Views
2 years ago

YOUNG PEOPLE ARE ASIA’S KEY TO CURBING THE RISE OF NON- COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

XJaB302CtES

Tobacco Use, Harmful Use

Tobacco Use, Harmful Use of Alcohol, Insufficient Physical Activity, Unhealthy Diet s From Noncommunicable Diseases Are More Common in Lowe Countries RISK BEH Tobacco Use, Harmful Cardiovascular Diseases, Use Most of Cancers, Alcohol, Diabetes, Chronic Insufficient Respiratory Diseases Physica M 13 17 30 unhealthy diet—are typically initiated or established. These risk behaviors are increasing among young Asians, setting them up for poorer health Premature Deaths From Noncommunicable Diseases Are More Common in Low- in adulthood compared to today’s adults. Given that this young cohort is also much larger Myanmar than the (2011) older cohorts they will replace, a window of opportunity exists to curb their risk behaviors to shift the projected trajectory of NCDs in Asia. In 2050 when F 1 today’s 6 young people 7 ages 10 to 24 have all reached ages 45 and older—the time when NCDs typically hit hardest—the over-45 population is Mprojected 6 to be 2.3 times the size it 19 is 25 today in South Asia, 2 times larger in Southeast Asia, and 1.4 times larger in East Asia. Nepal (2011) and Middle-Income Countries F 1 16 16 ed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes, and chronic respiratory income countries, NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) generally claim lives at younger ages, often onomic productivity. In LMIC in Asia, the likelihood of dying prematurely (between ages 30 and 70) from the four mpared to 9 percent in high-income countries in the region. Premature deaths from NCDs are projected to increase rcent of the region’s population resides, underscoring the importance of prioritizing NCD prevention. aturely om the cable Male The four main NCDs are defi ned by the World Health Female 85+ Male Organization (WHO) Female 85+ F Male 80-84 80-84 Less than 15% as cardiovascular Female diseases, Select cancers, Countries diabetes, and chronic M 75-79 75-79 respiratory Ages M 13 6 19 Myanmar (2011) Ages 15% to 19% 70-74 45 Philippines 70-74 (2011) 45 F 1 6 65-69 65-69 7 diseases. Compared to high-income and countries, NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and 20% to 24% 60-64 60-64 F 5 4 9 generally Cigarettes claim (and possibly lives at younger ages, often Older Older 55-59 55-59 other tobacco products) M 6 19 25% to 29% 50-54 50-54 M 10 1 11 Nepal (2011) at the peak of individuals’ economic productivity. In LMIC 45-49 in Asia, the likelihood 45-49 of dying prematurely (between ages 30 and 70) from the four 30% and more China (2014) F 1 16 16 40-44 40-44 F 2 1 2 Other tobacco products only 35-39 35-39 main NCDs is 22 percent, compared to 9 percent in high-income 30-34 countries 30-34 in the region. Premature deaths from NCDs are projected M 6 to increase 13 25-29 25-29 India (2009) 20-24 20-24 F 2 6 8 further in LMIC, where 95 percent of the region’s population 15-19 resides, underscoring 15-19 the importance of prioritizing NCD prevention. Likelihood of Dying Prematurely Between Ages 30-70 From the Four Main Noncommunicable Diseases ble Diseases Country Profi les 2014 (Geneva, WHO, 2014); and PRB analysis of data from the report. Percent Enrolled in Percent Less than 15% of Total Enrollment Ratio), 2005/2014 Living in 15% to 19% Urban 20% to 24% 25% to 29% 30% and more RISK BEHAVIORS FOR Addressing Risk