same. And they are

given small amounts of land. When their sentence is done they are free and have land and

face better prospects than they ever would at home. Here a Newgate jailbird becomes

a great man. Several of our top judges, senior militia officers and wealthiest traders are

former prisoners.

Source B Joshua Gee, British merchant, writing about the slave trade in The Trade

and Navigation of Great Britain Considered, 1729.

Our trade with Africa is very profitable to the nation in general ... the planting sugar and

tobacco, and carrying on trade ... are the great cause of the increase of the riches of the

kingdom. ... All this great increase of our treasure proceeds chiefly from the labour of

Negroes in the plantations.

Source C Wanstead House in Essex, built in 1715 by Sir Richard Child with money

his father accumulated as governor and as stockholder of the East India Company.


A number of factors will help you achieve high marks on this question:

• Firstly you will need to use precisely selected detail from each of the sources and

their provenance (who, when, why was it written/produced?) to back up the points

that you make. Make sure that you discuss each source separately.

• This evidence will need to be supported by your own knowledge to provide the

historical context of the sources.

• Finally, you should demonstrate your understanding of both sides of the question

by analysing arguments for and against the statement before reaching a judgement in

which you explain the extent to which you agree.

206 207

7 The social and political impact of empire on Britain 1688–c1730

Example answer

Good use of own knowledge to

contextualise the sources.

Here, a judgement is being made

about the provenance of the source.

Evidence and inferences from the

source are being made.

The conclusion reaches a judgement

about the extent of agreement with

the statement.

These sources show us that the statement is true of some people. Source C provides an

example of extreme personal wealth clearly derived from the empire in India. Not only

has Sir Richard Child built his magnificent house but he has also commissioned

etchings of it. We know also that many of the stately homes in England were built

or redeveloped using money from plantations. Source B claims that Britain ‘in

general’ grew wealthy from the plantations and that ‘the kingdom’ was enriched

. It is certainly true that wealth came to Britain. In the late 1680s alone, colonies

shipped goods worth over £1 million to London. However, although this evidence

convinces me that some people did well out of trade and empire it does not tell me

whether this was true for all. Source A does show some poorer people benefiting from

the empire by emigrating to the colonies as indentured servants or even as convicts,

although the fact that this is from a novel means we cannot be sure how far this is

based on fact.

The writer of Source B recognises that British wealth was based on enslavement. As

he is a merchant and clearly benefiting, he appears to support the slave system and

he is therefore not taking a balanced view. As he admits, trade in this period relied

on the slave system. Historians disagree about whether this made most British people

rich. Some argue that most people in Britain benefited from the system, while others

say that only a few rich people gained and the gap between rich and poor widened.

On balance, the statement, though convincing about some British people and perhaps

the British economy in general, is not true of all. To know whether most British

people gained, we would need more evidence. We can say, however, that the ‘Negroes’

referred to by Joshua Gee, although creating the wealth according to him, gained

none of it.

The Question 2 medal ceremony

•Bronze (up to 8 marks): You give some simple analysis of the sources and use

them to make some analysis of the issue, about which you demonstrate a little

knowledge and understanding.

Silver (up to 16 marks): You give a reasoned judgement that analyses the

sources and shows strong knowledge and understanding of the issue.

•Gold (up to 24 marks): You give a detailed analysis of the sources to support

a well-reasoned argument using detailed and accurate knowledge and

understanding. You reach a valid conclusion.

Keys to success

As long as you know the content and have learned how to think, this exam should not be

too scary. The keys to success are:

1 Read the question carefully. This may sound obvious, but there is a skill to it.

Sometimes students answer the question they wish had been asked rather than the

one that has actually been asked. So identify the skill focus (what they are asking

you to do). Do they want you to write a description, an explanation or a comparison?

Identify the content focus (what it is about) and select from your knowledge


2 Note the marks available. That helps you work out how much time to spend on

answering each question. Time is precious – if you spend too long on low-mark

questions you will run out of time for the high-mark ones.

