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GSN Magazine June 2016 Digital Edition

George Lane:

George Lane: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is Caused by Physical as well as Psychological Trauma Continued from page 17 brain injury across the entire military. They were called the “Gray Team”, named partly for gray matter and partly because the men’s hair was going gray. They were mostly military officers, all of them had advanced degrees in medicine or science, and almost all of them had seen combat. The “Gray Team” bethe brain rather than just the body. But it was still very difficult to isolate blast from all the other physical and mental effects of being exposed to an explosion in a combat zone. A major advance came in 2007 when an engineering firm called Applied Research Associates received a call from the SWAT team of the Arapahoe County Sheriff ’s Office in Colorado. The officers were worried about possible neurological effects from “breaching”, the practice of blowing open doors with small explosive charges. Almost every major city in the United States has “breacher” teams. The Applied Research team quickly recognized that monitoring “breachers” would allow them to observe blast in its pure form because the charges are too small to knock soldiers over or give them concussions. They are subject only to the blast wave. Their report found a small but distinct decline in performance among the instructors, who are exposed to far more blasts than students. 12 Some senior officers were frustrated because they had seen too many soldiers discharged for disciplinary issues that were actually related to brain injury. Several other experts joined to monitor the treatment of Monument in central England called “Shot at Dawn” lieved that a blast wave’s effects on the body were far more extreme and more complex than the concussion model could account for. But their main task was to take brain injury more seriously. The distinction between organic and emotional injury can be very blurry. Trauma changes neuronal George Lane has 25 years of experience in the development of chemical security systems, conducting research as a NASA Fellow at the Stennis Space Center and as a NSF Fellow. Lane was air quality SME for the University of California at Berkeley Center for Catastrophic Risk Management during the BP Oil Spill. Lane is currently chemical security SME for the Naval Postgraduate School Maritime Interdiction Operations in the Center for Network Innovation and Experimentation. 44

patterns, and therapy can alter a brain that has been physically damaged. Dr. David Brody, a neurologist who has worked extensively with the military, said “Everything we know suggests that people with structural lesion will also respond to pharmacological and psychological treatment,”. 13 Dr. Perl is continuing to examine the brains of blast-injured soldiers. After five years of working with the military, he feels sure that many blast injuries have not been identified. He said recently “We could be talking many thousands of types of brain injuries. And what scares me is that what we’re seeing now might just be the first round. If they survive the initial injuries, many of them may develop C.T.E. years or decades later.” 14 References 1. Bentley, S., “Short history of PTSD: From Thermopylae to Hue soldiers have always had a disturbing reaction to war”. Vietnam Veterans of America: The Veteran, 2005; www.vva.org/ archive/TheVeteran/2005_03/feature_HistoryPTSD.htm 2. Caroline Alexander, “World War I: 100 Years Later - The Shock of War”, Smithsonian Magazine, September 2010; http://www.smith- sonianmag.com/history/the-shock-of-war- 55376701/?no-ist 3. C.N. Trueman “World War One executions”, The History Learning Site, March 3, 2016; www. historylearningsite.co.uk/world-war-one/thewestern-front-in-world-war-one/world-warone-executions/ 4. Gerard Oram, “Desertion and deserters”, British Military Law and the Death Penalty (1868-1918), Crime, History, & Societies; Vol. 5, no.1, 2001; https://chs.revues.org/782 5. Peter Taylor-Whiffen, “Shot at Dawn: Cowards, Traitors or Victims?” March 3, 2011; www. bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/shot_ at_dawn_01.shtm 6. Daniel Perl, “Characterization of interface astroglial scarring in the human brain after blast exposure: a post-mortem case series”, The Lancet Neurology, June 9, 2016; www.thelancet.com/ pdfs/journals/laneur/PIIS1474-4422(16)30057- 6.pdf 7. McLeod, S. A. (2010). “What is the Stress Response?” www.simplypsychology.org/stressbiology.html 8. Edgar Jones, PhD, “Battle for the mind: World War 1 and the birth of military psychiatry”, The Lancet, Volume 384, No. 9955, p1708–1714, November 8, 2014; http://thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(14)61260-5/ fulltext 9. Berlinda S. Martinez, “A Health Hazard Assessment for Blast Overpressure Exposures Subtitle - Citation Database - Version 1”, www. researchgate.net/publication/235121426_A_ Health_Hazard_Assessment_for_Blast_Overpressure_Exposures_Subtitle_-_Citation_Database_-_Version_1 10. Amy Courtney, ”The Complexity of Causing Primary Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review of Potential Mechanisms”, Front Neurol. 2015; 6: 221. 11. Charles Needham, “Blast Waves”, 2010; http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783642052873 12. “Study Suggests a Link Between Head Injury and PTSD”, Department of Defense Blast Injury Research Program; blastinjuryresearch. amedd.army.mil/index.cfm?f=application. accomplishments&yr=2007 13. Dr. David Brody, “Blast-Related Brain Injury: Imaging for Clinical and Research Applications: Report of the 2008 St. Louis Workshop”, J. Neurotrauma. Dec; 26(12): 2127–2144. 2009 14. Dr. Daniel Perl, “What if PTSD is more physical than psychological”, New York Times, www.nytimes.com/2016/06/12/magazine/whatif-ptsd-is-more-physical-than-psychological. html?emc=edit_au_20160610&nl=afternoonup date&nlid=57532744 DHS requests nominations for 2016 National Seminar and Tabletop Exercise (NITX) Continued from page 35 OAE at: AcademicEngagement@ hq.dhs.gov. Please include the following subject line in your message: 2016 NTTX Topic Nomination Additional Opportunity: Join the NTTX Planning Team In addition to the contribution of potential topics/exercise scenarios, DHS is actively looking for representatives from colleges and universities to join the NTTX planning team. The NTTX planning team, which helps inform and develop materials for the event, convenes monthly via teleconference (in-person available) in advance of the fall 2016 event. To participate in the planning team process and for additional details, please contact the Office of Academic Engagement at: AcademicEngagement@hq.dhs.gov. Please include the following subject line in your message: 2016 NTTX Planning Team Any additional questions on the 2016 NTTX can also be directed to OAE: AcademicEngagement@ hq.dhs.gov. 45