Africa

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Invest in

Africa

Kigali summit 2016

An official publication

of the African Union

Aspirations

for the Africa

we want

Agenda 2063

The African Union’s vision, the

aspirations and programmes

that underpin it

African Union Passport

Taking the necessary steps

towards free movement of

people throughout the continent

2016: The African

Year of Human Rights

With a particular focus on the

rights of women


www.pwc.com/africa

Building trust

in society

Solving important

problems

We work with you to understand what’s important to you and your

community. Across the African continent, we can offer the cultural and

economic understanding of all key markets, backed by the industry and

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© 2016 PwC. All rights reserved.


Contents HE

FOREWORDS AND INTRODUCTIONS

Dr Nkosazana

Dlamini Zuma,

Chairperson,

African Union

Commission (AUC)

09 14 17

HE Erastus

Mwencha,

Deputy

Chairperson,

AUC

Dr Akinwumi

Adesina,

President, African

Development

Bank

RWANDA OVERVIEW

As this year’s African Union

Summit is taking place in

the Rwandan capital of Kigali,

the time is right to celebrate

the many acheivements of

the country and appreciate

its successes

18

Focus on Rwanda

23

A special message from HE

Paul Kagame, President of

the Republic of Rwanda,

welcoming you to this

edition of Invest in Africa

2016, and to his beautiful

country

24

Creating new

conventions

25

Towards universal

coverage

29

Travels to

success

SHARED

PROSPERITY

A prosperous Africa based

on inclusive growth and

sustainable development

33

HE Dr Anthony Mothae

Maruping Commissioner for

Economic Affairs, AUC

34

From extraction

to innovation

38

Transforming

structures is key

41

HE Tumusiime Rhoda Peace

Commissioner for Rural

Economy and Agriculture, AUC

42

The zero hunger generation

28

ICT leads the way

to a bright future

Education

Health

Security

Gender Equality

Movement

th 10 - 18 July, 2016

27 AU SUMMIT Kigali, Rwanda

2016: African Year of Human Rights

with particular focus on the Rights of Women

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 3


Cover Feature

African capacity

taking shape

44

Can Africa finance its

development agenda?

46

Climate change in Africa:

the heat is on

50

Fintech: the key

to unlocking

Africa’s capital

58

Don’t panic,

plan

56

Building

Afri-capacity

54

AN INTEGRATED

CONTINENT

Politically united, based on

the ideals of Pan-Africanism

and the vision of Africa’s

Renaissance

62

HE Fatima Haram Acyl

Commissioner for Trade

and Industry, AUC

64

AGOA: One year

after renewal

68

Africa united

72

Step-by-step

integration

GOOD GOVERNANCE

AND HUMAN RIGHTS

An Africa of good governance,

democracy, respect for

human rights, justice and the

rule of law.

76

HE Dr Aisha Laraba Abdullahi

Commissioner for Political

Affairs, AUC

78

Africa under African review:

A look at the African Peer

Review Mechanism

82

Gender parity:

closing the gap

86

Holding up half the sky:

A focus on women’s

empowerment in Rwanda

A PEACEFUL AND

SECURE AFRICA

Dialogue-centred conflict

prevention and resolution

will be actively promoted

so that by 2020 all guns

will be silent.

90

HE Smail Chergui

Commissioner

for Peace

and Security, AUC

4 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


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92

Africa and

global security

110

Obama’s African legacy

113

We must act now

114

A list of African national

investment organisations

COMMON HERITAGE

An Africa with a

strong cultural identity,

common heritage,

values and ethics.

95

HE Dr Mustapha

Sidiki Kaloko

Commissioner for

Social Affairs, AUC

PEOPLE-DRIVEN

DEVELOPMENT

The potential of African

people, especially its

women and youth

98

HE Dr Martial De-Paul

Ikounga, Commissioner for

Human Resources, Science

and Technology, AUC

GLOBAL INFLUENCE

Africa as a strong,

united and influential

global player and partner.

106

HE Dr Elham Mahmoud

Ahmed Ibrahim,

Commissioner for

Infrastructure and Energy, AUC

117

Index of

advertisers

118

96

A magnificent heritage

104

Benefiting from altruism

108

Electrifying Africa

Highlighting economic

conferences in Africa

100

Africa may write

6 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


Africa

Invest in

Kigali summit 2016

Subscribe now at investinafrica.media

EDITORIAL

Managing Editor

Zoe Henry

Contributing Editor

Jane Douglas

AU Editorial Chargé

d’affaires a.i

Tarek Ben Youssef

AU Editorial Liaison

Josepha Mushabe

Musabyemariya

Sub Editor

Sarah Evans

SALES

Sales Manager

Laurie Pilate

Sales Executive

James Johnston

Sales Executive

David Friel

Sales Executive

Troy Bailey

Sales Executive

Rachid Kadouri

DESIGN

Art Director

Ross Ellis

Senior Designer

Alix Lawrence

MANAGEMENT

Chief Executive

Officer

Richard Linn

Newsdesk Media publishes a wide range of business and customer

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Chief Executive Officer.

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An official publication of the African Union

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CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS

Joanne Davis is a South African scholar of

African literature, literary theory and

history, specialising has researched

nineteenth century African philosophy

Dominic Dudley is a freelance journalist,

writer and editor. He has written for The

Economist and Bloomberg Businessweek.

Laura Lopez Gonzalez is an award-winning

health reporter and editor with 10 years of

experience. She is based in Johannesburg.

Adam Robert Green is currently a Senior

Editor of Thought Leadership at The

Economist Intelligence Unit. He was

previously a senior reporter at This is Africa.

Calestous Juma is Professor of the Practice

of International Development and Director of

the Science, Technology, and Globalization

Project at the Belfer Center for Science and

International Affairs.

Sarah Rundell is a business journalist with a

decade of experience that includes

organisations such as the BBC.

Witney Schneidman has served as Deputy

Assistant Secretary of State for African

Affairs and is Senior International Advisor

for Africa at Covington & Burling LLP.

Julian Turner has worked for IPC Media, BBC

Worldwide, News UK and Progressive Digital

Media, and contributed features in a

freelance capacity to a variety of national

publications.

Pamela Whitby is an experienced reporter,

writer and editor, specialising in African

business. Pamela has contributed to The

Economist, Focus on Africa

© 2016. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval

system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher.

The views and opinions expressed by independent authors and contributors in this publication are provided in the writers’ personal capacities and are their sole

responsibility. Their publication does not imply that they represent the views or opinions of the African Union or Newsdesk Media and must neither be regarded

as constituting advice on any matter whatsoever, nor be interpreted as such. The reproduction of advertisements in this publication does not in any way imply

endorsement by the African Union or Newsdesk Media of products or services referred to therein.

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 7


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FOREWORD

HE

Dr Nkosazana

Dlamini Zuma

Chairperson

African Union Commission

Agenda 2063 pledges to

use the strength of our

diversity as a force for

peace and democracy

Over the past four years, we

had the distinct honour and

privilege of leading the

African Union Commission.

In this time, Africa has faced

both opportunities and

challenges, new and old. These include the

progress we are making in moving key

socio-economic indicators in the right

directions, such as in education, maternal

mortality, gender equality, to the

development of infrastructure, economic

growth and on integrating the continent.

Key challenges during this period included

the devastating impact of Ebola, the threats

to peace and stability, global terrorism and

the headwinds caused by the recent cycle

of commodity price busts and extreme

weather conditions.

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 9


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FOREWORD

The 50th Anniversary of the OAU/AU in

2013 provided an opportunity for

reflection on the road we travelled as a

continent, and to define our mission as

generations for the next fifty years. Key to

this mission, is the persistence of the

African paradox, a continent rich in

human resources, with minerals, oil, gas,

forests, land, water, lakes and oceans, yet

its people and the countries that make up

its territories remain amongst the poorest

in the world.

Building the Africa we want

To this end, we adopted our

transformational vision for the next five

decades, Agenda 2063, after widespread

consultations with different sectors of

African citizenry. In doing so, we pledged

to change the present and build the Africa

we want. Agenda 2063 provides a

framework for the continent to learn from

the past, build on progress, mitigate risks

and strategically seize opportunities to

ensure positive socio-economic

transformation within this 50 years.

As African countries speed up the

domestication of the goals and targets of

Agenda 2063 at the national and regional

levels and develop the implementation of

its First Ten Year Plan, it must become the

basis for cooperation between all the

actors in the development process, both

local and external. During the global

negotiations on the Sustainable

Development Goals, we develop a Common

African Position, that was situated in

our Agenda 2063. As we therefore move

towards implementation of Agenda 2063

and the SDGs, on the continent we are

looking at joint implementation and

monitoring of this continental and

global frameworks.

Invest in Africa has been reporting on

African investment opportunities since

2011. This year sees the launch of a second

edition to explore in more detail the

mechanisms available to Africa and its

partners as we project socio-economic

development across the continent. Invest

in Africa 2016 – The Kigali Summit tells

the story of the seven aspirations that

underpin Agenda 2063 and asks how we

can make them a reality.

The aspirations reflect our desire for

shared prosperity and well-being, for unity

and integration, for a continent of free

citizens and expanded horizons, where

the full potential of women and youth,

boys and girls are realised, and with

freedom from fear, disease and want.

It is indeed those ideals enshrined in

Agenda 2063 that we need to translate

into individual and collective action.

During 2016, as we celebrate the year

of human rights with a particular focus

on the rights of women and girls, we must

place our people and their basic human

rights at the centre of Agenda 2063. Our

people are our most precious resources,

and women and young people must be

empowered to drive our transformation.

Investing in women not only makes

economic sense, but it is a guarantor

of sustainable peace, community stability

and cohesion.

Leveraging Africa’s diversity

Our pledge in Agenda 2063 is to use

the strength of our diversity as a force

for peace and democracy to transform

our economies and eradicate poverty.

Much more needs to be done, and must

be done faster, in order to make good on

these promises.

The first ten-year implementation plan

for Agenda 2063 is already being executed

and by issuing the African passport to our

heads of state and government at the

Kigali Summit we hope to accelerate the

free movement of goods and people.

Our continental vision can only be

realised if all stakeholders, public and

private, work together, whilst popularising

and communicating implementation and

progress to encourage involvement in our

development programmes.

I therefore welcome you to Invest in

Africa 2016 – The Kigali Summit, which, as

we gather in Rwanda for the 27th African

Union Summit, showcases examples of

socio-economic transformation as we

build the Africa we want. •

The 26th Ordinary Session

of the Assembly of the

African Union

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 11


AFRICAN WOMEN PERSPECTIVE

Photo: UN Women/Ryan Brown

African Women Changing

the Narrative – OUR STORY

The election of the first ever woman as

the Chairperson of the Africa Union

Commission, H.E. Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini

Zuma in 2012 ushered a new era in

recognition of women as leaders at the

highest level. Throughout her tenure as

Chairperson of the AUC, Dr Nkosazana

Dlamini Zuma has not only championed

the women’s agenda, but has also led a

bold and transformative agenda for

Africa’s development. Agenda 2063

resonates with the 2030 Sustainable

Development Agenda (SDGs) by placing

women and youth at the center of

Africa’s development.

UN Women was privileged to support

implementation of the AUC advocacy and

communications strategy for the “Year for

Women’s Empowerment and

Development” in 2015. The production of

the Documentary Series “African Women

Changing the Narrative: OUR STORY” stands

out in this regard. With the political

leadership of the Government of Zimbabwe

as the Chair of the African Union for 2015,

and the financial contribution of the

Government of Austria, amazing stories of

change for and by African women from a

total of 8 African Countries namely Egypt,

Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Sierra

Leone, Zambia and Zimbabwe were

captured in short videos.

Through this documentary series,

women’s voices were amplified through

sharing their lived experiences and

contributions to the development of the

continent. Women’s leadership in

agriculture, business, banking, fighting the

Ebola crisis, securing peace and security,

ending child marriage, ending violence

against women and political leadership

were documented.

Africa currently holds 4 of the top 10

positions for female representation in

Parliament globally, with Rwanda on top

with 63.8%, Seychelles (43.8%), Senegal

(43.3%) and South Africa at 41.5%. The

2015 AfDB study revealed that African

women’s leadership in private companies

surpasses the world.

Africa’s impressive economic growth

unequivocally benefitted from women’s

contribution, through agriculture, trade,

small and medium scale as well as informal

businesses, employment in the formal

economy and unpaid care work. Women

are increasingly entering new markets and

the gender gap in economic participation

and opportunities for women is reported

to have closed by 60 per cent in 2014, up

from 56 per cent in 2013.

In the agriculture sector, women

provide approximately 70 per cent of

agricultural labour and produce about 90

per cent of all food. According to recent

data, African women are often the

predominant labour providers in agro

industries which represent a key sector for

African development.


AFRICAN WOMEN PERSPECTIVE

Photo: UN Women Ethiopia Office

Many African countries have enacted

progressive laws on Sexual and

Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR).

Across Africa, mortality rates for children

under the age of five have decreased by

37% since 1990, and maternal mortality has

fallen by 42 percent. Almost all African

countries have laws prohibiting violence

against women. Girl’s net enrollment in

primary schools and completion rate has

also significantly increased.

The year 2016 is another critical year for

women – with the AU theme “Human

Rights with a special focus on Women’s

Human Rights”. Africa has to continue

leading the world by achieving planet 50-50

by 2030. “The year 2063 is the ultimate

expiry date for inequality in Africa”.

African women’s voices have been loud

and clear - Africa needs to “Move from

Declarations to Deliverables”. The

momentum created in 2015 inspires further

action and the unwavering support of

partners to step up the collective efforts to

address the gender gap by prioritizing the

following actions:

1. A holistic review and reform of national

economic and social policies taking

cognizance of the invisible economy of

women’s unpaid care and domestic work.

2. Translate wealth into job creation by and

for women though expanding

der-sensitive business development

opportunities, promoting women

entrepreneurs and women’s access to

finance and other inputs. among others.

3 Fast-track efforts to enhance girls’

education, especially at the secondary

and tertiary level and increase the

number of women and girls in STEMS,

Finance and Innovation

The year 2063 is the

ultimate expiry date

for gender inequality

in Africa

Letty Chiwara,

UN Women Representative

to Ethiopia, AU and UNECA

4 Peace is a necessary enabler to unleash

women’s potential. For sustainable and

inclusive economic growth on the continent

conducive to the promotion of GEWE, Africa

has to “Silence the Guns by 2020.”

5. Harnessing Africa’s diverse cultural

heritage as a driving force to address

deeply entrenched inequalities

perpetuated by traditional norms and

practices E.

6. A critical mass of male champions can

drive a real change and impact for GEWE.

Stakeholders should pledge to raise

HeforShes that support GEWE at

different levels in Africa.

7. Robust, well-resourced and accountable

national institutions can catalyse the

formulation, implementation and

monitoring of gender responsive policy

and programmatic interventions.

Changing the narrative about women’s

potential and role is a shared responsibility

for demonstrating women’s successful

strategies and innovative practices not only

in transforming their lives, but in

contributing to a prosperous, and peaceful

continent. UN Women commits to continue

its collaboration with the AU, its Member

States and other partners to make these

priority actions a reality!

For more information contact:

ethiopia.unwomen@unwomen.org

www.unwomen.org/Africa

+251 118 695004

WATCH THE VIDEOS

1. AWCN Trailer

2. “Women’s Leadership” - Watch

African women occupy a space you

thought they shied away from.

Women leaders from the United

Nations, the Africa Union, Business,

Banking, Civil Society demonstrate

that women are breaking the glass

ceiling and changing the narrative

about women’s leadership.

3. Economic Empowerment:

“A Bank for African Women” Listen

to African women who have gone

into male dominated fields like

Banking, Fashion, and Construction

from Egypt, Ethiopia, who are

running huge business empires that

straddle the globe.

4. Ending Child Marriage: “NO to

Child Marriage; YES to Education”

- In this video partnership between

African women and men fighting

against child marriages is

exemplified from successful

examples in Malawi and Zambia,

and amplified by AU Commissioner

for Social Affairs, while young

women advocate for girls education.

5. Peace and Security: “Silencing

Guns by 2020” - “There is no peace

without women” - Moving

experiences from Mali including

voices of male advocates prove that

women’s inclusion in conflict

prevention, mediation and peace

building is a must.

6. Agriculture: “Retire the Hoe to the

Museum” It is time that the hoe, is

consigned to the museum.

Successful women farmers from

Mozambique and Zimbabwe and

voices from AUC Commissioner for

Agriculture prove that investing in

mechanization of agriculture will

drive African economies and reduce

time and labor for women farmers.

7. Health - EVAW and Women’s Sexual

& Reproductive Rights” - In

this video women from Sierra

Leonne demonstrate their role

in fighting Ebola and best

practices from Ethiopia and

on EVAW are breathtaking.


Foreword

It further calls for action

by all Africans including those

in the Diaspora and the development

partners to work together

Africa has rewritten

its narrative to

that of a globally

competitive and

promising

investment

destination, presenting a host of

opportunities for its people.

The African Union’s “Invest in

Africa 2016 – The Kigali Summit

edition” publication, presents an

overview of Agenda 2063, its seven

aspirations and the tremendous

opportunities Africa now offers to its

citizens and the world, through the

First Ten Year Implementation Plan.

African Union Member states in

2015, adopted Agenda 2063 and it’s

First Ten Year Implementation Plan

that seeks to harnesses the

continent’s comparative advantages

particularly, its human resources,

moreso, its growing middle class, rich

history and cultures, and its position

in the world to effect equitable and

people-centred development. Agenda

2063 seeks to develop Africa’s human

capital, build social assets,

infrastructure and promote

sustainable regional and global

development and a responsive peace

and security architecture.

Action by all Africans

Agenda 2063 focuses on Africa’s

priorities and sets Africa’s

development goals. It further calls for

action by all Africans including those

in the Diaspora and the development

partners to work together, in synergy,

to build a prosperous and united

Africa based on common values and

shared interests. Indeed, it is in our

shared strategic interests and that of

the international community, that the

vision of the African Union to become

an integrated, prosperous and

peaceful Africa, driven by its own

citizens and representing a dynamic

force in the international arena, is

effectively achieved.

The 2063 Framework underscores

improved macro-economic

14 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


Foreword

HE Erastus

Mwencha

Deputy Chairperson

African Union Commission

management, regional integration,

industrialization and sound

leadership and governance, as key

aspects for the structural

transformation of Africa.

The seven aspirations

underpinning Agenda 2063 provide

us a clearer vision of what we need to

accomplish the “Africa We Want”.

These aspirations are among others,

the creation of a prosperous Africa,

based on inclusive growth and

sustainable development, an

integrated continent, a peaceful and

secure Africa, whose development is

people-driven relying on the

potential of its people, especially

women and youth. It also seeks

resilience and unity of the continent

and its key role as an influential

global player and partner.

The seven aspirations provide

us a clearer vision of what

we need to accomplish the

Africa We Want”

AU and UN united

We have laid the foundation that will

help the transformation of our

continent. I strongly believe that the

strong alignment between Africa’s

2063 strategic framework and the

United Nations 2030 Sustainable

Development Goals, will help drive

both agendas. The development of a

common and harmonised

implementation, review and

reporting framework to promote

synergies and support the mutually

reinforcing implementation of t

he SDGs and Agenda 2063, are of

capital importance.

We are confident that the strategic

partnerships that we have spared no

efforts to develop and revitalize

during the last four years, with our

bilateral and multilateral international

partners, represent an important lever

to realize these synergies by focusing

on Africa’s development priorities as

identified in Agenda 2063 and by

further integrating and enhancing the

regional and continental dimensions

in their bilateral cooperation with

African countries.