3 Plan your answer before you start writing. For essays this is particularly important.

The golden rule is: know what you are going to say; then say it clearly and logically.

4 Aim for quality not quantity: in the time limits of an exam you will not be able to

write down everything you know and can think of – even if it is relevant. The marker

would much rather read a short answer that really tackles the question than page

after page of material that is not relevant.

5 Check your work. You will never have time in an exam to rewrite an answer but try

to leave some time at the end to check for obvious spelling mistakes, missing words

or other writing errors that might cost you marks.

Uncorrected proof


Study of the historic


Urban environments:

patterns of Migration


7.2 Conclusion: how glorious was the revolution?

Studying the historic environment

Areas of study

Patterns of Migration


In the first two parts of this book you have studied British history from two


in overview – migration to Britain over a 1,000-year period

• in depth – the impact of empire in Britain over a 40-year period.

Your course includes a third kind of history that links to both these studies – local

history – a study of the Historic Environment. This brief topic outlines what you

might study, how it links to the rest of your course and how it will be assessed.

Look around your village, town or city and you will

find clues to the lives of people who have arrived,

settled and moved on over the centuries. This is

especially true in Britain’s ports, which were so

often immigrants’ place of first landing. To give you

a deeper understanding of how migration has left its

mark on our environment, you will study one of the

urban port areas shown on this map:

See Topics

3.3 and 4.4.


Ports are places

of departure as well

as arrival. People left

the UK for new lives



and thinkers:

Enterprising men and

women from all over the

world came in search of

opportunity and made

their mark.


‘Migration to

Britain’ Topics

3.2 and 4.1.

Trade and

empire: Seamen

from Asia, Africa and

the West Indies were

hired by the merchant

shipping lines and

many settled in

British ports.


to Britain


People came to

find work from Ireland,

Scotland and southern

Europe in the nineteenth

century, from Asia, Africa

and the Caribbean in the late

twentieth century and from

the European Union in the

twenty-first century.

See Topics

3.3, 4.3 and 4.4.


Cities grew rich from

the profits of slavery:

some enslaved Africans

were brought here by

sea against their will.


People seeking

safety included


Huguenots, nineteenthcentury


and refugees from late

twentieth and twentyfirst



See Topics

2.3 and 3.1.

See Topics

2.1, 3.3 and 4.2.

Uncorrected proof

Migration links

Your investigation will reveal

a wealth of stories, telling us

not only of human lives but

also of key chapters in Britain’s

history. This will give you a

deeper understanding of major

themes in your thematic study

on Migration to Britain.

Empire links

You will find, too, that the

depth study on the Impact of

Empire helps you understand

the context: how Britain

developed the wealth that

enabled these five places to

grow, develop and attract



The assessment

Your task

Your task will be to explore one location – either in person

or virtually – and use your history detective skills to uncover

what that place tells us about people who have moved there

over the past few centuries.

You will need to find out:

• when people came, where they came from and why they


how they were received in the area

what their life there was like

key events in the area’s migration history

• the impact of migration on the area.

You will need to:

• study the area as it now and how it was in the past, looking

for what has changed and what has stayed the same, and


find out how the area’s migration story is told in local

museums, archives and tourist information.


To help you do this you will have an online pack provided

by OCR (your exam board) with maps, timelines, extracts

from interviews, photographs and documents such as official

records, newspaper clippings and advertisements. This pack is

an essential resource and guide.

The questions will be in the same paper as the questions on the Impact of Empire

depth study. There will be two questions and you are expected to spend about 30

minutes in total answering them.

The first question carries 10 marks:

5 marks for what you know and understand

• 5 marks for how you explain and analyse.

You will be asked to explain something – for example, why people came, or how

they were treated, or what impact they had on the area. You should spend 15

minutes on this question.

The second question also carries 10 marks and should also take about 15 minutes.