Behaviors Among Young People Today Can Curb M a Growing Indonesia (2014) Noncommunicable Disease Epidemic F 3 2 4 Adolescence and young adulthood are when the four main NCD risk factors—tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, physical inactivity, and Population Pyramids, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia: 2015 and 2050 M 6 13 South Asia Southeast Asia India (2009) East Asia Age Age 2 6 8 10-14 10-14 5-9 5-9 0-4 0-4 40 20 60 40 80 60 100 80 100 20 15 25 10 30 15 20 25 20 0 30 20 5 0 0 60 20 80 40 40 60 10 5 80 Population (in millions) Population (in millions) Population (in millions) Total Ages 45 and Older 2015: 1.8 billion 2015: 403 million 2050: 2.4 billion 2050: 930 million Total Ages 45 and Older 2015: 633 million 2015: 163 million 2050: 792 million 2050: 318 million Sources: Toshiko Kaneda and Kristin Bietsch, 2015 World Population Data Sheet (Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau, 2015); and United Nations (UN) Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision (New York: UN, 2015). NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES Total Ages 45 and Older 2015: 1.6 billion 2015: 621 million 2050: 1.6 billion 2050: 867 million Tobacco Use is High Among Boys in Much of Asia 34 2 36 Population and Youth NCD Mortality NCD Risk Factors Among Youth Definition of Risk Levels High Risk Medium Risk Low Risk Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable deaths around the world, due to illness such as cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, and heart diseases. Although tobacco use in Asia has typically been most common among older males, the tobacco industry has begun to target women and youth more actively, and at the same time, income growth has made tobacco products more affordable. Consequently, sizeable proportions 2014 2 2012 3 Probability 2015 2050 2015 Male Female Areas, 2014 2012 NCDs, 2012 Male Female Male Female Male Female Year Male Female Year Male Female Year Male Female Year Age- of Standardized Premature Youth Ages Secondary School (Gross GNI per Death Rate Deaths Mid-Year Population 10-24, Population Capita, PPP for All Percent of From NCDs Current Tobacco Use (millions) Percent of Population, (Current International $), NCDs (per 100,000), Total Deaths due to Between Ages 30-70, Current Tobacco Use Cigarettes Other Products Any Products Current Alcohol Use Physical Inactivity Overweight or Obese 11 Less than 15% 15% to 19% 20% to 24% 25% to 29% 30% and more Percent using cigarettes/other tobacco products/any products in the past 30 days among 13-15-year-old EAST ASIA 1371.9 1365.7 19 95 97 55 13,170 576 87 19 secondary school students 4 10 2 - - 11 2 2014 18 14 2013 6 77 82 2010 9 2010 China 7.3 8.6 15 103 99 100 56,570 - - - 16% or Above 7% to 15% Below 7% 8 8 3 2 10 9 2009 18 2014/15 7 2011/12 2011/12 China, Hong Kong SAR 1 0.7 0.8 16 97 95 100 120,140 - - - 4 7 4 4 - - 2010 - - - - - - China, Macau SAR 1 126.9 96.9 14 102 102 93 38,120 244 79 9 Current Alcohol Use 9 2 1 - - - - 2012 7 8 2012 2014 2014 Japan 25.0 27.0 23 - - 61 - 751 79 27 Percent having any drinks with alcohol in the past 30 days - - - - - - - - - - - - Korea, North among 13-15-year-old secondary school students 5 50.7 48.1 18 98 97 82 33,650 302 79 9 7 2 - - - - 2014 10 7 2014 78 90 2014 9 2014 Korea, South 3.0 4.4 24 90 92 68 11,120 966 79 32 40% or Above 20% to 39% Below 20% 8 4 - - - - 2013 5 4 2013 59 66 2013 11 12 2013 Mongolia 23.5 