It is Africa’s time. •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 15


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Dr Sayave Gnoumou

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FOREWORD

HE Akinwumi

Adesina

President

African Development Bank

We call on the

world to ‘Invest

in Africa’ for two

reasons – because

Africa has big

plans, and

because doing so offers real returns,

for African and non-Africans alike.

The plans are clear, and the political

vision is enshrined in Agenda 2063. And

the plans find economic form and focus

in the African Development Bank’s (AfDB)

‘High 5’ priorities: to light up and power

Africa, to feed Africa, to integrate Africa,

to industrialise Africa, and to improve the

quality of life for the people of Africa.

Energising Africa

Energy is the lifeblood of any society

and economy, and at the Bank’s Annual

Meetings in Lusaka at the end of May, over

half of its Governors voted for the first

High 5, to light up and power Africa, as the

most important. They called on us to focus

our efforts on mobilising resources for

the New Deal on Energy for Africa.

Heads of government, heads of multilateral

institutions, captains of industry, beacons

of civil society and more were with us, and

the way they have coalesced around these

goals has been remarkable. It is also laden

with expectation – Africa can and must

complete its transformation by 2025. In

Lusaka we also set up a Special Panel –

led by former UN Secretary-General Kofi

Annan and former German President

Horst Köhler, and which includes

other global development luminaries

from the public and private sector –

which will help us to pilot them.

So, too, are the returns clear. They

are evident in a period of continuous

growth on the African continent since the

millennium. Gross domestic product (GDP)

rose from just above 2% in the 1980s and

1990s, to more than 5% in 2001-14. Last year

we recorded 3.6% growth, and we should

reach 4.4% next year. Six of the best

performing economies in the world – Ivory

Coast, the Democratic Republic of the

Congo, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Rwanda and

Tanzania – are African. The African sector

with the biggest needs – energy – is also

the sector with the biggest returns, and the

biggest potential. The continent is sitting

on billions of dollars’ worth of untapped

geothermal, hydro and solar energy.

Unleashing our potential

But the greatest returns on offer in this

continent are the human returns we will

see when we fully unleash a continent’s

potential – through industrialisation,

through investment, and above all through

equipping, empowering and employing

the young people of this continent.

Organisations such as the African

Development Bank are paving the way.

We take some of the risk out of lending,

and for every dollar we invest we generate

six more from the private sector. Please,

join us and ‘Invest in Africa’. •

Over half of its

Governors voted for

the first High 5, to

light up and power

Africa, as the most

important

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 17


focus on Rwanda

focus on

Rwanda

FACTBOX:

Rwanda’s GDP increased by an average of

8% annually between 2000 and 2013

The country ranks 62 in the World Bank’s

latest ‘ease of doing business’

Between 1980 and 2014 Rwanda’s HDI

value increased 61.6%

Rwanda is the fourth-least corrupt country

in Africa

The Kitabi Tea Processing Facility

employs 200 people during its

peak season and about 70 during

the rest of the year

18 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


FOCUS ON RWANDA

Despite the nation’s many challenges, Rwanda’s

fast-growing GDP rate is testament to its focus on

development and its continued good prospects,

writes Sarah Rundell

A template for

transformation

A’Melody Lee / World Bank

Brand new schools, miles

of high-speed fibre optic

broadband, cutting-edge

green infrastructure and a

rubbish-free capital city. Tiny

Rwanda, landlocked in the

middle of Africa, is still poor, but it’s not nearly

as poor as it used to be. An estimated 18.4%

of government revenues and a tenth of GDP

still come from foreign aid but Rwanda’s

transformation since the brutal genocide

against the Tutsi when an estimated 800,000

to more than one million people were killed

in 100 days is one of the most celebrated

stories of economic and social development in

the world. Led by HE President Paul Kagame,

Rwanda has become one of Africa’s fastest

growing economies with GDP increasing by an

average of 8% annually during the period 2000

to 2013, according to the region’s multilateral

development bank the African Development

Bank (AfDB). African Union (AU) delegates

gathered in Kigali this summer will find that

many of their continent-wide aspirations for

2063 are in fact captured at a local level in

Rwanda’s own remarkable growth story

over the last two decades.

Rwanda’s journey to recovery began in

immediately in 1994, and in 2000 they launched

of Vision 2020, an economic development plan

designed to spearhead growth, as well as

several other specific development strategies.

The plan laid out an economic transformation

that would move Rwanda from an agrarian

to a knowledge-based economy by 2020. The

key objectives were to modernise the

agricultural sector in the medium-term,

and develop the private sector and an

entrepreneurial middle class in the longterm

with the ultimate goal being Rwanda’s

transformation into a middle-income country

characterised by unity and growth, investment,

trade and improved lives.

A focus on smaller businesses

Rwanda scores impressive marks in its

reforming endeavours. The country ranks

62 in the World Bank’s latest ‘ease of doing

business’ index, second highest in sub-Saharan

Africa after Mauritius, and ahead of South

Africa and Botswana. The World Bank

estimates that around 90% of Rwanda’s

workforce is employed in the private sector

and more than 123,000 SMEs (micro-, smalland

medium-sized businesses) operate in

the private sector, accounting for the vast

majority of all businesses – although most

of these SMEs are informal and as such

contribute little to total tax revenues.

Improvements in the business climate are

starting to feed into private sector investment;

foreign direct investment remains low

compared to other countries at $110 million

in 2013, but up from $7 million in 2005 and

$1000 in 1994, according to the IMF.

The United Nations (UN) Human

Development Index (HDI), a comparative

measure of life expectancy, literacy, education,

and standards of living for countries worldwide,

shows that between 1980 and 2014 Rwanda’s

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 19


Focus on rwanda

HDI value increased 61.6%. Behind this

statistic are important improvements on

child mortality, life expectancy, and years in

education. In other milestones, Rwanda has

achieved parity between boys and girls in

primary education enrolment and has also

pioneered the One Laptop Per Child project.

The number of parliamentary seats held by

women increased from 17% in 1994 to 56%

in 2008, the highest in the world.

Electricity generation more than doubled

from 45 megawatts to 110.8 45 megawatts (MW)

between 2005 and 2013, increasing electricity

access from 2% to 17% of the population during

the same period. The share of national roads,

paved and unpaved, classified to be in good

condition increased from 11% in 2005 to

63.5% in 2013, while the information and

communication technology (ICT) composite

network coverage rate increased from 75% to

90%. The government has been just as effective

at rooting out corruption with Berlin-based

Transparency International ranking it as the

fourth-least corrupt country in Africa, above

places such as Greece and Italy.

Rwanda launched a Second Economic

Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy,

EDPRS 2, to better reach its Vision 2020 goals.

This programme aims to accelerate economic

growth to 11.5%, reduce poverty to below 30%

and restructure the economy towards services

and industry. It calls for expanding targeted

economic zones and transforming the country’s

logistics system to strategically grow and

promote exports. Other innovative policies

include developing the Kivu Belt Tourism

Master Plan and boosting spatial inclusion and

better housing development: Rwanda’s number

of rural households living in integrated and

economically viable planned settlements

increased from 37.5% in 2012 to 53% in 2013-14.

EDPRS 2 requires an estimated total investment

of 9,929 billion Rwandan francs (RWF) (about

$15bn), an investment the government plans

to finance via bond issuance, Public Private

Partnerships, investment from private equity

and green growth financing.

Agriculture still remains a key source

of employment and exports, but output is

up and new value chains and cluster areas

around principal exports such as coffee

and tea and broader agro-processing are

beginning to emerge. According to the

Rwandan government, fertiliser use more than

doubled, from 18% in 2005-06 to 38% in 2010-11

with significant consequences for production.

The UN Food and Agriculture Organization

found that Rwanda’s farmers produced

The Rwanda Stock

Exchange buy and sell

equities

20%

Fertiliser use more than

doubled, from 18% in

2005-06 to 38% in 2010-11

792,000 tonnes of grain in 2014 – more than

three times as much as in 2000.

Industry and services are also beginning

to increase, driven by the growth in Rwanda’s

hotel and restaurant sector, financial services

and the construction industry. Rwanda now

has a tiny stock exchange; foreign investment

in the banking sector includes Atlas Mara, a

London-listed investment company launched by

Bob Diamond, the former Chief Executive of the

UK bank Barclays, and Ashish Thakkar, recently

buying stakes in two Rwandan banks.

Rwanda has prioritised the development of

its green economy, integrating environmental

targets into the EDPRS to guide sustainable

management of its environment and natural

resources, a key aspiration enshrined in the

AU’s Agenda 2063. New infrastructure is

screened for climate risk and green energy

options including hydro and solar power, and

methane gas, have been prioritised. It is the

green economy that has attracted some of the

biggest private investment to date. Flagship

investment has come from US companies

ContourGlobal, a power company with

operations across Africa, and Symbion

Power, both of which are harnessing energy

by extracting methane gas from Lake Kivu.

In time the projects will expand to produce

an estimated 100MW of electricity.

The cost of doing business in Rwanda

remains high due to expensive transport and

energy costs, and insufficient national and

regional connectivity. As a consequence, the

private sector is inhibited in its drive for

growth. Infrastructure bottlenecks continue to

impede progress towards achieving

economic competitiveness. Now the

government is focused on cooperating with

partner states and finding regional solutions

to the country’s development challenges,

including a regional approach to investments

in regional infrastructure and cooperation on

the removal of non-tariff barriers.•

A’Melody Lee / World Bank

20 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


25 years

Building the Foundation for Action on the

Global Environmental Commons

www.thegef.org


Summa perspective

Efficiency, Quality, Speed

These words will be the new words and mottoes for the near future all

over African continent in order to stimulate the way to do business.

Time has really come to demonstrate the

way how projects could be handled in an

unusual way than it has been practiced

for many years. Usually completion of

infrastructure and big projects take so

long time which starts upsetting first the

client and then the contractors as well as

all parties involved starting from material

suppliers to subcontractors for any project

of this nature.

Today we are seeing a live example of this

case whereas a highly important State

project has encountered many delays and

difficulties, budget overruns and frustrations

due to non-completion over the years.

That’s actually when a Head of State

should step in and make a radical decision

to stop and change things around. That’s

exactly what was done by His Excellency

President of Rwanda Paul Kagame.

Having a proven record and

acknowledged reputation of constructing

projects in different countries of Africa in fast

track manner, beginning of 2015 our

company, SUMMA, was invited to Kigali to

make a technical and commercial assessment

of the existing status of the project. Our team

of engineers managed to prepare an

independent report to clearly demonstrate

possible challenges and associated future

costs in case the Government of Rwanda

decided to change the existing general

contractor with a new one.

Within few weeks after negotiations we

were given the task to take over and

complete the Kigali Congress Center as the

new general contractor with a set target

date to deliver the project in turn-key basis

by June 2016.

The success SUMMA achieved in similar

projects in other African countries really

gave comfort to all parties involved

especially for those who have seen what

SUMMA managed to design and build in

Malabo Equatorial Guinea “Sipopo

Congress Center” in 6 months, in Dakar

Senegal “Diamniadio Congress Center” in

11 months.

Kigali Congress Center is composed of a

Congress Center and its supportive

facilities and 5 Star Hotel with 292 keys.

SUMMA managed

to design and build

“Sipopo Congress

Center” in 6 months and

“Diamniadio Congress

Center” in 11 months.

Congress Center Building has a very

distinctive translucent dome, consists of 13

meeting rooms, food and beverage

facilities, 3 restaurants, several kitchens

and all supporting areas. Main Meeting

Hall, capable of hosting 2400 people, is

furnished with latest technology to catch

the long-term goals of the government and

endusers.

Both the Dome, traditional hut shaped,

and the Hotel Building, rush mat-like façade,

is inspired by local traditional figures.

Similarly, landscaping is done to match the

“thousand-hill” Kigali natural landscape.

Kigali Congress Center completed

in 11 months will be a game changer

for hard working people of Rwanda

and its Government

Selim Bora

President

www.summa.com.tr


FOCUS ON RWANDA

HE Paul

Kagame

President

Republic of Rwanda

We have to continue

doing the right

things in order to get

the results we want

I

am very pleased to welcome all delegates

to Rwanda for the 27th Summit of the

African Union.

Hosting this special event is a rare distinction.

For Rwandans, it also serves as a reminder of the

distance our country has travelled.

Today, Rwanda is united, secure, and open for

business. Rwanda is open to all Africans as well, who

do not need to apply for a visa before traveling here.

Along the way, Rwanda benefitted enormously from

the renewal of the spirit of African unity over the past

generation, and the stronger continental organisation we

now enjoy as a result.

Indeed, the prosperity and security of our continent

as a whole depends on closer cooperation and deeper

integration among our countries and peoples.

At the national level, we must continue to build public

institutions that fully include citizens in governance and

protect their fundamental rights.

This year’s focus on women’s rights is particularly

fitting, because the prospects of women and girls serve as

a measure of fairness and equality in society as a whole.

Liberate women to achieve their potential, and

everyone is better off.

Our continent has been making progress because of

good choices. We have to continue doing the right things

in order to get the results we want.

The responsibility is ours.

Africa is not an island; it is an integral part of the globe

we all share. The partnerships we enjoy with the wider

world are indispensable, and they are strongest when

Africa is united in vision and purpose.

We have serious work to do together in the context of

Agenda 2063 and the Global Goals. We know what to do,

and we have what it takes. Let’s keep up the momentum.•

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 23


FOCUS ON RWANDA

Developing hotel and conference centre accommodation

illustrates how Kigali’s cityscape is undergoing a

visionary transformation, explains Sarah Rundell

Creating new

conventions

This will be the

largest convention

centre in the

whole region

It is fitting that Kigali’s gleaming

Radisson Blu Hotel & Convention

Centre will host some 3,000 delegates

and 54 heads of state attending the

2016 African Union (AU) Summit as its

maiden event. The brand new hotel

and landmark convention centre, located in one

of Kigali’s fastest-growing suburbs within easy

reach of the airport, seems to reflect many of

the AU’s cherished ideals, none more so than

the aspiration that Africa become an influential

global player. “It really is history in the

making,” enthuses veteran hospitality executive

Denis Dernault, General Manager, Radisson Blu

Hotel & Convention Centre, Kigali. “This will be

the largest convention centre in the whole

region.” The hotel and convention centre marks

the beginning of Rwanda’s aspiration to

become a global conference hub

and this extensive complex has

an edge on Africa’s other

conference capitals in Egypt,

Kenya and South Africa because

of its accessibility to transport

links, and Rwanda’s political

stability.

The centre’s distinctive

dome shape, designed by German

architect Roland Dieterle, is a

multifunctional conference

facility that includes a 2,600

capacity conference hall, smaller

meeting rooms, the latest

technology and support services,

restaurants and shops. The wider complex

extends to the luxury 292-room Radisson Blu

Hotel with extensive dining and spa facilities,

located within an office park and further retail

outlets. The whole complex employs some

500 people and in keeping with Rwanda’s

commitment to the green economy, has

sustainability at its heart.

Development feeling the pressure

Completing the complex in time for the July

summit from a design stage that began back

in 2009 has been a challenge. “It has been an

unprecedented journey from where we were

to where we are now,” says Dernault.

“Today’s result is down to the collaboration

and commitment from all our stakeholders.”

The hotel is operated by Radisson Blu and

owned by government subsidiaries.

The flexibility of the complex means it

can host music and sports events, weddings

or smaller business gatherings, just as easily

as large events on the scale of the AU summit

and other global health and IT conferences

already booked later this year. And it is as a

provider of global conference facilities where

the complex will particularly shine, believes

Dernault. He estimates 30% of Kigali’s current

visitors are conference delegates, but that this

will change. “Over the next two to three years

we will double the number of conference

visitors; Rwanda’s MICE [meetings, incentives,

conferences and exhibitions] sector is really

going to take off,” he says. •

24 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


FOCUS ON RWANDA

Rwanda’s focus on healthcare has led to

remarkable improvements for its

citizens, explains Sarah Rundell

Towards

universal

coverage

80%

deaths from HIV, TB, and

malaria have dropped

60%

maternal mortality

has fallen

95% of pregnant women living

with HIV now have access to

antiretroviral medicines

Rwanda has achieved some of

the most remarkable outcomes

in health over the last decade.

Deaths from HIV, TB, and

malaria have dropped by 80%;

maternal mortality has fallen

by 60% and life expectancy has doubled. Health

is a key pillar of the Rwandan government’s

Vision 2020 strategy for economic development

and poverty reduction and is enshrined

throughout the African Union’s (AU) Agenda

2063 aspirations, from pledges to care for

Africa’s women and children, to promises

of inclusive, sustainable development. Rwanda

has also kept its Abuja Declaration, made by

members of the AU in 2001 when leaders

promised to commit 15% of their national

budgets to healthcare. Rwanda spends around

16% of its national budget on healthcare.

A central tenet of Rwanda’s progress in

healthcare provision lies in the country’s

community-based health insurance scheme.

The system was first introduced back in 1999

when the Health Ministry began a pilot project

of health insurance in three districts. By 2004

the programme had spread across the nation

and today health

insurance, or

mutuelles de santé,

is nearly universal

with only 4% of

Rwandans uninsured.

The system’s success

also lies in adaption.

When premiums proved too high for many

of Rwanda’s poor, the government introduced

a sliding scale so the poorest didn’t have to pay.

Rwanda has also made great strides in

reducing HIV Aids and improving access

to antiretroviral medicines. Rwanda and

Botswana were the only countries in

sub-Saharan Africa to have achieved the

UN goal of universal access to antiretroviral

therapy by 2010, and in Rwanda 95% of

pregnant women living with HIV now have

access to antiretroviral medicines. According

to the Joint United Nations Programme on

HIV and Aids (UNAIDS), an estimated 210,000

people live with HIV in Rwanda and in 2014,

3,000 people died from the disease.

Investing in healthcare

Other milestones include each of Rwanda’s

30 districts now having a hospital. In addition

to building hospitals and clinics, Rwanda

addressed the shortage of skilled nurses by

training 45,000 community health workers;

in 2010 Rwanda had just 625 doctors

serving approximately 12 million people.

The government has heavily invested in preservice

training institutes like the Kigali Health

Institute, charged principally with training

nurses and technicians for the health sector.

Much of Rwanda’s healthcare spend is financed

by foreign aid with donor inputs accounting for

well over 70% of health sector funding. Now the

government’s focus is on seeking long-term,

sustainable solutions of its own. •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 25


Oshen healthcare perspective

Oshen Healthcare advances medical

care opportunities across Africa

Investment opportunities in the business

of healthcare in Africa are increasingly

visible. There is immense pressure to boost

health systems by the growing demands

of a progressively educated population

who expect high-quality healthcare.

Oshen Healthcare, an Angolan

multinational corporation with global

healthcare experience, recognises the

challenge and opportunity to transform

Africa’s healthcare into a high performing

system. Oshen Healthcare’s commitment to

this purpose is visible in the company’s

business strategy for the continent.

Oshen Healthcare develops hospital

facilities and medical services

infrastructure. Working closely with local

governments, along with private and

public institutions, Oshen Healthcare

invests in and implements healthcare

projects and services in the areas of

diagnosis and treatments, eHealth

technology, training programs, human

resources, prevention, medicine at work,

and cost and quality control systems.

Oshen Healthcare has a strategic

alliance with its sister company, Sphera

Global Healthcare, a global provider of

innovative healthcare solutions and

management expertise for medical

facilities and health insurance programmes.