You will be given sources and asked which source is more useful for a particular

enquiry. You will need to analyse the sources and make a judgement about them.

You will also need to show good knowledge and understanding of what the sources

refer to.

Here are examples of the kinds of sources you may be asked to compare:

• a description by a visitor to the area in the early 1700s and a photograph of the

same area in the early 1900s

• a modern photograph of a place of worship used by a migrant community since

the nineteenth century and how it is described in a tourist leaflet

• a photograph of people in a street in the 1950s and maps of the same street in the

1890s and 1950s

• a trade directory from the early 1900s showing businesses along a stretch of high

street, and a photograph of the shops along that stretch of road today

a newspaper clipping about a key event and an eyewitness account of the same




Studying the historic environment

7.2 Conclusion: how glorious was the revolution?

The locations

Butetown, Cardiff (2018 examination)

Irish, Welsh, West African, West Indian, Arab,

Chinese, Somali, Greek, Norwegian and other

migrants came to work in the docks and on the

coal ships. They mingled, married and formed a

strong and diverse community over a period of 150

years years. Attacked in racist riots and undermined

by demolition, they developed a defiant, resistant

individual identity as the people of ‘Tiger Bay’.

The Cardiff Bay development has now swept away

much of that heritage: how is the story of our first

working-class multicultural community being

remembered and passed on?

A procession of Muslims going through Butetown

towards the new Mosque and Islamic Cultural

Centre in Peel Street, Cardiff, 1943

South Shields, Tyne and Wear (2019 examination)

Difficult tensions at times erupted into violence between unemployed people

fighting for the same few jobs. However, working-class communities with

strong Irish and Yemeni roots found points of connection and solidarity in the

face of economic hardship as coal and shipbuilding went into decline. Mixed

heritage has a long history in Britain’s oldest Muslim community. As ‘step

migration’ means many have moved on to jobs in other cities, how are their

family stories – little known beyond Tyneside – remembered?

Spitalfields, East London (2020 examination)

The silk looms and sewing machines in the back rooms and sweatshops of

Spitalfields have been worked by waves of refugees and economic migrants

– Walloon, Huguenot, Irish, Jewish and Bangladeshi among others.

Each community has left deep imprints in this complex, ever-changing

neighbourhood. Each has also had to assert its right to be here, in the face of

sometimes violent hostility. The area has a long tradition of political activism

and pressure for social change, with migrants at the forefront. With extremes of

poverty and wealth in close proximity, it has been a place of conflict and great

creativity. The history of Spitalfields and its people has been recorded in many

ways and from many perspectives: how well do they tell the area’s story?

Uncorrected proof

Toxteth, Liverpool (2021 examination)

In a city that housed Britain’s oldest Black community, Europe’s

biggest Chinese community and the biggest concentration of Irish

immigrants, Liverpool changed from country park to a place of

affordable housing where the world came to live. Places of worship –

Greek Church, Princes Road Synagogue, Al-Rahma Mosque, Welsh

Church – reflect its diversity, as do the cultural associations and clubs

all over the area. For all the challenges – from sale of enslaved people

in the eighteenth century coffee houses to pitched battles between

young people and the police in the late twentieth – Toxteth has

retained a proud identity with a strong African and Caribbean flavour.

How is this history and identity preserved and commemorated?

Street art in St Paul’s 2014

St Paul’s, Bristol (2022 examination)

Touched by migration from Bristol’s days as a slave port, St Paul’s was known in the nineteenth and early twentieth

centuries for its Jewish tailors and shoemakers, and its drapers from Ireland and Scotland. From the late 1950s it was

a reception area for Poles, Hungarians, Cypriots and West Indians from Jamaica, Trinidad and other islands. In 1980,

rising tensions exploded on the streets and St Paul’s in the first of a wave of confrontations between young people and

the police that spread all over Britain. The area has a distinct identity shaped by its diversity but, as developers move

in and gentrification changes the population, how is that history being preserved?

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