20.4 19 - - 73 - - - - Physical Inactivity 11 5 - - - - 2012 21 17 2012 63 80 2012 32 16 2012 Taiwan Percent not engaging in physical activity for at least SOUTHEAST ASIA 0.4 0.5 25 99 99 77 72,190 475 80 17 9 14 4 - - 15 5 2014 4 3 2014 81 95 2014 60 min/day on five out of the last seven days among 37 35 2014 Brunei 15.4 21.3 30 48 41 21 3,080 394 52 18 13-15-year-old secondary school students 5 0 0 8 5 8 5 2010 8 3 2013 89 92 2013 3 4 2013 Cambodia 255.7 366.5 26 84 81 54 10,190 680 71 23 9 70% or Above 50% to 69% Below 50% 34 3 - - 36 4 2014 4 1 2007 84 83 2007 14 6 2007 Indonesia 6.9 10.6 33 60 55 38 5,060 680 48 24 14 1 8 5 19 6 2011 19 21 2015 76 91 2015 9 11 12 2015 Laos 30.8 42.3 27 - - 74 24,770 563 73 20 Overweight or Obese 31 5 13 6 35 9 2009 9 6 2012 72 85 2012 25 22 2012 Malaysia 52.1 56.5 28 51 52 34 - 709 59 24 Percent who are overweight or obese 13 1 28 7 30 7 2011 1 1 2007 81 87 2007 9 4 6 2007 Myanmar 103.0 157.1 30 84 93 44 8,450 720 67 28 among 13-15-year-old secondary school students 5 13 5 10 5 19 9 2011 23 15 2011 85 87 2011 11 9 2011 Philippines 5.5 7.0 19 - - 100 80,270 264 76 10 20% or Above 10% to 19% Below 10% 9 4 10 8 - - 2012 2010 80 88 2012 2010 Singapore 65.1 66.1 19 83 89 49 14,870 449 71 16 15 5 - - 20 8 2015 21 17 2015 82 93 2015 9 24 13 2015 Thailand 1.2 2.8 32 70 76 32 5,080 671 44 24 54 11 - - 66 24 2013 - - - - - 2009/10 Timor-Leste Notes: 91.7 108.2 24 - - 33 5,350 435 73 17 4 1 - - - - 2013 22 10 2013 76 87 2013 8 4 2013 Vietnam Data points for the risk factors appear for countries with comparable data available from the following surveys: Global Youth Tobacco SOUTH ASIA 32.2 64.3 35 71 40 25 2,000 846 37 31 Survey and Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 7 4 - - 10 6 2014 - - 91 90 2014 9 18 13 2014 Afghanistan 160.4 201.9 30 56 61 23 3,330 549 59 18 for tobacco use, and GSHS for alcohol use, physical inactivity, and overweight status. For the countries without data from these surveys, 3 0 7 3 9 3 2013 2 0 2014 58 59 2014 9 10 7 2014 Bangladesh 0.8 1.1 29 81 87 38 7,280 573 56 21 data from other sources were used whenever possible to assess 23 7 29 20 39 23 2013 2011 7, 8 - - - - Bhutan 1314.1 1660.1 28 69 69 32 5,630 682 60 26 risk levels. 6 2 16 7 19 8 2009 2005/06 69 71 2007 9 12 10 2007 India 78.5 99.3 23 89 88 71 16,590 569 76 17 Data points from these other surveys appear only when they are 5 1 32 20 33 20 2007 - - (2013) 9, 10 2011/12 Iran 0.3 0.6 comparable with the data from the above sources. Only the colors 28 - - 45 10,920 487 81 16 Note: Disputed areas in gray. representing risk levels are displayed for the countries without 6 2 13 6 15 7 2011 - - - - 2014 19 16 2014 Maldives 28.0 36.0 33 65 70 18 2,410 678 60 22 comparable data. Data points underlying all risk levels and sources 6 1 22 16 25 16 2011 2012/13 2012/13 2012/13 Nepal 199.0 344.0 30 Sources: 46 WHO, 37 Noncommunicable 38 5,090 669 Diseases 50 Country 21 Profi are available les 2014 in the data appendix (Geneva, at www.prb.org/Publications/ WHO, 2014); and 10 PRB 1 analysis - - of - data - from 2009 the - report. - 83 87 2009 5 9 2009 Pakistan Datasheets/2016/ncd-risk-youth-asia.aspx. 20.9 23.0 23 97 102 18 10,300 501 75 18 3 0 15 5 16 5 2011 - - 83 89 2008 9 5 4 2008 Sri Lanka 19 Addr Nonc of boys in many countries are now smoking. Among 13-to-15-year-old boys in secondary school, 36 percent in Indonesia, 30 percent in Myanmar, and 25 percent in Nepal currently use tobacco (defi ned