Oshen Healthcare’s headquarters are

based in Luanda, Angola, while Sphera is

headquartered in Barcelona, Spain. With a

combined presence also in Kigali, New

York, Moscow and São Paulo, the group

offers coverage to operations in North and

South America, Europe and Africa.

Together the group improves

traditional processes that optimise

healthcare delivery and leverage

innovation that reinforces local medical

delivery to provide reliable and affordable

care, while implementing a healthcare

globalisation strategy. The group has

extensive experience developing

customised solutions specific to the

requirements of customers in all the

markets where both companies operate.

Therefore they are able to leverage the

existing quality of care and health

outcomes while reducing the risks and

costs across the entire value chain. Oshen

Healthcare’s competitive advantage


Oshen healthcare perspective

Ambulatory Hospital

Angola

Tertiary Hospital

in Luanda

resides in its capacity to leverage a

renowned international medical know-how

and network with active local operations

and understanding of specific local healthcare

policies and population needs, turning

to the partner of choice to provide people

access to the best possible medical options.

Oshen Healthcare has been analysing

opportunities to develop health

infrastructure projects always aligned with

Sphera’s commercial agreements with the

main insurance companies and banks in

order to offer its medical services to the

countries where they have a presence such

as Angola, Morocco, Mozambique,

Rwanda, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and

Zambia. In addition, Oshen Healthcare is

totally committed to the development of

the sector as an active partner to the

Governments of Angola and Rwanda, by

promoting and assuring better and more

efficient medical services to the population.

Thus, as part of its strategy for Africa,

Oshen Healthcare has opened an

ambulatory medical facility in Angola and

has plans in the pipeline for the

construction of two hospitals in Angola.

In addition, on the 25 of April of the

present year, an agreement was signed

between the Government of Rwanda and

Oshen Healthcare to transform King Faisal

Hospital into a regional referral hospital

operating under international standards.

The common goal of the Government of

Rwanda and Oshen Healthcare is to convert

the said facility into a multi- specialty

hospital subject to the highest performance

standards and excellence certifications.

The ultimate goal will be to assist the

Governments of Rwanda in the continuing

improvement of the general health of its

citizens and to contribute to the welfare of

those who require high-level medical

services in East Africa.

Oshen Healthcare’s expertise

in hospital management

Oshen Healthcare’s hospital management

expertise resides in its best-in-class turnkey

management of medical facilities, along

with competency in the insurance field and

public-private partnership-based

agreements. Its teams are composed of

seasoned hospital administrators, project

planners, medical equipment procurers,

developers and advisory experts. Its

comprehensive know-how permits the

development and implementation of

individualised solutions to new and existing

hospitals, factoring in medical business

models and finance to market uptake.

Oshen Healthcare puts patients first and

works to constantly improve the care it

gives them by implementing measures that

support its caregivers, helping ensure

patient safety and providing the highest

possible output quality.

International medical network

and strategic partnerships

Besides its own centres in Africa, Oshen

Healthcare has a worldwide network of

hospitals with which it has established a

permanent collaboration in the clinical,

educational and research fields. Thus, by

working with the most adequate partners

in every project, Oshen Healthcare

overcomes human resource shortage and

limitations on clinical expertise.

Advanced technology

Technology advancements have become

a very important aspect of the African

healthcare system. As patients demand

more, including the best professionals and

the most thorough information, Oshen

Healthcare also focuses on communication

technologies including video conferencing,

telemedicine, virtual platforms, apps, and

mobile-health. Besides improving

communication, the technologies also

guarantee the delivery of quality

healthcare and reduce unnecessary

hospital or clinical visits.

“When a patient has access to

technology they are more informed, which

enables them to make better decisions and

demand better treatment,” said Zandre

Campos, chairman of Oshen Healthcare

and CEO of Angola Capital Investments.

“It also enables patients access to

international medicine, no matter where

they are located.”


Focus on Rwanda

Technological innovation is at the forefront of Rwanda’s planned

transition to a middle-income status economy, explains Sarah Rundell

ICT leads the way

to a bright future

Whether it’s paying

the fare on one of

the city’s buses

with a quick tap of a

pre-paid smart card

via a new, cashless

payment system, or riding a motorbike taxi

sure in the knowledge that a smartphone

app is helping improve Rwanda’s most

popular – and most dangerous – form of

public transport, technological innovation

is everywhere in Rwanda.

‘SafeMotos’, which tracks and stores data

to improve road safety, flagging bad motorbike

drivers in the system so they are less likely to

receive fares, is just the kind of innovation to

have spun out of Rwanda’s new tech hubs.

These hubs have emerged to capture and

nurture technological progress and are a

particular feature across Africa’s information

and communication technology (ICT)

landscape. Kenya’s tech hubs have spawned

start-ups, created jobs and drawn in global IT

groups such as Microsoft and Google: Kenya’s

tech sector accounted for 8% of gross domestic

product (GDP) in 2014.

Technological innovation

It’s a model Rwanda is hoping to emulate

with its own nascent hubs such as FabLab,

an innovation hub that opened in May in

the government-backed Information and

Communication Technology (ICT) park and

kLAB which also provides an open space

for IT entrepreneurs to collaborate and turn

their ideas into viable business models under

experienced mentors. Other co-working spaces

such as ‘The Office’ have given entrepreneurs

the tools to launch their ideas and combine to

form a central pillar in the government’s IT

strategy which includes a $100 million

innovation fund specifically targeting ICT

start-ups. The government aims to contribute

a third to the fund with private sector funding

providing the rest. Rwanda’s Development Board

highlights ICT as a central driver of the country’s

transformation to a knowledge-based economy

and Rwanda currently allocates 7.7 % of its GDP to

ICT, putting it on a level with OECD countries.

Carnegie Mellon University opened

a Rwandan campus in 2012 to attract

technologically minded students. Partnerships

with Microsoft and Intel have prompted a

number of other educational initiatives in

Rwandan schools to ensure a new generation

is equipped with the skills to continue the

technology initiative.

But entrepreneurs face challenges

when it comes to bringing their ideas

to fruition such as Rwanda’s low

smartphone penetration,

lower connectivity rates

– according to the most

recent figures only 13% of

Rwandans are online – and

limited payments solutions.

They also struggle to raise

money for their prototypes.

The government is keen to

address these challenges

with targets to increase

the number of people

online to 95% by the end

of 2016 with the planned

roll-out of a 4G mobile

network. It’s not surprising

the 2015 Networked

Readiness Index (NRI)

ranks Rwanda 83 out of

143 countries. •

28 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


$305m

Mone Loe/Flickr

Total tourism

revenue in 2014

Rwanda’s natural assets along with a blossoming

conference sector are key factors in its highly

successful tourism trade, as Sarah Rundell explains

Travels to

success

It’s hardly surprising that

most tourists visiting

Rwanda say seeing mountain

gorillas was the highlight.

In the high season between

June and September visitors

pay as much as $750 each for a daily

permit into the Volcanoes National

Park, while room rates at the top

lodges that have sprung up to host

foreign visitors to the remote spot

in the north-west of the country

can cost double that for one night.

Gorilla-watching revenues provide

funds to the national park and

facilitate conservation activities,

with 5% of park revenues disbursed

for community projects.

Eco-tourism is also gaining a

foothold in Rwanda’s two other

national parks that cover a combined

10% of the country. The Akagera

National Park offers a range of

wildlife, such as elephants, hippos

and giraffes, and Nyungwe Forest

National Park is also rich in

biodiversity, offering visitors guided

walks and chimpanzee tracking.

Tourism has become one of

Rwanda’s fastest growing industries.

Total tourism revenue climbed to

$305 million in 2014, up from $251.3m

in 2011, according to the Rwanda

Development Board. It is the

country’s top foreign-exchange

earner, exceeding coffee and tea

exports, and the government now

targets annual revenue of $860m

by 2017. Total arrivals in Rwanda,

including business and conference

visitors reached 1.2 million in 2014.

Rwanda is pushing its business

and conference offering as hard as

its eco-tourism credentials. It’s a

boom facilitated by direct flights to

Kigali from international airlines

such as KLM and the arrival of global

hotel chains and conference centres

in the capital such as the flagship

$300m Kigali Convention Centre. The

new facility houses the 292-room

five-star Radisson Blu, an

information technology office park

and a conference hall that can seat

2,600 people. Other global names

vying for market share include

Starwood Hotels & Resorts which

plans a Sheraton in Kigali, expected

in 2018. The government had

projected revenue from conference

tourism would reach $40m by 2012,

but the shortage of high-end

accommodation and conference

facilities put this ambition on hold

and competition in Nairobi, Kampala

and Dar es Salaam edged ahead. Now

Rwanda is aiming to raise conference

revenues to $150m by 2017 and will

emphasis its own security compared

to neighbour Kenya which has

suffered terrorist attacks. The

successful expansion of national

carrier RwandAir is crucial to

Rwanda’s ability to become a global

conference hub.

Like other African destinations,

Rwanda’s tourism sector suffered

by association as a result of the Ebola

crisis in west Africa and terrorist

violence in Kenya. Non-business

visitors from outside Africa dropped

by 10% last year to just under 40,000.

The number of visitors from the US

fell by almost 16%. •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 29


Rwanda Energy group perspective

Invest in energy

sector in Rwanda

25 MW Kivuwatt Methane Gas Power Plant in Karongi

District, Western Province - Rwanda

Rwanda Energy Group Limited (REG) was

incorporated in 2014 to expand, maintain

and operate the energy infrastructure in

Rwanda through its two subsidiaries i.e.

the Energy Utility Corporation Limited

(EUCL) and the Energy Development

Corporation Limited (EDCL). The object of

creating these subsidiaries amongst

others was to ensure focused attention to

enhancing efficiency in utility operations

on one hand and more timely and cost

efficient implementation of development

projects on the other hand.

REG Board of Directors is the ultimate

body responsible for governance and

decision making. It comprises of seven

members. The Board is constituted into

three committees: the Audit Committee,

the Planning and Investment Committee

and the Human Resources and Corporate

Services Committee. The board is

comprised of a Chairperson, Deputy

Chairperson and five members. The Chief

Executive Officer deals with the daily

management of the Group in collaboration

with the Managing Directors of EUCL and

EDCL.

REG holding structure provides the

overall coordination and ensures effective

development of energy and investment

plans. The Energy Utility Corporation is the

trading arm of the Group and has to serve

diverse Rwanda’s electricity customers

including individuals and industries. In

executing its mandate, the Company will

strive to achieve optimized generation

capacity, economic plant dispatch to meet

short and long-term energy supply

requirements, enhanced operational

efficiency, improved customer service,

network growth, and increased

connections within the footprint of

electrified areas.

The Energy Development Corporation

focuses on developing new energy

generation and transmission projects to

meet the set targets by the Government of

Rwanda i.e. 70% connectivity and 563MW

by 2018

Electricity Generation

REG has recorded generation capacity

increase of 89,5MW during the last two

years of its establishment. This results

from the commissioning of the following

projects: Giggawatt Solar power plant

(8.5MW), Diesel power plants (10MW at

KSEZ and 14 MW at CIMERWA),

Nyabarongo 1 Hydropower Plant (28MW),

KivuwattMethane Gas Power Plant (25


Rwanda Energy group perspective

8.5 MW Gigawatt Global Rwanda Ltd –

Solar Power Plant in Rwamagana District, Eastern Province

MW) and Giciye II (4 MW). These projects

contribute to the current total installed

capacity of 190 MW out of 563MW to be

generated by 2018.

Power trade with

neighboring Countries

To enhance domestic and regional

electricity access, interconnection lines are

under construction to allow power trade/

exchange in the region. These include: 220

kV Line Mirama - Shango of 98 km

connecting Rwanda and Uganda, 220 kV

Line Shango – Rubavu – Bwishyura/Karongi

of 180 km connecting Rwanda with DRC. It

is expected that by 2018 power exchange

shall be possible through 220kV power

transmission infrastructures with all

neighboring countries.

Access to Electricity

REG has also succeeded in carrying out

rural electrification where most rural

Rwandans are enjoying the benefits of

electricity; this has improved the rural

community’s standards of living and

reduced the use of biomass. Currently we

have connected about 600,000 customers

which contribute 24% to the target of 70%

households’ connections (48% on grid and

22% off grid) by 2018. Current

electrification rates 100% of Hospitals; 85%

of Health Centers; 92% of administrative

sector offices and 45% of Primary &

Secondary Schools show key achievements

in energy sector in the last few years.

Energy Efficiency

Through energy efficiency programs, REG

has managed to replace most of the

non-economic lamps (incandescent bulbs)

by Compact Fluorescent lamps (CFLs). This

was achieved by the distribution of 800,000

CFLS from 2007 to 2013. It is recorded that

this project contributed to a saving of up to

75% of electricity lighting consumption and

the relating cost therefore reducing

electricity demand by 64 GWh per year.

The objective is to migrate from CFLs to

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) technology to

save more energy.

The utility has also increased the usage

of prepaid meters to most of consumers;

this has increased efficient use of electricity

by our customers through the

self-regulating purchase and economical

power consumption.

Investment Opportunities

The Energy sector in Rwanda presents

outstanding potential opportunities that

require involvement of the private sector

through Independent Power Producers

(IPPs) and Private Public Partnerships

(PPPs) structures. Rwanda is a land of

secured atmosphere conditions of its

tropical locations with stable conditions

and political security to attract investors.

The country through its regulatory

framework has a climate to attract and

support investors in energy sector through

Rwanda Development Board (RDB) and an

independent regulator, the Rwanda Utility

Regulatory Authority (RURA).

Rwanda ranks the 3rd in Africa in ease

of doing business and 1st in the Eastern

African Region (World Bank Doing Business

Report, 2015). The country boasts of

appropriate legal and institutional

frameworks that ensure investors value for

money on their investments. Rwanda

Development Board coordinates all

investment processes and commercial

courts are able to handle and settle

disputes that may arise. The introduction

of the Kigali International Arbitration

Center (KIAC) is one of the latest additions

to Rwanda’s initiatives towards a hustle

free investment environment in addition to

the latest investment code of 2015 that

provides a variety of non-fiscal and fiscal

incentives.

The energy mix comprises different type

of energy sources and technologies such as

hydropower, solar, methane to power and

peat to power. Geothermal sources are still

under exploration. Currently, many projects

in the pipeline are being developed by local

and international Independent Power

Producers including Kivu Watt-Contour

Global (USA), Gigawatt Global (Israel),

Symbion Power (USA), Hakan (Turkey) etc.,

who demonstrate a lively support to the

Government of Rwanda towards achieving

its power generation and electrification

targets. Opportunities in off grid

electrification are also available. As Rwanda

has high solar irradiation, the global

horizontal irradiance (GHI) was recorded in

the eastern province at 1890 kWh/per

square meter per year.

Solar energy can be harnessed for

electricity production, powering lights and

appliances at rural institutions (schools and

clinics), and water heating in urban areas.

There is high demand for solar energy

systems as the technology is progressively

becoming affordable, especially in remote

rural areas where the power grid is not yet

available.

Briefly, Rwanda is ready for business

and the investment climate is favorable.

Contact

KN82 ST3, Nyarugenge District, Kigali City,

P.O. Box 537 Kigali, Republic of Rwanda

Tel: +(250) (0) 78 818 1224

Email: info@reg.rw

Website: www.reg.rw


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SHARED PROSPERITY

HE Dr Anthony

Mothae Maruping

Commissioner for Economic Affairs

African Union Commission

Over recent years, more

than two thirds of Africa

has registered overall

improvement in the

quality of economic

governance. This has

increased the continent’s capacity to

delivery economic opportunity and basic

services to its citizens.

However, the drop in demand and in

prices of commodities on a global level

has had adverse effects on economic

growth in Africa. Exports have slowed

due to sluggish growth in importing

countries. Furthermore, the raising of

interest rates in the United States has led

to depreciation of currencies, which has

increased dollar-denominated external

debt and inflationary pressures. The

situation has also been exacerbated by

prolonged drought, which has reduced

agricultural production.

Continent-wide diversification

Combined, these are causing harsh

economic conditions, and they spell the

need for macroeconomic policies that

support private-sector development,

structural reform, innovation, market

openness and inclusive growth. To this end,

African economic development strategies

have been refocused to create the

conditions for continent-wide

industrialisation.

Industrialisation is a critical engine of

economic growth and development.

Adding value to raw materials and

shifting labour from low- to

high-productivity sectors is key to

realising the objectives outlined in Agenda

2063. Growing the African economy and

improving development is a significant

step towards creating a prosperous Africa

based on inclusive growth and

sustainable development. To this end, the

objectives outlined in Agenda 2063 include

a six-fold increase in per capita income by

2050, a tenfold reduction in the number of

poor people with two thirds of Africans to

join the ranks of the middle class, and

tripling the share of Africa’s gross

domestic product to 9%.

Maximising revenue

At the root of Africa’s low industrial

development is a lack of basic

infrastructure. Africa currently injects

just 4% of its collective gross domestic

product in infrastructure, compared with

China’s 14%. Without adequate

infrastructure, businesses looking to

maximise revenue from the exploitation

of Africa’s natural resources face too

many barriers. This is why the

development of infrastructure at a

national, regional and continental level

has been accorded top priority in the

Action Plan for Accelerating Industrial

Development in Africa.

Financing remains a key constraint to

Africa’s industrialisation efforts. In

addition to seeking more private-sector

investment, African financial institutions

and markets are being mobilised to play a

more important and innovative role in the

design of financial products to support

Agenda 2063. Member states are also

being called on to strengthen their tax

bases, so that these can help finance

continental initiatives.

The African Union’s task over the next

50 years is to make sure Africa’s abundant

resources are efficiently leveraged to the

benefit of all African citizens. •

Creating a

prosperous

Africa based on

inclusive growth

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 33


aspiration

1

Shared

prosperity

Ramogi Institute of

Advanced Technology

(RIAT) in Kisumu, Kenya

Joerg Boethling/Alamy

34 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


From

extraction

to innovation

Africa’s transition to a learning economy model depends

on it shedding its reliance on extractive industries, writes

Professor Calestous Juma from the Harvard Kennedy School

The current slump in world

commodity prices is forcing

Africa to rethink its traditional

dependence on raw material

exports. The time for African

nations to lay the foundations

for transitioning from extractive to learning

economies is now.

The jolts are real. The International

Monetary Fund has projected that sub-Saharan

Africa will grow by 3% in 2016. This is well

below the 6% average growth over the past

decade and the lowest rate in the last 15 years.

Some argue that Africa has already

squandered the commodity boom and wasted

the opportunity to increase its manufactured

exports. Others point to the fact that extractive

industries crowd out manufacturing, making

diversification more difficult.

International policy discourse on the issue

is still dominated by the need to bring

more transparency to extractive

industries. The assumption here

is that such transparency will

help control the operations of

multinational corporations, which in

turn will improve the use of revenue

from exports. Noble as they are, the

suggestions are still framed in the

context of commodities and will add

little to economic diversification.

3%

projected

growth for

sub-Saharan

Africa in 2016

Extraction is not just an economic activity

in Africa. It is a pervasive world view that

defines behaviour from business interactions to

relations between the state and its citizens.

This phenomenon is vividly captured in Tom

Burgis’s book The Looting Machine: Warlords,

Oligarchs, Corporations, Smugglers, and the

Theft of Africa’s Wealth.