as any use in the last 30 days). In general, the rates among girls are substantially lower, though they are increasing in some countries. Although cigarettes are predominant in East Asia and certain countries in Southeast Asia, other tobacco products are more popular throughout much of South Asia and in other parts of Southeast Asia. Percent of Boys and Girls 13-15 Years Old in Secondary Schools Who Used Tobacco Products in the Past 30 Days, M Indonesia (2014) F 3 2 M Philippines (2011) F Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding. Sources: WHO and CDC, Global Youth Tobacco Survey. 5 4 13 6 M 10 1 11 China (2014) F 2 1 2 4 13 17 9 34 2 36 19 19 25 30 Adolesc unhealth in adulth opportu have all today in Cigarettes (and possibly other tobacco products) Popula Other tobacco products only Ages 45 and Older 100 80 Sources Populatio lable or inapplicable. e most recent data point ve Region. 2 Data prior to 2014 are shown in italics. 3 The estimated probability of dying between ages 30 and 70 years from the four main NCDs—cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases. 4 Based on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and the Global School-Based Student Health Survey. 5 Based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey. 6 Data are from Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. 7 Data are not disaggregated by sex when the columns are not divided. 8 Data are from Thimphu. Population and Youth 9 Underlying measure pertains to physical inactivity level in seven (not fi ve) out of the last seven days in this country. 10 Data are from Khoramabad, and year in brackets is publication year for the survey results (data year unknown). 11 Proxy for unhealthy diet. NCD Mor blematic Among Youth Shifts in Diet and Exercise Have Contributed to Overweight and Obesity Among Country in Focus: China Has Seen a Dramatic Increase in Overweight and Obesity © 2016 Population Reference Bureau Young People Across See Asia Technical Notes on page 11 NONCOMMUNICABLE Among Young People DISEASES AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE IN ASIA 2 parts of Asia is relatively low compared to Europe and the Americas, it is increasing as social trends shift and tries with rising economies and sizeable populations of young people with disposable income. Among 13-to-15- tudents, over 20 percent of boys in the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan are current alcohol users (defi ned s). The difference between genders is generally smaller than for tobacco use. Binge and heavy drinking are more Asia is shifting away from healthier traditional diets to those high in empty calories, sugar, salt, and saturated fat. Physical activity levels are also declining as the amount of activity needed for work or transportation decreases, and worsening traffi c and air quality, among other factors, make it diffi cult to be active outside. Together, these changes in diet and exercise contribute to overweight and obesity, and consequently, to NCDs Percent Enrolled in Age- Standardized A large national survey in China among 7-to-18-year-old students showed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity between 1985 and 2010. In 1985, the prevalence of overweight was only 1 percent among boys and 2 percent among girls, with virtually Percent no obesity. By 2010, 20 percent of boys and 12 percent of girls were overweight or obese; one-third of these boys and girls were obese.

BEHAVIORS RISK BEHAVIORS ient Tobacco Physical Use, Harmful Use of Activity, Alcohol, Insufficient Unhealthy Physical Activity, Unhealthy Diet FOR FOR NONCOMMU NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES Cardiovascular Diseases, Most Can Cardiovascular Diseases, Most Cancers, Diabetes, Chronic Respiratory Diseases s From Noncommunicable Diseases Are More Common in Lowe Countries iratory ten ur rease Less than 15% Youth Ages Mid-Year Population 10-24, 15% (millions) Percent of to 19% Population, 20% to 24% 25% to 29% 30% and more NCD Mortality blematic Among Youth Shifts in Diet and Exercise Have Contributed to Overweight and Obesity Among Country in Focus: China Has Seen a Dramatic Increase in Overweight and Obesity © 2016 Population Reference Bureau Young People Across See Asia Technical Notes on page 11 NONCOMMUNICABLE Among Young People DISEASES AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE IN ASIA 3 Age- Standardized M 13 17 30 unhealthy diet—are typically initiated or established. These risk behaviors are increasing among young Asians, setting them up for poorer health Addressing Risk Behaviors Among Young People Today Can Curb M a Growing in adulthood compared to today’s adults. Given that this young cohort is also much larger Myanmar than the (2011) older cohorts they will replace, a window of opportunity exists to curb their risk behaviors to shift the projected trajectory of NCDs in Asia. In 2050 when F 1 today’s 6 young people 7 ages 10 to 24 have all reached ages 45 and older—the time when NCDs typically hit hardest—the over-45 population is Mprojected 6 to be 2.3 times the size it 19 is 25 today in South Asia, 2 times larger in Southeast Asia, and 1.4 times larger in East Asia. Nepal (2011) Indonesia (2014) Noncommunicable Disease Epidemic F 1 16 16 Percent of Boys and Girls ed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes, and chronic respiratory income countries, NCDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) generally claim lives at younger ages, often onomic productivity. In LMIC in Asia, the likelihood of dying prematurely (between ages 30 and 70) from the four mpared to 9 percent in high-income countries in the region. Premature deaths from NCDs are projected to increase rcent of the region’s population resides, underscoring the importance of prioritizing NCD prevention. aturely om the cable Age Age Population and Youth NCD Mortality NCD Male Female 85+ Male Female 85+ 2Risk Factors 6Among Youth F 8 Probability Male Female Age- of 80-84Definition of Risk Levels 80-84 Percent Enrolled in Percent Standardized Premature Secondary School (Gross of Total GNI per Death Rate Deaths 75-79 High Risk Medium Risk Low Risk 75-79 13 6 Ages Enrollment Ratio), Population Capita, PPP for All Percent of From NCDs Current Tobacco Use M Ages 2005/2014 Living in (Current NCDs (per Total Deaths Between 70-74 70-74 Current Alcohol Use 45 Urban International $), 100,000), due to Ages 30-70, Current Tobacco Use Philippines (2011) 45 2015 Areas, 2014 2014 65-69 65-69 and 2012 NCDs, 2012 2012 3 Percent using cigarettes/other tobacco products/any and 60-64products in the past 30 days among 13-15-year-old 60-64 F 5 4 9 Older secondary school students Older 55-59 55-59 16% or Above 7% to 15% Below 7% 50-54 50-54 M 10 1 11 Current Alcohol Use 45-49 China 45-49 Percent having any drinks with alcohol in the past 30 days (2014) 40-44among 13-15-year-old secondary school students 40-44 F 2 1 2 35-39 40% or Above 20% to 39% Below 20% 35-39 30-34Physical Inactivity 30-34 25-29Percent not engaging in physical activity for at least 25-29 60 min/day on five out of the last seven days among 20-24 20-24 13-15-year-old secondary school students 15-19 70% or Above 50% to 69% Below 50% 15-19 10-14 10-14 Overweight or Obese 5-9 5-9 Percent who are overweight or obese 0-4 among 13-15-year-old secondary school students 0-4 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 20% or Above 30 25 20 10% to 19% 15 10 5 Below 10% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 