Lamentation is not enough. Neither is

the magical thinking that the downturn in

the commodity boom and consumer-driven

growth will automatically lead to economic

diversification. This can only be achieved

through practical efforts to focus on

creating learning economies driven by

technological innovation.

The good news is that African policymakers

are aware of what needs to be done. For

example, in 2014 the African Union (AU)

adopted a 10-year Science, Technology and

Innovation in Africa Strategy to

help reposition the continent as

a collection of technology-driven

economies. This strategy contributes

to Africa’s 50-year Agenda 2063. The

challenge is how to do it. One example

can be found in the decision by the AU

and the NEPAD Planning and

Coordinating Agency to collaborate in

building executive capacity among

African ministers through the

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 35


Shared prosperity

they do so because they

are learning rather than

extractive economies

Professor Amivi Kafui Tete-Benissan (left) teaches cell

biology and biochemistry at the University of Lomé, Togo

Technology, Innovation and

Entrepreneurship programme funded by

the Schooner Foundation.

Rhetorical statements about value-addition

are not enough. For example, in 2015 Africa

exported nearly $2.5 billion worth of coffee.

Germany’s re-export of coffee, on the other

hand, was about $3.9 billion. Adding value to

coffee in Africa is hardly the best response.

There is little evidence to support the view

that commodity-exporting countries diversify

their economies by adding value to their raw

materials. To the contrary, nations add value to

imported raw materials when they already

possess the minimum technological

competence. In effect, they do so because they

are learning rather than extractive economies.

Nations shift from extractive to learning

economies by not simply shifting to another

sector and hoping that diversification will

occur automatically. An example of this is

the description of Nigeria’s emphasis on

agriculture as the country’s “new oil”. As

noted by former President Olusegun Obasanjo,

agriculture can be more than the “new oil”:

“One day the oil will run out – but sub-Saharan

Africa will always have its fertile land, its

rivers, its youthful workforce and its huge

domestic market. Investing now can turn

that potential into prosperity.”

Agriculture is an important entry point

for economic diversification not because

of abundant land, but because it offers a

foundation for building learning economies

through technological innovation. Agriculture

can serve as an effective source of

technological lessons for the wider economy.

Shifting from extractive to learning

economies therefore requires refocusing

attention on continuous improvement,

adaptation, and diversification. The is to learn

from other economies – not just to copy them

and adapt the lesson to local needs.

African nations have the benefit of being

Beyond Access literacy app hackathon

in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

$2.5

billion

worth of coffee

exported by

Africa in 2015

latecomers. The world is full of inspirational

examples they can learn from. In fact, many of

the countries that have recently transitioned

to being learning economies started off with

much fewer resources (finance and research

facilities) than the majority of African

countries have today.

In the early 1960s, Taiwan’s main export was

mushrooms. The prospects of industrial

learning were quite limited when dealing with

a high-volume, low-value and perishable export

commodity. It transitioned to becoming a

semiconductor powerhouse by redefining

itself as a learning economy.

Taiwan’s premier research centre, the

Industrial Technology Research Institute

(ITRI) that spawned many of its leading

semiconductor firms, was created by

consolidating four dilapidated research

centres left behind by Japanese occupiers.

ITRI was not created to add value to

mushrooms but was part of the country’s

policy reinvention as a learning economy.

The case of Taiwan illustrates the fact that

economic diversification results from the initial

36 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


SHARED PROSPERITY

Kansanshi copper

mine smelter, Zambia

Blaize Pascall/Alamy

use of existing technologies that can be

readily combined to generate increasingly

diverse products. Some technological

capabilities generate more combinations

that others. Semiconductor and chemical

industries are examples of such platform

or generic technologies.

As my colleague Professor Ricardo

Hausmann explains, industrial growth

proceeds like a game of Scrabble. Nations

start off with minimum technological

capabilities that they recombine to create

more technologies in the same way letters

are used to create new words in a Scrabble

game. Not all letters are created equal. Some

have higher values, but they do not combine

readily to form words.

Raw materials, for example, are like J, Q,

X, and Z, which appear to have high value but

are hard to use in creating words. Players often

have to substitute them with more versatile

letters. This is like using revenue from raw

materials to acquire technological capabilities

that have higher recombinant value. As in

Scrabble, industrial development involves

considerable learning, not just about letters

but also about vocabulary and strategies for

thinking about creating new words.

Africa’s economic downturn is not itself

a fatal development. Countries need not recoil

into despair and leave their future to the fate

of commodity price fluctuations. It is an

opportunity for

them to start

industrial growth proceeds

like a game of Scrabble.

Nations start off with minimum

technological capabilities

CALESTOUS JUMA

Professor at Harvard

Kennedy school

@Calestous

building new

futures that focus

on enhancing

human capabilities

as the foundation

of durable

economic

development.

Unlike its predecessors, Africa has access

to a much wider range of technologies that can

serve as platforms for industrial learning. They

cover diverse fields such as digital technologies,

genetics, synthetic biology and new materials.

Harnessing them requires building among

young people a culture of innovation that is

driven by learning and not extraction. •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 37


Shared prosperity

Transforming

structures

is key

Africa’s social development depends on

improved structural conditions, writes

Adam B Elhiraika

Since the turn of the century,

Africa has been growing at an

unprecedented rate. This has led to

shifts in development debates from

emphasising poverty and inequality

reduction to include examination of

the quality of these achievements – how to profit

from this growth momentum. Structural

transformation, where resources move from low

to higher productivity sectors, has thus

preoccupied African countries, policymakers and

advisers over the last decade – to sustain higher

growth that is inclusive and conducive to social

development. The United Nations Economic

Commission for Africa (UNECA) has been among

the strongest regional voices to advocate for

examination of structural transformation on the

continent. UNECA’s annual flagship report – the

Economic Report on Africa – has since 2011 been

examining the imperatives of structural

transformation hinged on the industrialisation of

the continent and the role of the state.

The shift of resources from low to higher

productivity sectors implies improvement in

38 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


Shared prosperity

An employee

operates a sewing

machine inside the

workshop of Luxury

Leather Africa in

Thika, which is an

enterprise for social

impact specialising

in training Kenyans

to be masters in the

creation of luxury

leather goods of

outstanding quality

Make It Kenya/Stuart Price/Flickr

Addis Ababa is

a city surrounded

by hills. New

buildings emerge

every day into

a crane-dotted sky

Jean Rebiffé/Flickr

Simon Davis/DFID Flickr

The building

boom is helping

provide jobs

for countless

construction

workers across

Ethiopia. The

National Cement

Share Company

is on track to

supply 14% of

all the cement

being made

in Ethiopia

Africa’s growth has widely

been castigated

for being

jobless and

not inclusive

ADAM B ELHIRAIKA, Director of

Macroeconomic Policy Division, UNECA

returns to the employment of these resources –

higher incomes for both workers and investors,

higher government revenue and therefore

increased fiscal space. Structural transformation

has a direct bearing on increasing the number of

decent jobs, lifting more people out of poverty,

improving the quality of their lives and ostensibly

contributing to reduction in inequality. Use

of resources in higher productivity sectors

also deepens the tax base, thereby improving

government capacity

to implement sustainable

social protection and

economic development

policies.

Conversely,

better educated and

healthy citizens improve

labour productivity,

enhance economic

activity, generate higher

incomes and promote

national stability and

development. Weak social

development is therefore both a result and one

of the main reasons that Africa’s growth potential

is still largely untapped. With high levels of

population growth and fast urbanisation, the

importance of social development for Africa’s

inclusive and transformative development agenda

cannot be overestimated.

Africa’s sustained growth since the late 1990s

has widely been castigated for being jobless and

not inclusive. Many countries remain heavily

commodity-dependent, and thus vulnerable to

trade-induced volatility and other shocks.

Accumulation of human capital on the continent

has been limited largely due to inadequate

emphasis on policies to improve education

and health conditions. Yet UNECA’s research

indicates that social policies have a vital role in

strengthening the link between social conditions

and economic development activities.

Mauritius’s successful transformation was

helped by social policies aligned with the needs

of the industrial sector, as well as employment and

social protection schemes. This is evidenced in the

high share of technical and vocational

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 39


Shared prosperity

Students in

the village of

Atome, Togo

look forward to

receiving their

new school as

a gift from the

people of the

United States

US Army Corps of Engineers/Jennifer Aldridge/Flickr

Elizabeth

Mukwimba of

Tanzania now

has solar lighting

and electricity in

her home at the

flick of a switch,

thanks to a

scheme backed

by UK aid

education and training (TVET) in secondary

school enrolment with further opportunities for

adults to receive skills upgrading at work.

These policies have helped Mauritius to achieve

not only more equitable and inclusive social

development, but also faster economic

transformation and development. Investment

in education, health and skills development

create a virtuous cycle of evolution of

structural transformation.

Africa’s heightened concern with structural

transformation and social development is also

driven by the recognition of its unprecedented

demographic and urbanisation shift. Africa’s

population is rapidly increasing and urbanising,

and is expected to rise by 3.2 billion (of the

projected 3.8 billion worldwide increase) by

2100. The working-age population will increase

by 2.1 billion over the same period, accounting

for 41% of the global working-age population by

2100 compared to 12.6% in 2010.

This presents both opportunities and

challenges for Africa. Adequately harnessed, a

rising share of the working-age population and

resulting decline in the dependency ratio can

lead to higher economic output, savings and

investments. Otherwise, missed opportunities

could lead to a concentration of consumption

cities, exacerbation of inhuman living

conditions in urban areas and fuel more social

tensions, political instability and extremism

with adverse impacts on development. The

urgency of poverty reduction that is underpinned

by rapid, sustainable and inclusive growth and

structural transformation requires an inclusive

and integrated approach to development that

spurs investments in high productivity sectors

and rapid social development.

It will also require long-term development

plans and industrial strategies that support

rapid diversification and value addition and

foster global competitiveness and participation

in regional and global value chains. The success

of such transformative strategies hinges on the

ability of African countries and their

continental and regional organisations to

improve the quality of human resources and

sustain their commitment to domestic resource

mobilisation to finance critical investment in

physical infrastructure, improve the climate for

investment and deepen regional integration.

Successful experiences from Africa and

elsewhere highlight the critical role of visionary

leadership committed to continuous

improvement in economic governance and

planning in supporting both structural change

and social development. •

41%

of the global

working-age

population will be

based in Africa by

2100 compared

with

12.6%

in 2010

Russell Watkins/DFID/Flickr

40 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


SHARED PROSPERITY

HE Rhoda Peace

Tumusiime

Commissioner for Rural Economy and Agriculture

African Union Commission

The focus on human rights

and specifically women’s

rights at this year’s African

Union Summit is a bold step

in the right direction.

Drawing attention to

women’s rights puts agriculture and the

sustainable development of our continent

in good stead. This is because women

constitute the majority of our farmers and

they frequently face barriers in accessing

land, credit, improved and high-yielding

seeds and fertilizers.

Improving women’s rights

Equitable and inclusive growth, which is

essential in creating a prosperous Africa,

cannot be achieved without deliberate and

serious continental attempts in addressing

the challenges of improving women’s

economic and social rights.

This is especially important in areas

of tenure security to land and other

natural resources. It holds the key to the

advancement of women, and by extension,

the entire continent. To attain the laudable

goals of Agenda 2063, it is indispensable

that women’s rights are strengthened and

consolidated in all domains.

The issue of women’s rights is a

diverse one, covering all spheres of life.

However, we often talk about women’s

rights with economic, social, religious and

cultural lenses. Linking women’s rights to

natural resources gives us a broader

picture of the encompassing rights of

women. Women manage natural resources

daily in their roles as farmers and

household providers. Typically, they are

responsible for growing subsistence crops,

and often have unique knowledge of local

crop species. To meet family needs, rural

women and girls walk long distances to

collect fuel wood and water. Despite their

reliance on natural resources, women

have less access to and control over them

than men. Usually it is men who put land,

water, plants and animals to commercial

use, which is often more valued than

women’s domestic uses.

Improving women’s rights over natural

resources is not a necessity, but an

obligation. It is a growing imperative in

order for Africa to maintain her

development trajectory. We can no longer

brush aside the significant contribution of

women, both in terms of economic growth

and food security in Africa.

Benefit of prosperity

The demographic landscape in many

African countries today, especially rural

areas, depicts emerging cases of

female-headed communities, as many of

the men have moved to the urban centres

in search of jobs and other economic

opportunities. It is therefore imperative

that we start looking at how productive

resources are owned and managed for the

benefit of posterity. If women are the

tillers of the land, and conservators of the

forest and water resources, then they

deserve tenurial arrangements that would

safeguard their labour and investment. •

Improving women’s

access to natural

resources is not

a necessity, but

an obligation

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 41


Shared prosperity

To achieve the successful development of African

agriculture, building on strengthened policies and

scaled-up programmes on food security and

nutrition is key, explains José Graziano da Silva

The zero

hunger

generation

Farmers now have access to enough water

In 25 years the proportion

of Africans facing hunger

decreased from around 28%

to 20%, despite the total

population increase to 1.2 billion

people during the same period.

This achievement resulted mainly

from the high-level commitment of

the continent’s leaders. In general,

food systems are evolving with a

growing shift towards agro-processing;

and renewed efforts are underway

to develop agro-value chains and

boost intra-regional food trade and

markets in Africa.

But we still have a lot of work to do:

nearly 218 million people continue to

go to bed hungry every night in Africa.

This is still a huge number.

In many countries, despite efforts

to reach the Millennium Development

Goal of eliminating extreme poverty and

hunger, disasters, conflicts, economic

shocks or weak governance and political

instability are aggravating increased

vulnerability to food insecurity.

The Malabo Declaration is a

key milestone towards a new

agriculture and rural development

and transformation in Africa. With its

implementation strategy and roadmap

on Accelerated Agricultural Growth and

Transformation for Shared Prosperity

and Improved Livelihoods, it seeks to

achieve the 2025 vision of ending hunger

in Africa through renewed commitments

and accountability to the Comprehensive

Africa Agriculture Development

Programme (CAADP) Results

Framework, as well as to achieve the

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The objectives of the Food

and Agriculture Organization

of the United Nations (FAO)

are to maintain the dialogue

on issues such as global

policies that encompass food

and agriculture, collaboration

with regional organisations,

promotion of partnerships,

the development of regional

norms on food security and

20%

of Africans still

face hunger,

although this is

down from 28%

nutrition, the generation and exchange

of knowledge across countries and the

importance of gender mainstreaming

in agriculture and food governance.

Sub-Saharan Africa is generally

characterised by low production and

productivity in the agriculture sector

and a disproportionately large number

of female and male smallholders whose

sustainable use of improved agricultural

inputs and practices is minimal.

Together with other development

partners, FAO is championing an

approach that combines social

protection with additional targeted

investments in agriculture,

rural development, and in

urban areas that will chiefly

benefit the poor.

A combined social

protection and investment

scenario whereby public and

private funded transfers are

used to lift people out of

chronic hunger, would pave

the way for a permanent exit

42 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


SHARED PROSPERITY

shown that when rural women have as

equal access as men to resources, assets,

services and economic opportunities, they

become a key driving force against rural

poverty, hunger and malnutrition.

The rural poor and

hungry urgently

need assistance

JOSE GRAZIANO DA SILVA,

Director-General of the Food

and Agriculture Organization of

the United Nations

A’Melody Lee/World Bank

from extreme poverty and hunger.

In rural areas, pro-poor public

investments could target small-scale

irrigation and other infrastructure

benefiting small holders, including

measures such as food processing to

reduce post-harvest waste and losses,

as well as stronger institutional

arrangements for land and water

tenure, credit facilities, labour

legislation to make both farm and

off-farm activities and markets

accessible to youth. It is about time

that every woman and young person is

given the chance to transform Africa.

I encourage a production system

approach to enhanced agricultural

diversification, productivity and

competitiveness, in a value chain context.

Encourage a system that guarantees

youth and women’s access to productive

assets, services, finance and markets.

Addressing gender equality in

agricultural value chains and women’s

access to safe, nutritious and diverse food

is also important. Our experience has

For concrete actions

and tangible results

Our shared development initiatives can

be instrumental in strengthening FAO

partnerships with African regional

institutions including the African Union

Commission, Regional Economic

Communities, research and knowledge

institutions, and the African Development

Bank, among others.

Exchange of good practices

between countries, based on South-

South Cooperation (SSC), has resulted

in the adoption and implementation of

resilient approaches.

We will continue to promote

and leverage SSC since it has been

instrumental in facilitating experience

sharing and in upscaling good practices,

knowledge and technology from one

African country to another of a number

of our programmes and projects. In this

respect, the Africa Solidarity Trust Fund

for Food Security, hosted in FAO, is an

innovative Africa-led fund to support

Africa-for-Africa development initiatives.

Its main goal is to strengthen food

security across the continent by assisting

countries and their regional organisations

to eradicate hunger and malnutrition,

eliminate rural poverty and manage

natural resources in a sustainable manner.

Countries and regions affected by

disasters and crises have been supported

to prepare, coordinate and manage

effective and gender-sensitive responses

in a timely manner. Key actions include

the response to the current El Niño that

has affected large parts of the continent,

especially the Southern African subregion,

as well as parts of Eastern Africa, notably

Ethiopia and Tanzania.

The Paris Agreement at COP21 paves

the way for African countries to develop

their climate adaptation and mitigation

responses. The rural poor and hungry

urgently need assistance to cope with

the growing adverse and unexpected

conditions. This will be our call at

COP22, in Marrakech, this year.

We encourage and support African

leaders in their aim for expanded

partnerships on the continent and for

a renewed and focused vision towards

ending hunger. •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 43


Shared prosperity

Domestic sources of funding are critical to the

continent’s continued economic growth,

explains Adam B Elhiraika

Can Africa

finance its

development

agenda?

If properly harnessed, Africa’s domestic

resources provide an ideal source of

sustainable financing, which can be

deployed to support its development

agenda. The implementation of

Agenda 2030 and Agenda 2063 hinges

on Africa’s ability to mobilise sufficient,

predictable and timely financial resources.

At the Third International Conference on

Financing for Development, world leaders

committed to strengthen the framework to

finance sustainable development and the means

of implementation for the universal post-2015

development agenda.

Africa came to the table with a clear and

unified vision in terms of how Agenda 2030

should be financed. This vision commits to

improving domestic resource mobilisation,

maximising innovative financing, implementing

existing commitments, and promoting the

quality and predictability of external financing.

Reliance on domestic resources would enhance

African countries’ ownership of public policy,

44 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


SHARED PROSPERITY

2012

2002

$124bn

Total tax revenue

$515bn

Total tax revenue

ties accountability to citizens and reduces the

volatility associated with external funding.

Since the Monterrey Consensus in 2002, Africa

has increasingly mobilised domestic resources to

finance its development priorities. Africa’s total

government revenue excluding grants reached

$583 billion in 2012, but moderated in the past

two years due to weak commodity prices. Total

tax revenue alone stood at $515.1 billion in 2012,

up from only $123.9 billion in 2002, though it

declined to $507.4 billion in 2013, according to

estimates by the African Development Bank, the

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and

Development and United Nations Development

Programme. The average tax revenue to gross

domestic product (GDP) ratio in Africa reached

26% of GDP in 2012, up from 24.4% in 2011, and is

projected to keep rising until 2020 in

middle-income African countries but remain

below 15% in low-income countries.