Population (in millions) Notes: Population (in millions) Population (in millions) Probability of Premature Definition of Risk Levels Tob Tobac 36 diseas and yo of boy and 2 thoug Male Adolescence and young adulthood are when the Female 85+ Male four main NCD risk factors—tobacco Female 85+ F Male 80-84 80-84 Less than 15% use, Female harmful use Select of Countries alcohol, physical inactivity, M 13 17 and 30 75-79 75-79 Ages M 13 6 19 Myanmar (2011) Ages 15% to 19% 70-74 13 17 45 Philippines 70-74 (2011) 45 M F 1 6 65-69 65-69 7 unhealthy diet—are typically initiated and or established. These risk behaviors are increasing among and 20% to 24% 60-64 60-64 F 5 4 9 young Asians, Cigarettes (and setting possibly them up for poorer health Older Myanmar Older 55-59 55-59 (2011) other tobacco products) M 6 19 25 25% 29% 50-54 50-54 M 10 1 11 Nepal (2011) in adulthood compared to today’s adults. Given that this 45-49young cohort is also 45-49 much larger than the older cohorts they will replace, a window of 30% and more China (2014) F 1 6 F 1 16 16 40-44 40-44 F 2 1 2 Other tobacco products only 7 35-39 35-39 opportunity exists to curb their risk behaviors to shift the 30-34projected trajectory 30-34of NCDs in Asia. In 2050 when today’s young people M 6ages 10 13 to 24 19 25-29 25-29 India (2009) 20-24 20-24 F 2 6 8 have all reached ages 45 and older—the time when NCDs 15-19 typically hit hardest—the 15-19 over-45 population is Mprojected 6 to be 2.3 times the size it 19 is 10-14 10-14 tobac2 5-9 5-9 M 13 6 19 today in South Asia, 2 times larger in Southeast Asia, and 0-4 1.4 times larger in 0-4East Asia. Nepal (2011) Philippines (2011) 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 F 5 4 9 Cigarettes (and possibly Population (in millions) Population (in millions) Population (in millions) other tobacco products) F 1 16M 10 1 11 16 Total Ages 45 and Older Total Ages 45 and Older Total Ages 45 and Older China (2014) Population Pyramids, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia: 2050 Perce 2015: 1.8 billion 2015: 403 million 2015: 633 million 2015: 163 million 2015: 1.6 billion 2015: 621 million F 2 1 2 Other tobacco products only 2050: 2.4 billion 2050: 930 million 2050: 792 million 2050: 318 million 2050: 1.6 billion 2050: 867 million M 6 13 19 13-15 Sources: Toshiko Kaneda and Kristin Bietsch, 2015 World Population Data Sheet (Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau, 2015); and United Nations (UN) Note: Totals may not add up due to rounding. Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision (New York: UN, 2015). Sources: WHO and CDC, Global Youth Tobacco Survey. South Asia Southeast Asia India (2009) East Asia Scho Prod Selec ble Diseases Country Profi les 2014 (Geneva, WHO, 2014); and PRB analysis of data from the report. Addressing Risk Behaviors Among Young People Today Can Curb M a Growing Indonesia (2014) Noncommunicable Disease Epidemic F 3 2 4 Adolescence and young adulthood are when the four main NCD risk factors—tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, physical inactivity, and Population Pyramids, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia: 2015 and 2050 M 6 13 South Asia Southeast Asia India (2009) East Asia Age Age 2 6 8 Cigarettes Other Products Any Products Physical Inactivity Overweight or Obese 11 2015 2050 Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Year Male Female Year Male Female Year Male Female Year EAST ASIA 1371.9 1365.7 19 95 97 55 13,170 576 87 19 10 2 - - 11 2 2014 18 14 2013 6 77 82 2010 9 2010 China 7.3 8.6 15 103 99 100 56,570 - - - 8 8 3 2 10 9 2009 18 2014/15 7 2011/12 2011/12 China, Hong Kong SAR 1 0.7 0.8 16 97 95 100 120,140 - - - 4 7 4 4 - - 2010 - - - - - - China, Macau SAR 1 126.9 96.9 14 102 102 93 38,120 244 79 9 2 1 - - - - 2012 7 8 2012 2014 9 2014 Japan 25.0 27.0 23 - - 61 - 751 79 27 - - - - - - - - - - - - Korea, North 50.7 48.1 18 98 97 82 33,650 302 79 9 7 2 - - - - 2014 10 7 2014 78 90 2014 9 2014 Korea, South 3.0 4.4 24 90 92 68 11,120 