An untapped pool of capital

Enhancing private domestic resource

mobilisation through savings is critical in

financing Africa’s development since household

savings provide a stable, low-cost and low-risk

source of financing. Private domestic savings in

Africa are low and the continent is under-banked

with the domestic savings rate of about 20% over

the last decade compared to 46% in East Asia

and the Pacific, and 30% for middle-income

countries. Central banks have a critical role to

play in unlocking idle resources, with more than

$1 trillion of excess reserves, and channelling them

into productive investments remains critical.

Africa is now home to 15 sovereign wealth funds

and African pension funds represent a growing

domestic source of capital for private equity

estimated at more than $29 billion.

With proper macroeconomic management

and regulation, including measures to ensure

fiscal and debt sustainability, these emerging and

innovative sources of domestic finance present a

largely untapped pool of capital to finance the

continent’s structural transformation. African

countries with the support of the African Union

and the Bilateral and Multilateral partners

should also intensify efforts to fight illicit

financial outflows, which cost the region about

4% of GDP during 2003-2012, according to

estimates. It is also important to ensure that the

policies of advanced economies and regulatory

reforms of standard-setting bodies do not place

an undue burden on financial institutions in

Africa and lead to unintended consequences.

Africa needs to turn its development ambitions

into practical and implementable actions. Effective

mobilisation of domestic resources requires strong

institutions to strengthen tax systems, expand

domestic tax bases, address the challenges of the

informal sector and fight tax evasion and

avoidance. Africa also needs to have tax frameworks

for monitoring the extractive industries

to maximise benefits from its natural resource

wealth. Tax-administration capacities can be

strengthened with innovative tax

implementation schemes. Utilisation of

information and communications technology by

tax authorities can lower the high transaction

costs faced by many governments.

Africa’s development partners have an

important role to play by leveraging external

support to enhance the capacity of domestic

resource mobilisation and utilisation through

budget support or the financing of investment

in infrastructure, education, and science and

technology that are critical for the achievement

of the development priorities of African

countries. In this regard, greater global

transparency is key to the success of Africa’s

development strategies. The 2008 financial and

economic crisis and the ongoing global financial

market fragility call for a global consensus to

address systemic issues, including global

imbalances in monetary systems, capital flow

management and other measures that might

trigger future crises. Greater global

transparency is therefore needed to achieve

accountable taxation, enhance the regulation

and supervision of under-regulated financial

markets, and reduce systemic risks of banking

and shadow-banking systems.

A need for effective systems

Properly harnessed, Africa’s domestic resources

are sufficient to meet its development needs.

Besides effective policies, the continent requires

effective monitoring and evaluation systems to

enable countries to establish a baseline for their

resource mobilisation efforts and develop a

mechanism to track improvements and the extent

to which resources were channelled to key areas. •

26%

Average tax revenue to

GDP in Africa in 2012

Up from

24.4 %

in 2011

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 45


Shared prosperity

AFRICA’S PROJECT

PIPELINE

NZEMA SOLAR

Ghana

155MW

$350m

Planned 2017

KHOBAB WIND FARM

South Africa

140MW

Approx $230m

Under construction 2017

LOERIESFONTEIN 2

WIND FARM

South Africa

140MW

Approx $230m

Under construction 2017

REDSTONE SOLAR

THERMAL POWER

South Africa

100MW

Approx $715m

Under construction 2018

BURANGA

GEOTHERMAL POWER

STATION

Uganda

100MW

$42m

Planned 2020

AYSHA WIND FARM

Ethiopia

300MW

$502m

Planned N/A

LAKE TURKANA WIND

POWER

Kenya

310MW

$700m

Under construction 2017

KIPETO WIND FARM

Kenya

100MW

$300m

Under construction 2017

SINGIDA WIND FARM

Tanzania

100MW

$285m

Planned 2017

As temperatures continue to rise, creating renewable energy

sources grows ever more compelling. Pamela Whitby

explains how Africa is responding to the challenge

Climate change

in Africa:

the heat is on

Climate change is a hot

topic. From the Horn of

Africa to many countries

in sub-Saharan Africa and

along the Sahel, the arid

strip that hugs the Sahara

desert from the Atlantic in the west to the

Red Sea in the east, drought disasters are

becoming altogether more frequent.

For a continent that contributes

less than 5% of global carbon emissions

but is one of the hardest hit by climate

change, the Paris Agreement of December

2015 was hailed as a step in the right

direction. In the French capital at the

21st Conference of the Parties (COP21)

to the United Nations Framework

Convention on Climate Change, 195

countries agreed a historic pact to

reduce climate change. Among the

measures put forward were to keep

global temperatures well below 2ºC

and to achieve a net zero carbon global

economy by 2050.

Although Africa’s 54 countries have

worked closely together to leave a clear

set of issues on the table, said Fatima

Denton, Director of the Special Initiatives

Division and Coordinator of the African

Climate Policy Centre at the UN Economic

Commission for Africa (UNECA), now

comes the challenge of implementation

and financing the right projects.

A major focus for African governments

going forward is in funding renewable

energy projects and two notable

Pan-African initiatives have emerged

as a result. The first being the African

Renewable Energy Initiative (AREI)

while the second is the African Initiative

on Adaptation and Loss and Damage. To

focus on AREI, which is led by institutions

such as the African Union (AU) and UN

Environment Programme (UNEP), it is

clear that there is work to do. AREI has

a goal of delivering 300GW of renewable

energy by 2030, but if this is to be

achieved, says a report by the Economist

Intelligence Unit (EIU), a 680% increase in

current deployment rates will be required.

Citing data from the International

Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the

EIU report points to the fact that the

installed renewable power generation

capacity in sub-Saharan Africa currently

stands at slightly below 30GW, roughly

25-30% of the installed power base. This

is dominated by large hydro, with other

renewables collectively accounting for

just 4-5% of power generation.

The good news is that from

geo-thermal to hydropower, wind and

solar there is no shortage of possibilities

for renewable energy in Africa, and

with the costs of technologies falling,

governments are committed to making

this work. According to Dolf Gielen,

Director of IRENA’s Innovation and

Technology Centre, “nearly 40 African

countries have introduced renewable

energy targets in the last 10 years and

there are now more than 100GW of

renewable energy projects in the pipeline.”

According to the EIU, an argument

for government-led renewable energy

procurement programmes like South

Africa’s REIPPPP is that they “provide

structure, investor certainty and a ‘policy

signal’ to the private sector”, and Uganda

and Zambia are following suit. •

46 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


SHARED PROSPERITY

Dam at Blyde River

Canyon, South Africa

FINANCING MECHANISMS

AFRICA RENEWABLE ENERGY

INITIATIVE (AREI)

Aim: by 2020 the initiative is to deliver

10GW of additional renewable energy

generation capacity and help mobilise

Africa’s potential for 300GW by 2030.

Backers: AfDB is a major sponsor with

endorsements coming from the AU,

African Heads of State and

Government on Climate Change and

Ministers of Environment (AMCEN).

Financing: committed to mobilising

$10bn; AfDB to dedicate 40% of its

resources to climate change initiatives

by 2020.

iStock photo

SOUTH AFRICA

LEADING THE WAY

One of the biggest success stories

has come out of South Africa, which

has led the way with its 2010

Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) by

aiming to increase investments into

new power projects by 40,000MW by

2030. The plan has a strong focus on

renewable energy, which is projected

to account for 42% of the share of

total new generation capacity.

At the same time, the country has

established a Renewable Energy

Independent Power Producer

Procurement Programme (REIPPPP)

to accelerate development.

NEPAD CLIMATE CHANGE FUND

Aim: to raise awareness of climate

change and offer financial and

technical assistance to AU member

states, regional economic communities.

Backers: NEPAD Planning and

Coordinating Agency with support

from the German government.

Financing: grants per approved project

of up to $226,000.

GREEN CLIMATE FUND

Aim: to mobilise funding for

low-emission climate resilient

investment.

Backers: multilateral financing

entity, GCF

Financing: $10bn raised to date and is

available through a range of

instruments including grants, loans,

subordinated debt.

GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT

FACILITY

Aim: to provide new and additional

grants and concessional funding to

cover the ‘incremental’ or additional

costs associated with transforming a

project with national benefits into one

with global environmental benefits.

Backers: the Asian Development Bank

(ADB), AfDB, Development Bank of

Latin America (CAF), Conservation

International (CI), Development Bank

of Southern Africa (DBSA) and

European Bank for Reconstruction and

Development (EBRD).

Financing: since 1992, the GEF has

provided $14.5 billion in grants and

mobilised $75.4 billion in additional

financing for almost 4,000 projects.

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 47


CMA Kenya perspective

Transforming Kenya into the

Heart of African Capital Markets

Kenya’s Capital Markets Authority (CMA)

facilitated the development of a 10-year

strategy document, the Capital Markets

Master Plan (CMMP), in collaboration

with industry stakeholders. The CMMP

outlines key drivers of the envisioned

growth trajectory of Kenya’s capital

markets. The Master Plan was launched

by the Cabinet Secretary to the National

Treasury in November 2014 and adopted

as a flagship project under the Vision

2030 Economic Blueprint Second Medium

Term Plan.

The implementation of the Master Plan

is driven by the industry’s goal to position

Kenya through the development of

dynamic and liquid capital markets based

on international standard financial market

infrastructure. This necessitates a legal and

governance framework that inspires

confidence and ensures the realisation of

an open and competitive marketplace.

The implementation of the Master Plan,

spearheaded by the Authority in close

collaboration with industry stakeholders, is

expected to transform Kenya into the

“Heart of African Capital Markets”.

Milestones Achieved

Rebranding, demutualisation and

subsequent self-listing of the Nairobi

Securities Exchange (NSE) underpins the

Exchange’s commitment to improved


CMA Kenya perspective

Image of downtown Nairobi,

the capital of Kenya

corporate governance. To remove barriers

to membership at the NSE, admission fees

were reduced from US$2.5 million to

US$25,000.

Foreign ownership limits on listed

companies were lifted in June 2015 to

promote liquidity, access and absorption

capacity of the equities markets.

CMA in partnership with the World

Bank/International Finance Corporation

and in consultation with industry

stakeholders has introduced a new Code of

Corporate Governance Practices for Issuers

of Securities to the Public (Corporate

Governance Code). To bolster the overall

corporate governance environment, a

Stewardship Code for Institutional Investors

has been developed to ensure that

institutional investors take up a proactive

role in promoting sound governance in

listed companies.

In order to deepen and diversify the

range of products and services available in

the capital markets, the Authority

approved the Nairobi Securities Exchange

(NSE) to establish a Derivatives Exchange,

issued policy guidance notes for

introduction of Exchange Traded Funds,

facilitated a successful initial public offer of

the first Real Estate Investment Trust

(REIT), approved the first Development

REIT and established a listing segment for

Asset Backed Securities at the NSE.

To accelerate uptake of Islamic finance

products, a Project Management Office has

been established bringing together

international experts and representatives

of all financial sector regulators. The PMO

has commenced review of the Financial

Services policy and regulatory framework

and the initial set of statutory and

regulatory amendments has been

submitted to the National Treasury for

consideration.

To more effectively combat money

laundering and terrorism financing, a

Financial Reporting Centre has been

operationalised and Anti-Money

Laundering (AML) Guidelines for capital

markets intermediaries gazetted.

To enhance integration of the regional

capital markets, East African Community

Council Directives are being developed and

adopted by the East African Community

Council of Ministers, thereby establishing

convergence standards for regional

securities laws in areas such as licensing,

public offer disclosures, takeovers and

mergers and product issuance and

approval.

The Authority has in partnership with

the Chartered Institute for Securities and

Investment (CISI), facilitated the

introduction of international certification

standards in the capital markets industry,

covering both international and local

regulatory content.

In line with the Master Plan’s

recommendations, the Authority is

establishing a financial law review panel

comprised of leading local and

international financial market lawyers. The

Panel will act as a think tank for early

identification of potential legislative gaps

or challenges that could affect the

functioning of financial markets including

ancillary legislation and propose legal and

regulatory reforms.

Some Future Milestones

Kenya remains focused on the

opportunities for unlocking project

financing using capital markets. The Master

Plan has set a target of ensuring over 30

percent of county (municipal)

infrastructure financing originates from

Kenya’s capital markets by 2023. Other

priorities include progressing development

of East African Community (EAC) single

market in financial services; diversifying

market products; modernizing market

infrastructures; improving international

competitiveness; developing new markets;

facilitating securities lending and other

liquidity enhancement tools; and achieving

MSCI emerging market status.

Capital Markets Authority

P O Box 74800- 00200

Nairobi, Kenya

Tel: +254 2 2264900

Cell: +254 722 207767, +254 733 651550

Email: corporate@cma.or.ke

Website: www.cma.or.ke


Shared prosperity

Fintech:

the key to

unlocking

Africa’s capital

Mobile technology is an expanding market throughout

Africa, and a great opportunity to develop its financial

aspect. Pamela Whitby looks at the future of fintech

Rendille tribesman taking

a picture with his mobile

phone, Turkana Lake,

Loiyangalani, Kenya, 2014

50 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


SHARED PROSPERITY

© Eric Lafforgue/Alamy

60%

of Africa’s

population

is under the

age of 25

60%

rate of youth

unemployment

Africa needs capital. It will need $90 billion

annually for the next 10 years just to meet the

continent’s infrastructure needs, according to

the World Bank. In addition, there is growing

demand for investment in other goods and

services, not to mention a pressing need to

fuel job creation for the continent’s youthful and expanding

population. Today three-fifths of Africa’s population is under

the age of 25, and youth unemployment stands at 20%.

Yet the continent remains desperately short of investment

from both local and international investors. According to a

recent Price Waterhouse Coopers (PwC) report, while 15% of

the world’s population resides in Africa today, it accounts for

just 3% of global gross domestic product (GDP) and less than

1% of the world’s total stock market capitalisation. Although

financial sectors and fund industries are emerging across the

continent, and commodity-rich countries seek to diversify, the

change is not happening fast enough.

“That is tragic considering the wealth that is sitting in

Africa,” says Joseph Kitamirike, CEO of ALTX Africa Group,

and former Chief Executive of the Uganda Securities Exchange.

One of the current challenges is that while GDP growth

rates in Africa are on the rise, a culture of investment and

savings is not, and the continent’s capital markets remain

small and fairly illiquid.

Kitamirike, who is working on ways to address this

challenge, believes the solution to harnessing Africa’s wealth

lies in a mix of sound government policy, strategic investment

management thinking and mobile technology.

Changing the game

In 2015, there were 28 IPOs (initial public offerings) in Africa

which, including further offerings (FOs), raised $12.7 billion.

There were also 47 corporate and sovereign/supranational debt

issuances with proceeds amounting to $19.3 billion. In total

then, the money raised on Africa’s capital markets amounted

to $32 billion in 2015 ($151.5 billion between 2011 and 2015).

But imagine, says Kitamirike, if you could harness Africa’s

one billion mobile subscribers. Citing a concrete example he

says: “If each person holding a phone today was able to invest

$3 a week, that would already be worth over £150 billion a

year. Clearly, there is huge untapped potential here, and if

investment management people can create a product to

extract this money, then I think we really can begin to move.”

Indeed one of the five ‘game changers’ identified by PwC is

rapid technological development in Africa, and high levels of

mobile penetration in particular.

A well-documented success story in bringing the

unbanked online is that of Kenyan mobile payments

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 51


Shared prosperity

64%

Local young girls in

the khat market

speak by mobile phone,

Degan, Ethiopia

of women in

sub-Saharan

Africa are

unconnected

with mobile

phones

platform, M-PESA. Launched by the country’s mobile

operator Safaricom in 2007, M-PESA today has 20 million

subscribers, and in 2014, 87% of Kenya’s GDP passed through

the platform. Going a step further, Safaricom has also joined

forces with Kenya’s Equity Bank to launch M-KESHO, a suite

of financial products aimed at people holding M-PESA

accounts, a service that was quickly extended to other

Kenyan banks, and other countries.

Elsewhere, mobile technology has prompted South Africa’s

Vodacom and Ghana’s Tigo to launch insurance products,

while big incumbents such as Visa and MasterCard have been

looking at ways to link technology and finance. For example,

the $50 million MasterCard Foundation Fund for Rural

Prosperity is one that aims to extend financial services to

people living in poverty and is driven by three core principles:

impact, innovation and sustainability.

Yet, despite the growing number of innovative mobile

solutions, in sub-Saharan Africa only 34% of people hold an

account with a formal financial institution.

Kitamirike says it doesn’t have to be this way: “The mobile

phone technology that exists today enables people to make

payments and open investment accounts. Now we just need

to build a product that enables us to reach these people and

link them to markets with the technology that is available.”

Dariush Yazdani, PwC Partner and leader of the Asset

Management Research Centre, agrees: “The mobile

technology use within asset management, especially in Africa,

could result in a boost of the industry on the continent.”

PwC’s report Africa Asset Management 2020 estimates

assets under management in Africa to reach $1 trillion by

2020. “This is based on an assumption of normal developments

within Africa,” Yazdani explains. “However, if we should see

a faster uptake of asset management products through

channels like mobile technology this number could be higher.”

Sign of the times

It is, perhaps, prophetic then that the biggest IPO in Africa’s

2016 pipeline is a financial technology (fintech) firm.

If each person holding a phone

today was able to invest $3 a week,

that would already be worth over

£150 billion a year

According to law firm Baker & McKenzie, Nigeria’s

Interswitch could be the first African company to enter the

‘unicorn’ club of companies valued at a billion dollars if it goes

for a dual listing in London and Lagos rather than a trade sale.

Launched in 2002, Interswitch, which today operates in five

African countries processing payments for banks, is majority

owned by London-based Helios Investment Partners. Its

growth is being driven by the rapidly emerging digital

payments landscape across the continent.

According to a McKinsey Global Institute report, consumer

spending in Africa is expected to exceed $1 trillion per year

by 2020. Today Nigerian consumers already fork out $400

billion per year, and by 2025 it is expected that e-commerce

revenues of the continent’s most populous nation and largest

economy will amount to $75 billion. Also worth noting is that

Nigerian mobile subscriber penetration is 100%. It is therefore

unsurprising that Helios has also provided growth capital for

Mall for Africa, an innovative online shopping platform that

provides access to US and UK retail sites.

Interswitch is one of 15 IPOs expected in Africa this year.

Other listings lined up include Tanzania’s Dar es Salaam Stock

Exchange, Botswana Telecommunications Corporation Ltd and

Mauritian retailer Compagnie des Magasins Populaires. •

52 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


SHARED PROSPERITY

AFRICA’S STOCK

EXCHANGES

There are 29 stock exchanges in Africa, which

vary widely in terms of their regulatory,

legislative and technological maturity. Some

fall under the remit of the central bank,

while others are governed by an

independent regulator. Many are dealing

with outdated legacy systems for trading,

clearing and settlement, while others run

with no technology at all. However, as

demand for capital continues to grow, this

is changing. In 2015, for example, the

Zimbabwe Stock Exchange transitioned from

a manual trading system to one that is

automated and has seen one new listing as

a result. Around 1,700 companies are listed

on these African exchanges but they are

concentrated in a small number of countries.

A PwC report titled Africa Asset Management

2020 highlights 12 markets from all corners

of the continent in three categories:

advancing, promising and nascent.

ADVANCING

SOUTH AFRICA:

Johannesburg Stock Exchange

Established: 1887

Companies listed: 400

GDP (2014): $350.1bn

Market cap: 288% of GDP

Assets under Management

(AuM): forecast to reach

ZAR 2.96trn by 2020

MOROCCO:

Casablanca Stock Exchange

Established: 1929

Companies listed: 81

GDP (2014): $107bn

Market cap: 52% of GDP

AuM: Collective Investment

Schemes (CIS) AuM forecast to

reach MAD 516.0bn by 2020

MAURITIUS:

Stock Exchange of Mauritius

Established: 1989

Companies listed:46

GDP (2014): $12.63bn

Market cap: 74% of GDP

AuM: forecast to reach

MUR 18.4bn by 2020

NAMIBIA:

Namibia Stock Exchange

Established: 1992

Companies listed: 34

GDP: $13.3bn

Market cap: 6.1% of GDP

AuM: forecast to reach

NAD 84.6bn by 2020

EGYPT:

Egyptian Exchange (Cairo

& Alexandria)

Established: 1883

Companies listed: 214

GDP (2014): $301.5bn

Market cap:

25.2% of GDP

AuM: no predictions

made

GHANA:

Ghana Stock Exchange

Established: 1990

Companies listed: 34

GDP (2014): $38.62bn

Market cap: 7% of GDP

AuM: forecast to reach

GHS 0.92bn by 2020

PROMISING

KENYA:

Nairobi Securities

Exchange

Established: 1954

Companies listed: 63

GDP: $60.94bn

Market cap:

41% of GDP

AuM: forecast to reach

KES 85.3bn by 2020

BOTSWANA:

Botswana Stock

Exchange

Established: 1989

Companies listed: 36

GDP: $15.8bn

Market cap: 31% of GDP

AuM: forecast to reach

BWP 6.4bn based on IMF

predictions of GDP and

historical fund data

NIGERIA:

Nigerian Stock Exchange

Established: 1960

Companies listed: 186

(main board), 11

(Alternative Securities

Market)

GDP: $568.5bn

Market cap: 21% of GDP

AuM: forecast to reach

NGN 491.9bn by 2020

ALGERIA:

Algiers Stock Exchange

Established: 1997

Companies listed: 39

GDP: $213.5bn

Market cap: 0.05% of GDP

TUNISIA:

Bourse de Tunis

Established: 1969

Companies listed: 67

GDP: $48.61bn

Market cap: 20% of GDP

NASCENT

ANGOLA:

Established: As yet there are

no capital markets but one is

due to launch in 2017

GDP: $138bn

RWANDA:

Rwanda Stock Exchange

Established: 2011

Companies listed: 7

GDP: $7bn

Source: WorldBank, PwC Africa Asset Management 2020

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 53


Shared prosperity

Illustration by Sam Falconer @ Debut art

54 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


Shared prosperity

The African Capacity Building Foundation held a meeting

with the stakeholders this year, and they put together

initiatives to make this “The Africa We Want”.

African

capacity

taking

shape

TThe African Capacity

Building Foundation

(ACBF) was established

in 1991. The main purpose

of the organisation is

to build human and

institutional capacity for good governance

and economic development in Africa.

From its inception until today, the

Foundation has empowered people in

governments, civil society, private sector

and higher education institutions in more

than 45 countries and 6 regional economic

communities. The ACBF supports capacity

development with grants, technical

assistance and knowledge across Africa.

Its establishment was in response to

the severity of Africa’s capacity needs,

and the challenges of investing in

indigenous human capital and institutions

in Africa. ACBF interventions are

premised on four principles: the

centrality of capacity to the development

process in Africa; the critical role of a

partnership and demand driven approach

in tackling capacity challenges; African

ownership and leadership in the capacity

development process; and a systematic,

sequenced and coordinated approach to

the capacity development process.

Uniting for a good cause

Earlier this year, the ACBF held a

stakeholder engagement meeting at the

African Union Commission headquarters

in Ethiopia’s capital, Addis Ababa, which

borders the Great Rift Valley in the

highlands. The theme for the meeting was

“Capacity Imperatives for Agenda 2063”,

and drew representation from various

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 55


Shared prosperity

stakeholders in the capacity

development sector.

Agenda 2063 - “The Africa We Want” is

the indigenous African Strategic Framework

agreed upon by African heads of states and

governments through the African Union. The

framework was built around seven key

aspirations, which are the main theme of the

27th African Union Summit in Kigali, Rwanda.

According to the ACBF, the successful

implementation of Agenda 2063 requires a

strategic approach that prioritises key capacity

challenges that, if addressed, can unlock the

continent’s true potential. Professor Emmanuel

Nnadozie, the Executive Secretary of the ACBF,

has said, “There has been a lack of confidence

among some Africans in

their capacity to develop

the continent. However,

development of Africa

through partnership and

a concerted effort can be

achieved.”

Agenda 2063 will be based

on a proper understanding

of the capacity

requirements

The necessary steps

The main purpose of the workshop was to

examine the major points and that are emerging

from the capacity assessment reviews

produced by the ACBF, including Capacity

Requirements for Agenda 2063; African critical

technical skills: A key Capacity dimension

needed for implementing programmes in the

first ten years of Agenda 2063; and Capacity

Development Plan Framework. Key findings

of the review process include the shortcomings

of our education systems; the need for critical

technical skills and capacities; and the need

for change in institutional architecture and

legislative frameworks.

The Capacity Development Plan Framework

suggests that for the major agenda of capacity

development to take place as part of the

implementation of Agenda 2063, it is estimated

that 80% of the needed capacity development

interventions could be carried out by various

stakeholder group actors, while approximately

20% may be placed under the responsibility of

continental and regional institutions.

Nnadozie adds, “The identification of

capacity as a key strategic area has been one

of the fundamental missing links with previous

development efforts ...the implementation

of Agenda 2063 will be based on a proper

understanding of the capacity requirements

and accompanied by a Capacity Development

Planning Framework.” •

In order for Africa to stay

on track for Agenda 2063,

the continent needs to

have nearly

2m

agricultural scientists

and researchers

3.1m

million water and

sanitation engineers

8.2m

engineers by 2023

Source: African critical technical skills: A key Capacity

dimension needed for implementing programmes in the first

SEVEN

ASPIRATIONS

FOR 2063

ASPIRATION ONE

A prosperous Africa based

on inclusive growth and

sustainable development.

We are determined to

eradicate poverty in one

generation and build

shared prosperity through

social and economic

transformation of the

continent.

ASPIRATION TWO

An integrated continent,

politically united, based

on the ideals of Pan-

Africanism and the vision

of Africa’s Renaissance.

It is motivated by

development based

on self-reliance and

self-determination of

African people, with

democratic and

people-centred

governance.

ASPIRATION THREE

An Africa of good

governance, democracy,

respect for human rights,

justice and the rule of

law. Africa shall have a

universal culture of good

governance, democratic

values, gender equality,

respect for human rights,

justice and the rule of law.

56 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


XXXXXXXXXXX

STEPS TOWARDS AGENDA 2063

According to Capacity Requirements for

Agenda 2063, a report put together by the

ACBF, the capacity required for a

successful implementation of Agenda 2063

are made up of four main categories:

• Operational capacity for holistic and

effective results, including institutional

and human capacity as well as systems

and work processes

• Change and transformative capacities,

including transformative leadership,

change readiness, ability for mind-set

shifts, and ability to innovate

• Composite capacity, including strategic

planning, results-based management as

well as organisational and coordination

capability

• Critical, technical and sector-specific

skills for implementing the 10 flagship

projects under the First Ten Year

Implementation Plan of Agenda 2063

© Samson Opus / Alamy Stock Photo

ASPIRATION FOUR

ASPIRATION FIVE

ASPIRATION SIX

ASPIRATION SEVEN

A peaceful and secure

Africa. Mechanisms for

peaceful prevention and

resolution of conflicts will

be functional at all levels.

As a first step, dialoguecentred

conflict prevention

and resolution will be

actively promoted in such

a way that by 2020 all guns

will be silent.

An Africa with a strong

cultural identity, common

heritage, values and ethics.

Pan-Africanism and the

common history, destiny,

identity, heritage, respect

for religious diversity and

consciousness of African

peoples and her diasporas

will be entrenched.

An Africa whose

development is

people-driven, relying

on the potential of African

people, especially its

women and youth, and

caring for children. Africa

shall be an inclusive

continent where no child,

woman or man will be left

behind.

Africa as a strong, united

and influential global

player and partner. We

affirm the importance of

African unity and solidarity

in the face of continued

external interference

including attempts to

divide the continent and

undue pressures and

sanctions on some

countries.

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 57


shared prosperity

The African Risk Capacity

(ARC) is a Specialized Agency

of the African Union (AU) and

an innovative climate

insurance scheme. In its first

year of operation, it disbursed

$26.3 million within two weeks of the end of

the rainfall season in the Sahel during a

drought. This timely financing enabled

participating governments to spearhead an

emergency response to populations affected

by drought ahead of any other humanitarian

intervention. Mohamed Beavogui, Director

General of ARC, has ambitious goals to scale

up from the seven countries currently

participating in the ARC risk pool to cover

30 countries and 150 million people by 2020.

In climate change, Africa faces its gravest

threat. The Horn of Africa and Sahel region

have faced severe drought in recent years, with

millions needing emergency food aid. At a

time when economic growth in Africa paints

an optimistic picture, these developments

stand to be compromised by climate-related

disasters that have huge implications for gross

domestic product (GDP).

According to Beavogui, there is great

potential to improve the current approach

to responding to droughts. “In the event of a

disaster, due to the time frame for

emergency declarations and the challenges

of mobilising resources, it can take six to

nine months [for help to reach people],” he

says. “You can imagine how this affects the

livelihoods of the poor: they sell the assets

which they depend on to get money, cattle

die because there is no animal feed and no

water. In addition to this, government

resources become even more constrained as

funds have to be diverted from critical

development activities and investments

towards supporting response.

The ARC, established in 2012 and

operationalised in 2014, represents

a paradigm shift – a new approach to

disaster risk management.

“The objective was to develop a

mechanism that enables an intervention

right at the beginning, so you don’t wait

until assets are depleted, because when

assets are depleted you deepen poverty,”

explains Beavogui. “ARC was a start-up with

a genius idea of combining insurance, early

warning and planning... with the aim being

to ensure resources become available

exactly when disaster strikes. These are

used to implement robust contingency plans

that deliver to those in need.”

The ARC’s innovation is partly

technological. A satellite weather

surveillance software system called Africa

Don’t

panic,

plan

Adam Robert Green speaks to Mohamed

Beavogui from the ARC about some of the

benefits of a continent working together

58 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


SHARED PROSPERITY

This image of Ewaso Nyiro River’s dry river

bed in Kenya was captured by satellite in

2009 after a severe drought in the region

IMAGE: NASA

RiskView calculates in a transparent manner

when rainfall is below a pre-determined

level, and when it has an impact on the most

vulnerable. Without this smart technology, it

is difficult for insurers to check rain levels in

Africa’s remote regions. This is one reason

conventional insurance approaches have

struggled to take off. Using Africa RiskView,

governments can estimate the risk that

exists in their country and, from there, have

informed discussions around the structuring

of their insurance contract and broader risk

management plan.

ARC was also an institutional innovation.

Working as a Specialized Agency of the

African Union, it provides a risk-pooling

platform. Because African nations as a group

are part of several different weather systems,

continent-wide droughts are not likely to

occur. Pooling drought risk across the

continent provides a viable risk

diversification, and the more countries that

join, the better. And there is no better

platform to engage the continent than

the continent’s own union.

Thirty countries by 2020

Last year the ARC went from an ambitious

concept to a reality when it disbursed roughly

$26.3 million throughout three countries:

Senegal ($16m), Mauritania ($6.3m) and Niger

($3.6m). In these areas, rains were

sufficiently low, which triggered payouts.

Beavogui recalls: “1.3 million people were

assisted, cattle feed [was distributed] to

900,000 cattle, and there were cash transfers

to those most affected. The ARC payouts

essentially allowed these governments, in

two weeks, to access funds to start

implementing a contingency plan that

was already prepared.”

The insurance appears to have been a

wise investment. Senegal paid a $3 million

premium, and received a $16 million payout.

“They could have put $3 million in the bank

as a contingent for their sovereign disaster

risk, but through insurance they invested

$3 million and received $16.5 million back.

Because of the pooling of several countries,

the cost of insuring the portfolio of countries

as a group was reduced significantly, and

therefore the premiums for each

participating country went down, compared

to if these countries were to approach the

markets independently,” explains Beavogui.

As of today, ARC has seven countries

paying premiums: Kenya, Malawi, Mali,

Gambia, Senegal, Mauritania and Niger. This

year three additional countries are in the

process of joining these seven, and several

other Member States are working to join

them in the coming years. In total, 32

countries have signed the ‘ARC Treaty’ and

are potential members.

The ARC vision for 2020, Beavogui says,

is to protect 150 million Africans in at least

30 countries, with $1.5bn to $2bn available in

insurance coverage. This means adding four

to five countries annually, and

diversifying to cover other

types of risk, such as floods

and cyclones. Post-Ebola, ARC is

also investigating outbreak and

epidemic risk-pooling products.

While this would be a

mammoth achievement for the

still-young ARC, Beavogui argues

that its contribution goes beyond

insurance alone. It is, he says,

“contributing to the paradigm

shift we want to see on the

continent. A shift which involves

embedding disaster risk

management in governments’

ways of working, and taking

the longer but more sustainable

route of working with our member

states to strengthen their systems

and capacities towards a more

resilient continent.” •

ARC was a start-up

with a genius idea of

combining insurance,

early warning

and planning

MOHAMED BEAVOGUI,

Director General,

African Risk Capacity

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 59


Shared prosperity

From pro bono legal help to technical advice, capacity

building is a vital form of assistance for governments

across Africa, explains Adam Robert Green

Building

Afri-capacity

Construction workers on site

Capacity building was not always

a key part of donor activity, or

the work of international

development organisations. In

the post-independence era, the

majority of foreign aid to Africa

came in the form of direct handouts like food

aid, or project-specific investments such as

infrastructure. This appealed to donors

because it focused on tangible assets. But the

model was flawed. Based on the experience of

the Marshall Plan, through which the US

helped Europe recover from the Second World

War, it presupposed a level of institutional

development that did not prevail in

post-colonial Africa. When Botswana became

independent in 1966, the country had just 22

college graduates. In that context, projectspecific

aid was never going to deliver to its

full potential.

Building a power

plant only helps if

EMBEDDED CAPACITY BUILDING

hAS INCREASED IN POPULARITY

BECAUSE OF THE VIEW THAT ADVICE

WAS OFTEN COPIED AND PASTED

the government

manages the pricing

and regulation of

electricity – a highly

complex policy area.

A second problem

with project-specific

aid was that usually

African governments were part-contributors

but, owing to economic shocks such as the

commodity price slump in the 1980s, they were

unable to co-invest. Hence, from the 1970s to the

1990s, many African countries were strewn

with half-finished mega-projects.

Turning to capacity building

From the 1980s, the ‘capacity building’ agenda

gathered momentum. International donors,

notably the World Bank and International

Monetary Fund (IMF), moved to a ‘budget

support’ model, whereby they would part-fund

the overall government budget in return for

agreeing to a poverty reduction plan which would

shape (and constrain) how public funds were

spent. Around the same time, the World Bank

positioned itself as ‘Knowledge Bank’, offering

ideas, advice and policy support, rather than

just disbursing cash. The IMF also began to focus

more on capacity support and advice on fiscal

and monetary policy. Today, a wide range of

actors, strategies and approaches exist.

1) ‘Best practice’ support

Perhaps the most dominant form of capacity

building is ‘best practice’ guidance, often

issued by international actors such as the

World Bank and IMF, who produce ideas,

recommendations, initiatives and funding

streams to help governments with policy

orientation, such as business climate reforms,

public finances and macroeconomic policy.

The most famous example is the World Bank

Doing Business index, which ranks governments

for their business-friendly regulations. The IMF

60 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


Shared prosperity

Arne Hoel/World Bank

is also active in best practice technical

assistance through its country-specific studies,

usually related to its programmes, which

contain specific recommendations.

2) Embedded capacity building

Another form of capacity building is

‘embedded’ technical assistance where an

institution has a physical presence in a

country, working side-by-side with government

officials. Embedded capacity building has

increased in popularity because of the view

among some that prevailing advice was often

copied and pasted, or a ‘one size fits all’

approach, which didn’t properly acknowledge

the nuances of individual countries.

Embedded capacity building is the approach

of the International Growth Centre (IGC) – a

growth policy think tank based at the London

School of Economics and Political Science and

funded by the UK Department for International

Development. With programmes in 10 African

countries, the IGC model is to

provide demand-led policy research,

and its country-specific programmes

involve working closely with

government officials, to offer tailored

technical support, as opposed to

generic advice.

Embedded capacity building is

also the model of the Africa

Governance Initiative, an

organisation set up by former UK

Prime Minister Tony Blair, which

$40m

loan from the

World Bank

to Kenya, to

support its

PPP ‘enabling

environment’

helps African governments deliver on their policy

goals. Active in Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Liberia,

Ethiopia, Guinea and Nigeria, its model is also

based on the view that capacity-building

organisations should support African policymakers

to deliver on the governments’ goal.

3) Sector-focused support

A third approach to capacity building is sectorspecific

support. In Africa, this could take the

form of organisations such as the Natural

Resource Governance Institute or the

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative,

which support countries to design transparent,

fair and equitable regulations in their

extractive resource sectors, historically prone

to corruption. Legal capacity building is another

important support here, with organisations

such as International Lawyers for Africa

helping governments deal with complex legal

areas like trade and investment treaties.

Sector-specific technical assistance and

capacity building can also come from the global

development institutions. For example, the World

Bank has several units that help to build capacity

in areas such as public-private infrastructure.

The Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory

Facility (PPIAF) is a multi-donor trust fund that

provides technical assistance to governments

to develop enabling environments and to

facilitate private investment in infrastructure.

The World Bank lent $40 million to Kenya in 2012

to support its public-private partnership

(PPP) ‘enabling environment’ and support

bankable projects, and the UK Department for

International Development supported

Tanzania’s newly formed PPP unit.

Challenges

The growing popularity of capacity-building

institutions and models clearly shows the value

of this approach. However, it is not without its

challenges. There is not always consensus among

institutions about what policies and regulations

are most effective and governments may

receive different advice depending on which

institution they consult. Some governments

complain of capacity-building ‘burnout’ – they

have too many partners and spend

all their time working with donors,

rather than focusing on their

countries. And lastly, some critics of

capacity building claim that it can

risk undermining local solutions to

local problems. Yet despite the

challenges, the approach, placed in

its historical context, is a

much-needed part of development

assistance to enable countries to end

aid dependence. •

ORGANISATIONS

THAT ASSIST WITH

CAPACITY-BUILDING

theigc.org

The International Growth

Centre (IGC) aims to

promote sustainable

growth in developing

countries by providing

demand-led policy advice

based on frontier research.

africagovernance.org

Africa Governance

Initiative supports African

leaders to turn their

visions for development

into reality.

beta.eiti.org

The Extractive Industries

Transparency Initiative is

the global transparency

standard for improving

the governance of

natural resources.

resourcegovernance.

org

The Natural Resource

Governance Institute seeks

to help countries manage

their natural resources for

the public good by

leveraging expertise,

working with civil society,

parliaments, governments,

the private sector, media

and other partners.

ilfa.org.uk

International Lawyers for

Africa’s mission is to build

legal excellence in Africa by

providing access to

advanced legal training,

networking opportunities

and education for African

lawyers and senior

professionals engaged in

the negotiation of complex

transactions in Africa.