966 79 32 8 4 - - - - 2013 5 4 2013 59 66 2013 11 12 2013 Mongolia 23.5 20.4 19 - - 73 - - - - 11 5 - - - - 2012 21 17 2012 63 80 2012 32 16 2012 Taiwan SOUTHEAST ASIA 0.4 0.5 25 99 99 77 72,190 475 80 17 14 4 - - 15 5 2014 4 3 2014 81 95 2014 9 37 35 2014 Brunei 15.4 21.3 30 48 41 21 3,080 394 52 18 0 0 8 5 8 5 2010 8 3 2013 89 92 2013 3 4 2013 Cambodia 255.7 366.5 26 84 81 54 10,190 680 71 23 34 3 - - 36 4 2014 4 1 2007 84 83 2007 9 14 6 2007 Indonesia 6.9 10.6 33 60 55 38 5,060 680 48 24 14 1 8 5 19 6 2011 19 21 2015 76 91 2015 9 11 12 2015 Laos 30.8 42.3 27 - - 74 24,770 563 73 20 31 5 13 6 35 9 2009 9 6 2012 72 85 2012 25 22 2012 Malaysia 52.1 56.5 28 51 52 34 - 709 59 24 13 1 28 7 30 7 2011 1 1 2007 81 87 2007 9 4 6 2007 Myanmar 103.0 157.1 30 84 93 44 8,450 720 67 28 13 5 10 5 19 9 2011 23 15 2011 85 87 2011 11 9 2011 Philippines 5.5 7.0 19 - - 100 80,270 264 76 10 9 4 10 8 - - 2012 2010 80 88 2012 2010 Singapore 65.1 66.1 19 83 89 49 14,870 449 71 16 15 5 - - 20 8 2015 21 17 2015 82 93 2015 9 24 13 2015 Thailand 1.2 2.8 32 70 76 32 5,080 671 44 24 54 11 - - 66 24 2013 - - - - - 2009/10 Timor-Leste 91.7 108.2 24 - - 33 5,350 435 73 17 4 1 - - - - 2013 22 10 2013 76 87 2013 8 4 2013 Vietnam Data points for the risk factors appear for countries with comparable data available from the following surveys: Global Youth Tobacco SOUTH ASIA 32.2 64.3 35 71 40Total 25 Ages 2,000 45 and 846 Older 37 31 Survey and Global School-Based Total Student Health Survey Ages (GSHS) 45 and Older Total Ages 45 and Older 9 7 4 - - 10 6 2014 - - 91 90 2014 18 13 2014 Afghanistan 160.4 201.9 30 56 for tobacco use, and GSHS for alcohol use, physical inactivity, and 2015: 61 1.8 billion 23 3,330 2015: 403 549 million59 18 2015: 633 million 2015: 163 million 3 0 overweight status. For the countries without data from these surveys, 7 3 9 3 2015: 2013 21.6 billion 0 2014 9 2015: 58 621 59 million 2014 10 7 2014 Bangladesh 7, 8 0.8 1.1 29 81 87 38 7,280 573 56 21 data from other sources were used whenever possible to assess 23 7 29 20 39 23 2013 2011 - - - - Bhutan 2050: 2.4 billion 2050: 930 million 2050: 792 million 2050: 318 million 2050: 1.6 billion 2050: 867 million 9 1314.1 1660.1 28 69 69 32 5,630 682 60 26 risk levels. 6 2 16 7 19 8 2009 2005/06 69 71 2007 12 10 2007 India 78.5 99.3 23 89 88 71 16,590 569 76 17 Data points from these other surveys appear only when they are 5 1 32 20 33 20 2007 - - (2013) 9, 10 2011/12 Iran comparable with the data from the above sources. Only the colors 0.3 0.6 28 - - 45 10,920 487 81 16 6 2 13 6 15 7 2011 - - - - 2014 19 16 2014 Maldives representing risk levels are displayed for the countries without 28.0 36.0 33 Sources: 65 Toshiko 70 Kaneda 18 2,410 and Kristin 678 Bietsch, 60 2015 22 World comparable Population data. Data points Data underlying Sheet all risk levels (Washington, and sources 6 DC: 1 Population 22 16 25 Reference 16 2011 Bureau, 2015); 2012/13 and United 2012/13 Nations (UN) 2012/13 Nepal 199.0 344.0 30 46 37 38 5,090 669 50 21 are available in the data appendix at www.prb.org/Publications/ Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2015 Datasheets/2016/ncd-risk-youth-asia.aspx. Revision (New York: UN, 2015). 10 1 - - - - 2009 - - 83 87 2009 5 9 2009 Pakistan 20.9 23.0 23 97 102 18 10,300 501 75 18 3 0 15 5 16 5 2011 - - 83 89 2008 9 5 4 2008 Sri Lanka lable or inapplicable. e most recent data point ve Region. 2 Data prior to 2014 are shown in italics. 3 The estimated probability of dying between ages 30 and 70 years from the four main NCDs—cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases. parts of Asia is relatively low compared to Europe and the Americas, it is increasing as social trends shift and tries with rising economies and sizeable populations of young people with disposable income. Among 13-to-15- tudents, over 20 percent of boys in the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan are current alcohol users (defi ned s). The difference between genders is generally smaller than for tobacco use. Binge and heavy drinking are more 4 Based on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey and the Global School-Based Student Health Survey. 