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 61


An integrated continent

viewpoint

Faced with external

economic pressures, the

African Union

Commission’s Trade

and Industry

Department is calling

for accelerated, continent-wide

structural transformation. Focusing

on higher productivity, sectors will

set Africa on a more inclusive and

sustainable growth path. Greater

importance must be given to job

creation and equitable distribution

of wealth.

In response to the global

commodity price slump, the African

Union Commission has been

mandated to develop a continental

commodities strategy to more

efficiently leverage Africa’s vast

natural resources. The mining,

agriculture, energy, manufacturing,

finance, and transport sectors, in

particular, have considerable

potential in terms of productivity

growth and employment generation.

Industrialisation is a fundamental

part of our strategy for the next

decade and beyond, as it will support

the emergence of productive clusters

across the continent. Indeed, during

the meeting of Ministers of Trade,

Industry and Minerals in May 2016, a

panel discussion moderated by myself

on the theme “Promoting Regional

Integration through Trade and

Industrialization in Africa” was

organised in order to gather

innovative and practical ideas on how

to strategise for our own socioeconomic

future in a Pan-Africanist

spirit. Agenda 2063 has laid its

foundation on seven key aspirations

penned by the AU member states. One

of the key aspirations is creating an

Africa that is a strong, united and

influential global player. Domestic

value addition and beneficiation will

create wealth, improve livelihoods,

and make Africa more competitive in

the global economy.

For Africa’s industrialisation

efforts to succeed, investment is

required to train youth, especially

62 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


AN INTEGRATED CONTINENT

HE Fatima

Haram Acyl

Commissioner for Trade and Industry

African Union Commission

women, in the areas of science,

engineering and mathematics.

Likewise, investment is needed

to address the continent’s

infrastructure deficit, in

particular, transport, power and

communication. The AU’s Action

Plan for Accelerated Industrial

Development of Africa (AIDA)

and the African Mining Vision

are helping to support coalitions

between the public and private

sectors to plug the financing gap.

A free trade area

To deepen African market

integration, the AU is working

with Regional Economic

Communities and member

states to reduce tariff and

non-tariff trade barriers, to

improve quality and standards

and reduce the cost of doing

business through trade facilitation

measures. In this regard, the

Department has launched the

e-platform of the Trade Facilitation

for Africa (TF4Africa), enabling the

monitoring and evaluation of

The main priority is establishing

the CFTA in 2017, which will

create a single market for goods

and services in Africa

member states’ performance in

trade facilitation.

The priority of priorities is the

establishment of the Continental Free

Trade Area (CFTA) in 2017 which will

create a single market for goods and

services in Africa, which could

increase intra-African trade by as

much as $35 billion per year, or 52%

above the baseline, by 2022. The CFTA

is also expected to increase

consumer spending from $860 billion

in 2010 to $1.4 trillion in 2020,

creating huge opportunities for

African producers and investors. It

will create a single, open market with

a combined domestic product of $3

trillion. A free-trade area will attract

greater investment, which will

accelerate industrialisation and

development and provide

employment opportunities for

our growing, youthful population.

It is also Africa’s only response

with regard to mega trade

agreements being entered into

by the developed world.

Negotiating a free trade area

among 54 Member States will require

great effort, but the recent signing of

the Tripartite (COMESA-SADC-EAC)

Free Trade Agreement and the

successful and well-attended two

CFTA negotiating fora organised by

the Department show that Africa is

committed to boosting intra-African

trade and accelerate industrialisation

through regional integration. •

INVESTING IN CFTA

TRADE

$35bn

worth of additional

intra-African trade per

year is expected in

a response to the

establishment of the CFTA

CONSUMER SPEND

$1.4 tr

up from $860 billion in

consumer spend is what

the CFTA can do for the

African economy

DOMESTIC PRODUCT

$3tr

worth of domestic product

when a single, open market

is established

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 63


Aspiration

2

An integrated

continent

It is important to place trade capacity building

at the centre of all AGOA-related efforts in order

to maximise benefits and prepare for the future

of Africa-US trade and investment relations

beyond AGOA, writes Tarek Ben Youssef

AGOA:

one year

after

renewal

It has been a year since the African Growth and

Opportunity Act (AGOA) legislation was renewed by

Congress and signed into law by the United States

President Barack Obama. The extension of AGOA until

September 2025 provides certainty and predictability to

the US-Africa economic relationship and conveys a

strong signal of confidence to the US business community and to

African partners.

The 10-year landmark extension illustrates the importance of

the US-Africa relationship and the strong commitment of the

United States to further reinforce its economic engagement with

African partners. In addition to the steady and broad bipartisan

support of both houses of Congress to renew the legislation,

representatives of the private sector, civil society organisations,

and the African diaspora all worked together, in coordination

with AGOA-eligible countries and the African Union Commission,

to ensure a long-term extension of AGOA for the best interests of

US-Africa relations.

Promoting sustainable development

Since its enactment in 2000, AGOA has demonstrated how a

trade preference programme can promote the reduction of

poverty and the sustainable economic development of Africa.

AGOA Preparedness

Workshop in Nairobi.

Products and artifacts

from traders in the

exhibition in the Hub offices.

Image: East Africa Trade and Investment Hub/USAID

64 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


US Secretary of State John Kerry delivers

opening remarks at the AGOA Ministerial

WHAT IS AGOA?

The African Growth and Opportunity Act

(AGOA) is a United States Trade Act,

enacted on 18 May 2000 as Public Law 106

of the 200th Congress. It has since been

renewed until 2025. The legislation

significantly enhances market access to

the US for qualifying sub-Saharan

African (SSA) countries. Qualification for

AGOA preferences is based on a set of

conditions contained in its legislation. In

order to qualify and remain eligible for

AGOA, each country must be working to

improve its rule of law, human rights,

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 65


An integrated continent

AGOA has demonstrated

how a trade preference

programme can

promote the reduction

of poverty in Africa

TAREK BEN YOUSSEF

Chargé d’Affaires a.i.,

African Union Mission to the US

AGOA has spurred the creation of tens of

thousands of jobs in the continent, especially for

women and young people, and motivated the

development and expansion of new export

sectors across the continent. Apparel, leather

goods, footwear, and vehicles are all examples of

export sectors that are now prominent

industries on the continent thanks to AGOA’s

benefits.

Following the renewal of the legislation until

September 2025, it is of the utmost importance

to not only reflect on what has been done thus

far to promote and utilise the benefits of AGOA

to encourage diversification, job creation and

economic growth, but also to look ahead at how

the next and likely final decade can be

effectively used to promote and support

sustainable economic development on the

continent. One of the main challenges we have

to meet today is how to use AGOA as an engine

of intra-regional integration, and as an

instrument for Africa to leapfrog in terms of

skills development, technological advancement

and job creation. In this particular regard, the

Chairperson of the African Union Commission

(AUC), HE Dr Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma

reiterated the commitment of the AUC to

working with all stakeholders to ensure that the

new AGOA legislation meets its potential in

promoting growth, development, increased

industrialisation and the further integration of

Africa into regional and global value chains.

Developing capacity

To achieve those objectives, it is be important to

ensure that the remaining period of the AGOA

legislation is optimised to allow for enhanced

utilisation of benefits, particularly through

further developing the trade capacity of

AGOA-eligible countries to engage as

competitive partners in the global trade arena.

Many African countries need to

address expeditiously the gaps in

human, institutional or

infrastructural capacity that are

required to participate effectively

and competitively in international

trade. Trade capacity building is a

catalyst for structural economic

reform and good governance. It

also provides the necessary

incentives and resources to

beneficiary countries to eliminate

barriers to trade and investment

and engage in trade facilitation

reforms. It is thus essential for

66 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


AN INTEGRATED CONTINENT

Dar es Salaam

Port, Tanzania

Rob Beechey / World Bank/Flikr Rob Beechey / World Bank/Flikr

African countries to be able to effectively take

advantage of the benefits of AGOA and to better

trade with the US and the world. Now that Africa

is already one year into the likely final decade of

the AGOA legislation, it is critical for African

countries, regional organisations, and the US

Government to put trade capacity building at the

centre of all AGOA-related efforts.

For African countries, developing and

implementing AGOA national response

strategies is going to be of great importance in

developing new sectors and competitive and

sustainable industries over the remaining nine

years. This will set the path for countries to not

only export under AGOA, but also should help

countries become more competitive for the

time when AGOA has ended. Regional

institutions and organisations such as the

African Development Bank (AfDB) and United

Nations Economic Commission for Africa

(UNECA), in coordination with the AUC, play a

key role in identifying and addressing the

challenges and urgent needs of AGOA-eligible

countries. These institutions are also working

on the various opportunities to leverage AGOA

to foster regional cooperation and integration

through trade and industrialisation. The AU’s

Continental Free Trade Area (CFTA)

negotiations, which were launched in June 2015

in Johannesburg, South Africa, provide an

excellent platform to use and coordinate trade

capacity building at the national, sub-regional

and continental levels, as well as to leverage

AGOA to enhance intra-African trade.

The US, as one of the leading providers of

trade capacity assistance in the world through

multiple different US government entities, is

fully cognisant of the importance of delivering

trade capacity in a more strategic manner as

underlined by the Global Gateways Trade

Capacity Act being examined currently by the

US Senate. Ensuring a clear, coordinated and

integrated approach to trade capacity building

assistance for Africa is a shared strategic

interest. This will be critical for countries to

take advantage of the legislation and also

prepare for the post-AGOA era.

AGOA is an important vehicle through which

the US could contribute to the promotion of

intra-African trade and increase Africa’s global

competitiveness. A robust trade capacity

building programme is a prerequisite to

enhancing African utilisation of AGOA and

moving Africa’s trade partnership with the

United States to the next level. •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 67


An integrated continent

To realise its global potential, Africa must

unify its disparate economies. Julian Turner

reports on the drive to regional integration

Africa

united

A

historical and cultural

layer cake baked over

100,000 years, Africa is rich

in promise and paradox. The

oldest inhabited territory

on Earth, yet home to its

youngest population; abundant in natural

resources but blighted by poverty; the

cradle of civilisation, yet disfigured by

internecine conflict.

Now the world’s second-largest continent

stands on the cusp of great change. Africa

contains 7.7% of global oil resources and

around 30% of its mineral reserves, but lacks

the infrastructure, expertise and capacities

to fulfil its potential and compete in an

increasingly connected global marketplace.

Effective cooperation between Africa’s 54

nations can help achieve these goals. Regional

integration will build economies of scale;

remove ‘soft’ barriers to the flow of goods,

labour and capital through Regional Economic

Communities; reduce reliance on commodities

and Western exports; attract foreign direct

investment (FDI); foster African national

identity; and alleviate the plight of the poor.

The Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA)

In June 2015 in Egypt, African leaders gave

a historic boost to intra-African business

by creating the continent’s largest freetrade

zone. The Tripartite Free Trade Area

(TFTA) covers 26 countries and unites

three existing trade blocs – the Southern

African Development Community (SADC),

the East African Community (EAC) and

the Common Market for Eastern and

Southern Africa (COMESA).

The TFTA is intended to ease the

movement of goods across member

countries, making them cheaper and

stimulating $1 trillion worth of economic

activity in an area of 625 million people.

Continental trade in Africa languishes at

12%, compared with 52% in Asia and 72%

within Europe; a common market created by

the customs union that encompasses large

countries with growth potential such

68 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


AN INTEGRATED CONTINENT

CONTINENTAL FREE

TRADE AREA EXPLAINED

7.7 %

of world oil resources are

contained in Africa

30%

of world mineral reserves

are contained in Africa

The 18th Ordinary Session of the

Assembly of Heads of State and

Government of the African Union,

held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in

January 2012, adopted a decision

to establish a Continental Free

Trade Area (CFTA) by an indicative

date of 2017. The Summit also

endorsed the Action Plan on

Boosting Intra-Africa Trade (BIAT)

which identifies seven clusters:

trade policy, trade facilitation,

productive capacity, trade related

infrastructure, trade finance, trade

information, and factor market

integration. The CFTA will bring

together fifty-four African

countries with a combined

population of more than one

billion people and a combined

gross domestic product of more

than US $3.4 trillion.

OBJECTIVES OF THE CFTA

• Create a single continental

market for goods and services,

with free movement of

businesspersons and investments,

and thus pave the way for

accelerating the establishment of

the Continental Customs Union

and the African customs union.

• Expand intra-African trade

through better harmonisation and

coordination of trade liberalisation

and facilitation regimes and

instruments across RECs and

across Africa in general.

• Resolve the challenges of

multiple and overlapping

memberships and expedite the

regional and continental

integration processes.

• Enhance competitiveness at the

industry and enterprise level

through exploiting opportunities

for scale production, continental

market access and better

reallocation of resources.

CFTA is also expected to enhance

competitiveness at the industry

and enterprise level through

exploitation of opportunities for

scale production, continental

market access and better

reallocation of resources.

iStock photo

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 69


An integrated continent

Achuzie Ezenagu, CEO of

Toucan Aviation

REGIONAL FOCUS: NIGERIA

Nigeria is attracting institutional

investment and a surge in

entrepreneurism as enterprising

diaspora Nigerians such as Achuzie

Ezenagu return. The CEO of Toucan

Aviation discusses whether regional

integration can help emulate

Nigeria’s success across Africa.

“Thanks to democratic rule and

urbanisation, Nigeria has witnessed

a steady increase in institutional

investors from 2000-2016, the

emergence of indigenous businesses

in the commodities, finance and

transport sectors, and rapid growth

in the telecommunications, banking

and hospitality industries.

“The trend toward a more

prosperous consumer class is

unmistakable. According to McKinsey,

11-18% of urban households have

annual incomes above $10,000.

“Regional integration in Africa as

a whole is affected by a myriad of

challenges, conflict and deficient

transport from region to region: ie

a four-hour flight from Lagos could

take an entire business day due to

connection delays. Education is also

a key driver but unfortunately there

is a disconnect between educated

young people entering the political

arena and the desires of career

politicians.

“Business should be the driving

force. We need to encourage member

state governments to work closely

with the private sector; and channel

African finances more towards

economic cooperation.

“Better intra-region distribution

networks, strengthened institutional

capacity to attract sustained capital,

increased domestic savings and

investment, and efficient infrastructure

to harness opportunities in the global

economy are all critical requirements.”

as Ethiopia, Kenya and Mozambique could

increase that figure to as much as 30%.

The TFTA intends to reduce customs

duties by 85% within three years, improve

border clearance, incentivise FDI in Africa’s

fragmented regional economies by identifying

and eliminating non-tariff barriers to trade,

and raise the continent’s share of global trade,

which currently stands at just 2%.

“What we have realised is that having

one trade regime is better than the costly

multiple trade regimes,” said COMESA

Secretary-General Sindiso Ngwenya. “We

believe that this sends a powerful message

that Africa is committed to its economic

integration agenda and in creating a conducive

environment for trade and investment.”

The TFTA comes into force in 2017, while

negotiations toward a Pan-African Continental

Free Trade Agreement (CFTA) was launched in

June 2015 at the annual African Union (AU)

Summit in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Connecting a continent

Africa’s drive toward regional integration

includes the Central African Backbone (CAB)

project, which will connect the Economic

Community of Central African States (ECCAS)

using high-speed fibre-optic internet.

Bankrolled to the tune of €46.3 million

($52.2 million) by AfDB, the Global Environment

Facility and the Cameroonian Government,

the first phase of the CAB will reduce the

cost of and improve access to telecoms,

ICT and e-services in the sub-region for

consumers, businesses and in institutions

of higher education.

Konza City, 60 km south of Nairobi,

one of the flagship projects of the Kenyan

government’s Vision 2030 initiative, is expected

to create 17,000 jobs, attract 200,000 people to

support the development of the BPO/ITES, life

sciences, telecom and education industries, and

generate $1.3 billion in Gross Regional Product

(GRP) and $400 million in annual wages in

phase 1, helping Kenya in its drive to attain

middle-income status by 2030.

In 2011, just 8% of Africa’s imports were

produced domestically. Domestic projects such

as Last Mile Connectivity, which will connect 1.5

million more Kenyans to the electricity grid, are

key to the continent’s future prosperity.

The UN reports that Africa imported

$87 billion of services in 2015, that by 2030 half

of Africans will live in cities and that in 2014

over 60% of Africa’s population was younger

than 25. Manufacturing domestic products that

appeal to this new urban, aspirational,

tech-savvy middle class is a priority as Africa

diversifies from hard commodities and the old

colonial focus on supplying Western markets. •

© Ray Ives / Alamy Stock Photo

Fibre optic cable

being installed

alongside the 600km

N3 highway between

Johannesburg and Durban

in South Africa

70 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


AN INTEGRATED CONTINENT

$87bn

value of services

Africa imported from

abroad in 2015

$8.2Bn

Amount the Tripartite Free

Trade Area could boost

continental trade by

2%

Forecast growth of South

Africa’s economy in 2016

POSITIVE ENERGY:

THE RUZIZI III

HYDROPOWER PLANT

More than 645 million Africans

have no access to electricity.

Moono Mupotola, Director of

NEPAD, Regional Integration and

Trade at the African Development

Bank (AfDB), reveals how

public-private partnerships

(PPPs) such as the Ruzizi III

Hydropower Plant Project offer

a viable economic solution.

“The Ruzizi III Hydropower Plant

is the first regional power project

in East Africa to be developed as

a public-private partnership.

PPPs have emerged as one of the

best ways to foster development.

Africa is considered the next

frontier for investors and we are

convinced that the continent’s

future growth will depend on the

private investment to bridge the

infrastructure gap because Africa

must be integrated.

“The project implementation

cost is estimated at $625.19

million (of which the $138.88

million will be borne by the

AfDB’s public sector and $50.22

million by the private sector

window). Ruzizi III hydropower

plant involves Burundi, the

Democratic Republic of the Congo

(DRC) and Rwanda. It is a perfect

example of a successful

infrastructure development

through regional integration.”

Source: AfDB

Africa is

considered

the next

frontier

for investors

MOONO MUPOTOLA,

Director of NEPAD,

Regional Integration

and Trade, AfDB

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 71


An integrated continent

Step-by-step

integration

As we head towards Agenda 2063, the steps we need to take

become clearer as projects begin to take shape. This is where

positive transformation begins, writes Sarah Rundell

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AN INTEGRATED CONTINENT

A worker overseeing work on railway

infrastructure on the new railway tracks

linking Djibouti with Addis Ababa

CARL DE SOUZA/AFP/Getty Images

Africa’s latest high-speed

railway line links the

Ethiopian capital Addis

Ababa with the Red Sea

state of Djibouti. The

Chinese-built, $3 billion

track runs parallel to the old Ethio-

Djibouti railway and is one of many new

lines under construction across the

continent, from Nigeria to East Africa.

The investment that is beginning to

transform Africa’s railways is a cause of

celebration for the architects of Agenda

2063. The African Union’s (AU) 2063

roadmap was adopted in 2015 to drive

the continent’s socio-economic

transformation over the next 50 years,

in conjunction with parallel initiatives,

such as the New Partnership for

Africa’s Development (NEPAD). And it

highlights infrastructure as crucial for

development and continental integration.

High-speed train services criss-crossing

Africa can be combined with information

and communication technologies, oil

and gas pipelines and adjacent highways

to boost intra-regional trade and travel,

accelerating growth.

The AU has set waymarkers for its

journey to 2063 through short, medium

and long-term goals that range from

creating a continent wide e-Network

to introducing an African passport. Now

in its first 10-Year Implementation Plan,

2013-23, important milestones are already

within reach, such as the completion of

flagship projects that will have an impact

on socio-economic development.