5 Based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey. 6 Data are from Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. 7 Data are not disaggregated by sex when the columns are not divided. 8 Data are from Thimphu. Asia is shifting away from healthier traditional diets to those high in empty calories, sugar, salt, and saturated fat. Physical activity levels are also declining as the amount of activity needed for work or transportation decreases, and worsening traffi c and air quality, among other factors, make it diffi cult to be active outside. Together, these changes in diet and exercise contribute to overweight and obesity, and consequently, to NCDs 19 Tobacco Use is High Among Boys in Much of Asia 34 2 36 Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable deaths around the world, due to illness such as cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, and heart diseases. Although tobacco use in Asia has typically been most common among older males, the tobacco industry has begun to target women and youth more actively, and at the same time, income growth has made tobacco products more affordable. Consequently, sizeable proportions of boys in many countries are now smoking. Among 13-to-15-year-old boys in secondary school, 36 percent in Indonesia, 30 percent in Myanmar, and 25 percent in Nepal currently use tobacco (defi ned as any use in the last 30 days). In general, the rates among girls are substantially lower, though they are increasing in some countries. Although cigarettes are predominant in East Asia 34 and certain countries in Southeast Asia, other tobacco products are more popular throughout much of South Asia and in other parts of Southeast Asia. F 3 2 13-15 Years Old in Secondary Schools Who Used Tobacco Products in the Past 30 Days, 4 M Indonesia (2014) F 3 2 9 Underlying measure pertains to physical inactivity level in seven (not fi ve) out of the last seven days in this country. 10 Data are from Khoramabad, and year in brackets is publication year for the survey results (data year unknown). A large national survey in China among 7-to-18-year-old students showed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity between 1985 and 2010. In 1985, the prevalence of overweight was only 1 percent among boys and 2 percent among girls, with virtually no obesity. By 2010, 20 percent of boys and 12 percent of girls were overweight or obese; one-third of these boys and girls were obese. 4 11 Proxy for unhealthy diet. 34 2 19 C o O Note: Sourc

The Challenge of Non-Communicable Diseases and Road Traffic ...
15 non-communicable
Non Communicable Diseases AKME Bad Homburg September 2011
THE GROWING BURDEN OF NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES IN ...
TOBACCO AND NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES - Campaign for ...
Helpdesk Report: Non Communicable Diseases - Health and ...
A Human Rights-Based Approach to Non- Communicable Diseases
Prevention & Control of Non-Communicable Diseases
Time to Act - The Global Emergency of Non-Communicable Diseases
Time to Act - The Global Emergency of Non-Communicable Diseases
Non-Communicable Diseases in an Ageing World - International ...
ACTING ON NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES An Advocacy ...
Public Health Aspects of Non-Communicable Diseases - Imperial ...
Emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases ... - Global Health
Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases In Latin America and the ...
prevention and control of non-communicable diseases - icrier
Status of Non-communicable Diseases in India in Global ... - ILSI India
Public Health Law and Non-communicable Diseases - UK Health Forum
Non-communicable diseases-2012 - FDI World Dental Federation
Non-communicable diseases - World Council of Churches
Non-Communicable Diseases and the Link to Disability - Pacific ...