Agenda 2063 injected fresh dynamism

into another cherished African dream

when it pledged to double intra-African

trade by 2022, encouraging member

states to reduce trade barriers and waive

visa requirements. Leaders have long

aspired for goods and people to travel

freely within the continent, boosting

development and job creation. Yet, trade

between the continent’s 54 countries

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 73


An integrated continent

AGENDA 2063 FLAGSHIP PROJECTS

AFRICAN COMMODITIES STRATEGY

Plans under the Agenda 2063 commodities strategy

include implementing the African Mining Vision

and supporting countries as they diversify their

commodities and integrate into global value chains.

ANNUAL AFRICAN FORUM

Africa’s political leaders, the private sector,

academia and civil society will be represented

at this annual meeting, where they will discuss

how to move towards the goals of Agenda 2063.

CONTINENTAL FREE TRADE AREA

This flagship project will establish a free trade area

by 2017, aiming to double intra-African trade by

2022. It will strengthen Africa’s role in global trade

negotiations and enable the smoother flow of goods

and services across the continent and beyond.

THE PAN-AFRICAN E-NETWORK

A wide range of stakeholders will develop policies

and strategies for Africa’s e-services sector, as the

continent moves towards becoming an e-society.

Internet infrastructure and cybersecurity are key

areas of focus in Africa’s information revolution.

SILENCING THE GUNS

Progress made on the AU’s stated goals of ending

all wars, civil conflicts, gender-based violence and

violent conflicts will be monitored using the new

African Human Security Index.

AFRICAN OUTER SPACE STRATEGY

Agenda 2063 aims to strengthen Africa’s space

capabilities to support development in areas such

as agriculture, climate forecasting and defence

and security. Satellite developments have made

the technology accessible to African countries.

SINGLE AIR TRANSPORT MARKET

Africa’s aviation industry is growing, with

passenger numbers continuing to rise. This

project aims to transform the sector, enabling

more people to reach new destinations.

AFRICAN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

Agenda 2063 will oversee the establishment

of important new financial institutions in

Africa, including the African Investment Bank

and Pan-Africa Stock Exchange, the African

Monetary Fund and the African Central Bank.

remains stubbornly low, accounting for

just 12% of Africa’s total trade, according to

the United Nations Conference on Trade

and Development (UNCTAD). Trade is still

characterised by raw material exports and

imports of finished products, mostly from

China. Africa’s smaller countries still seek to

protect their economies from competition

with tariffs and duties.

Taking a long-term view

Agenda 2063 has been a catalyst for recent

progress, including the launch of a Tripartite

Free Trade Area (TFTA) between Africa’s biggest

trading blocs, the Common Market for Eastern

and Southern Africa (COMESA), the Southern

African Development Community (SADC) and

the East African Community (EAC). By 2017,

the TFTA will create Africa’s largest free trade

zone, stretching from Cape Town to Cairo.

This step, it is hoped, will lead to the

realisation of other, longer-term goals, such

as the establishment of new pan-African

financial institutions. In its bid to nurture

an African economic community, the AU

plans for an African

Investment Bank, an

African Stock Exchange,

an African Monetary

Fund tasked with a

mandate that mirrors

the International

Monetary Fund and an

African Central Bank.

The Tripartite

Free Trade Area

will create the

continent’s

largest free

trade zone

In keeping with

Agenda 2063’s central

ethos that Africa should

take responsibility for its

own development, much

of the financing for its

ambitious projects must

come from within the

continent. With this in

mind, the AU is working

with the continent’s own

financial institutions

and markets to

encourage investment, exploring sources

such as diaspora-linked bonds, improved

tax collection, as well as working to halt illicit

capital flows. Another potential source of

investment is Africa’s growing pension funds,

which have assets estimated at $310 billion.

Those assets are forecast to grow in the

six largest sub-Saharan African markets to

$622 billion by 2020 and $7.3 trillion by 2050,

according to Renaissance Capital.

Achieving Agenda 2063’s flagship projects

will not be easy. But, if Africa continues to build

on its success, the dream of an integrated,

prosperous and peaceful continent looks to be

increasingly within reach. •

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AN INTEGRATED CONTINENT

Flagship projects under Agenda 2063

GRAND INGA

DAM PROJECT

Agenda 2063 has cast the spotlight back on one

of Africa’s most ambitious infrastructure projects.

The hydropower scheme at Inga Falls, on the

mighty River Congo in the far west of the

Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), lies

undeveloped decades on from its original

promise. At its most ambitious, the Grand

Inga Hydroelectric Project will comprise seven

hydroelectric power plants with the potential

to produce 42,000MW of power.

The entire project could one day transform

Africa’s existing electricity production capacity,

put at just 147GW by the African Development

Bank, and solve rolling blackouts caused by power

shortages in markets such as Nigeria and South

Africa through power exports. To date, the dam

still consists of Inga 1 and 2, built decades ago

and in a state of disrepair.

Development of the project’s first-stage

4,800MW Inga 3 got a boost last year after South

Africa said it would buy much of the power

produced, therefore making the Inga 3 project

financially viable. In 2014, the World Bank also

approved $73 million to support the third dam,

where construction is now slated for 2017.

HIGH-SPEED

RAIL NETWORK

The AU’s Africa Integrated High-Speed

Train initiative will connect all African

capitals and commercial centres with a

vast network of rail linkages.

Projects that will form part of Africa’s

comprehensive rail network include the East

African Railway Master Plan, which hopes to

revive existing lines in Kenya, Uganda and

Tanzania, eventually extending them to

Rwanda, Burundi, South Sudan and Ethiopia.

Meanwhile, China Railway Construction Corp

last year signed a $3.5 billion contract to build an

intercity rail line in Nigeria, following on from a

$12 billion contract for another Nigerian rail line

planned to run 1,400km along the Nigerian coast.

THE AFRICAN PASSPORT

AND FREE MOVEMENT

The introduction of an African passport is a

flagship initiative of Agenda 2063, as the AU seeks

to lift restrictions on the movement of people.

Some member states of the AU have

committed to align with the union’s plans to

create “a continent with seamless borders”,

and Rwanda and Mauritius have already started.

The African passport will enable the free

movement of people across the continent by

abolishing visa requirements for all African

citizens in all African countries by 2018, according

to the African Development Bank (AfDB).

It is hoped that the project will also ease

the movement of domestic goods between AU

member states and improve intra-African trade

The AfDB says there are huge potential gains to be

had for African countries and regions that adopt

open visa policies for their African neighbours.

The plans mirror open-border policies

elsewhere, such as the Schengen Area, where

26 European countries lifted border controls

(although some are reinstating them after recent

terror attacks). As well as boosting trade, the

application of a similar policy in Africa is expected

to enhance integration and better connect African

countries – core targets of Agenda 2063.

PAN-AFRICAN

VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY

Agenda 2063 promises to tackle Africa’s education

deficit by boosting open and distant learning

through an African-wide e-university. It is a model

pioneered by the Nairobi-based African Virtual

University (AVU) partnering with the AU. Through

its open and distant education programmes, the

AVU has trained more than 43,000 students and

established the largest network of distance and

e-learning institutions in 29 African countries

since opening in 1997.

Other Agenda 2063 goals include improving

access to space technology to boost agriculture,

provide better disaster management and counter

the effects of climate change.

43,000

students have been trained

$73m

to support the dam

42,000mw

potential power produced from Inga Dam

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 75


Good Governance and Human rights

viewpoint

The African Union

Commission (AUC)

is firmly committed

to ensuring democratic

and participatory

governance,

constitutionalism and rule of law, a

culture of human rights in Africa. We

believe these, combined with peace;

security and political stability are

essential preconditions for

socio-economic structural

transformation towards the

realisation of the Africa Agenda 2063

and the 2030 Agenda for sustainable

development. Achieving the noble

goals of Agenda 2063 will go a

long way towards “an integrated,

prosperous and peaceful Africa,

driven by its own citizens and

representing a dynamic force in

the global arena”.

Promote democratic

governance

The aspiration of a prosperous

Africa is first on the list of the seven

aspirations behind Agenda 2063,

and we are determined to base this

prosperity on inclusive and equitable

growth premised on sustainable

human development. In addition

to this, we want to eradicate

poverty in one generation and build

shared prosperity through social

and economic transformation

of the continent.

Effective institutions, monitored

by checks and balances, are the

bedrock of democratic and

participatory governance. The

African Governance Architecture

(AGA) and the African Peace and

Security Architecture (APSA) are

in place to enhance the capacity of

AU organs and regional economic

communities to promote democratic

governance and peace respectively

in order to help member states

overcome prevailing challenges that

undermine their development efforts.

The AGA platform – which serves as

a coordinating arm – is divided into

76 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


Good Governance and Human rights

HE Dr Aisha

Laraba Abdullahi

Commissioner for Political Affairs

African Union Commission

five pillars: democracy; governance;

human rights and transitional

justice; constitutionalism and the

rule of law; and humanitarian

assistance. In like manner, the APSA

has five main pillars namely the

Peace and Security Council; the

Continental Early Warning System;

the Panel of the Wise; the African

Standby Force; and the Peace Fund.

The Pan-African Parliament was

established to reflect the diverse

political opinions of Africans and

act as a key guarantor of

constitutionalism. Since 1963, the

quest for African Unity has been

inspired by the spirit of

Pan-Africanism. Another of the AU’s

seven aspirations is an integrated

continent, politically united, and

based on the ideals of Pan-Africanism

and the vision of Africa’s Renaissance.

Eventually, the body’s members will

be elected by universal suffrage and

the Pan-African Parliament will have

full legislative powers.

Women play an essential role as

drivers and critical enablers of

effective political governance.

Therefore, this year, we are placing

particular attention on women’s

participation in the political arena.

Following a high-level dialogue on

women’s participation in political

parties held in Kigali in December

2015, we have set three concrete

goals: to encourage member states

to ratify, domesticate and implement

AU shared-value instruments that

promote gender equality; to enhance

cooperation among AGA Platform

members to increase gender equality

and female leadership in political

parties; and understand and replicate

Rwanda’s success in women’s

empowerment across the continent.

Peaceful resolutions

Conflicts are a major impediment to

socio-economic development, which

is why the AU is encouraging greater

collaborative efforts in conflict

prevention, management and

resolution. This is especially

important during elections, which

should always be held peacefully and

in accordance with the AU’s shared

values. More broadly, we are

developing mechanisms for the

peaceful resolution of all ongoing

conflicts in Africa in an effort to

‘silence the guns by 2020’. •

We are developing

mechanisms for the

peaceful resolution of

all ongoing conflicts

in Africa in an effort to

‘silence the guns by 2020’

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 77


Aspiration

3

Good

Governance

and human rights

Honesty and accountability are important traits for heads of state, so

it is essential they all keep an eye on themselves and others to make

sure everything is above board as it should be

Africa under

African review

The African Peer Review

Mechanism (APRM) is

mutually agreed and

voluntarily acceded to

by African Union (AU)

member states as a

self-monitoring system. It is often described

as “Africa’s unique and innovative approach

to governance” with the objective to

improve dynamics in local, national and

continental levels of government, and is

what Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta

refers to as “an unprecedented initiative”

During the 37th Summit of the

Organization of African Unity held in J

uly 2001 in Lusaka, Zambia, a document

setting out a new vision for the revival and

development of Africa was adopted. This

is now the New Partnership for Africa’s

Development (NEPAD).

Humble beginnings

The APRM was initiated in 2002 and

established a year later by NEPAD. The

objectives of the APRM are primarily to

foster the adoption of policies, standards

and practices that lead to political

78 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


GOOD GOVERNANCE AND HUMAN RIGHTS

Kenyan President Uhuru

Kenyatta in April 2016 in

Berlin, Germany.

Photo: Emmanuele Contini/NurPhoto via Getty Images

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 79


good governance and human rights

stability, high economic growth,

sustainable development and accelerated

subregional and continental economic

integration through experience sharing

and reinforcement of successful and

best practices, including identifying

deficiencies and assessment of

requirements for capacity building.

According to President Kenyatta:

“The APRM has opened up space for

policy debate and fostered a culture

of national dialogue between citizens

and their governments.”

In July 2002, the Durban AU

summit supplemented NEPAD with a

Declaration on Democracy, Political,

Economic and Corporate Governance.

According to the Declaration, states

participating in NEPAD “believe in just,

honest, transparent, accountable and

participatory government and probity

in public life.”

Credible, relevant and visible

“For the APRM to achieve its full

potential and take its place of pride as an

African-wide mechanism, it is imperative

to strengthen its linkage with NEPAD

programmes, engage with our Regional

Economic Communities and interface

with implementation of frameworks

such as the African Union Agenda 2063

and the Sustainable Development Goals

Agenda 2030,”

says President Kenyatta. “We must,

therefore, hasten its integration in the

African Union system. This will make

the mechanism more credible, relevant,

and visible at the continental stage and

will give impetus to our revitalisation

efforts.” The APRM has undertaken to

work with renewed determination to

enforce, among other things, the rule

of law; the equality of all citizens before

the law; individual and collective

freedoms; the right to participate in

free, credible and democratic political

processes; and adherence to the

separation of powers, including

protection for the independence of

the judiciary and the effectiveness

of parliaments.

The APRM process is based on

a ‘self-assessment’ questionnaire

developed by the African Peer Review

(APR) Secretariat. It is divided into

four sections: democracy and political

governance; economic governance and

management; corporate governance;

and socio-economic development. Its

questions are designed to assess states’

compliance with a wide range of African

and international human rights treaties

and standards. The questionnaire was

formally adopted in February 2004,

in Kigali, Rwanda, by the first meeting

of the APR Forum, made

up of representatives of

the heads of state or

government of all

states participating

in the APRM.

As originally

envisaged in

the APRM Base

Document adopted at

the AU Durban summit

in 2002, there are four

types of review. However,

in practice, it seems

likely that only

base reviews will

be conducted for the

foreseeable future.•

FOUR TYPES

OF REVIEW

BASE REVIEW

this is carried out within

18 months of a country

becoming a member of

the APRM

PERIODIC REVIEW

every two to four years

REQUESTED REVIEW

any country can request

an additional review for

its own reasons

‘CRISIS’ REVIEW

early signs of impending

political or economic crisis

would also be sufficient

This will make the

mechanism more credible,

relevant, and visible at

the continental stage

80 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


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good governance and human rights

Although many African women’s prospects lag behind those

of men, progress is being made, explains Pamela Whitby

Gender parity:

closing the gap

In the frail care unit of an upmarket

retirement village in a leafy suburb

on the outskirts of Durban on South

Africa’s subtropical east coast, the

caregivers are black, the sisters are

white and so are the octogenarian

inmates. All but one are women.

Patience Ncgobo, 39, is one of the caregivers

who underwent a fairly rigorous selection

process for the job, which involves 15 12-hour

shifts a month. Her salary is around $230 a

month, tea and coffee are provided but food

isn’t and nor is bus fare, which sets her back

another $2 daily. Fortunately, Ncgobo’s own

mother, now in her sixties, provides free care

to her two children (aged eight and six).

While the legacy of apartheid, challenges to

deliver fast enough on basic issues, has led to

its own particular set of peculiarities in South

Africa, this scenario highlights a point. Firstly,

that on average women live 5% longer than

men but also, according to the United Nations

Development Programme’s (UNDP) Human

Development Report 2015 that low-paid and,

indeed unpaid, care work is predominantly the

burden of the world’s women.

Globally, of the 53 million people aged 15

and over who are in paid domestic work, which

can include anything from cleaning to care for

children or the elderly, 83% are still women

(and they earn 24% less than male counterparts).

So although Africa is not unique here, this gap

widens in less developed countries. In Africa,

12 countries fall into the bottom 20 of the World

Economic Forum’s (WEF) Global Gender Gap

Index, which takes a data-driven approach

to measuring performance in areas such

as political and economic participation,

educational attainment, health and survival.

In gender issues, South Africa, is doing quite

well. It ranks 17th on the WEF index (though

in 2009 it held position 6) and women today

participate strongly in the workforce. Although

Ncgobo may be doing better than the more than

800 million people who live on less than $2 a

day, it’s clear that there is still work to be done

to improve the plight of Africa’s women’s from

the grass roots up.

But when there is so much to do and the

challenges so varied across 54 countries,

where does one start?

Step-by-step

Government policy and leadership on the

issue is crucial and Silvana Koch-Mehrin,

the founder of Women in Parliaments Global

Forum, believes there is much to learn from

the example of Rwanda.

“After the end of the genocide in 1994,

women were given a central role at all

levels – in leadership, in rural communities, in

administration, science and business,” she says.

From a country where women were once

powerless, today Rwanda ranks sixth out of 145

© Claudia Wiens / Alamy Stock Photo

64%

of elected seats

in national

government

in Rwanda

are held

by women

82 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


GOOD GOVERNANCE AND HUMAN RIGHTS

Mrs Kiki opened an ice cream

shop in Butare, Rwanda, to create

education and employment

opportunities for women

in the world on the WEF Index, which was

achieved with constitutional reform, which set

a quota for 30% women in government, and

devolved power to thousands of all-women

councils in local areas. Ultimately women were

elected at local level who then ran against men

and the result today is that women hold 64% of

elected seats in national government, 88% of

women are in work (wage equality is the fairest

in the world) and female entrepreneurship is

thriving. As Rwandan Ambassador to Tanzania,

Fatuma Ndangiza, has highlighted, you cannot

contribute if you are not sitting in a decisionmaking

position, and political power is not

possible without economic power. On this

score one significant move was Rwanda’s

introduction of gender budgeting in four areas

is the average

5%

that women

will live

longer

than men

that impact women: agriculture, infrastructure,

education and health.

Another notable point from Ndangiza is the

importance of inclusiveness; if men and boys

are treated as allies, she has argued, they

understand that empowerment of women is

better for society as a whole.

Entrepreneurs and education is power

From Kenya’s Njeri Rionge, a pioneer in

Africa’s IT sector to Ethiopian footwear queen

Bethlehem Tilahun Alemu or South African

mining magnate Bridgette Radebe, to name a

few, there are a growing number of successful

business women in Africa. Yet today, just 20% of

businesses have women in senior roles and 35%

have no female representation at all.

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 83


good governance and human rights

Since records

began in 2006

the gender

gap in

sub-Saharan

Africa in 2016

has closed by

68%

While getting more women into business

must be a priority, a bigger one, and one of the

most significant challenges facing Africa is the

advancement of education.

In late 2015, the United Nations Educational,

Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

released its findings that no country in

sub-Saharan Africa had achieved gender parity

at primary and secondary level. At primary

school level, of the 18 countries with fewer than

90 girls for every 100 boys enrolled, 13 are in

sub-Saharan Africa. The secondary school

situation is worse with gender disparities

largely unchanged since 1999. Top of UNESCO’s

list of recommendations

going forward is that

education should be

free, really free.

Bringing her voice to

this issue is Amnesty

International’s

Ambassador of

Conscience 2016,

the Grammy-award

winning singer

Angélique Kidjo, who

hails from Benin, a

country that ranks

lowest but one in Africa

on the WEF educational

sub-index. In an

interview earlier this

year with Newsweek

she said: “My mum and

dad believed that the

best tool and weapon

and wealth they could

give all of us [children]

was school.”

Kidjo has also spoken out against

violent extremism against women,

and the threat this poses to women’s

education and on this subject the

battle is far from won.

Even in Rwanda,

the most

gender-equal

society in Africa

today, the United

Nations Children’s

Emergency Fund

(UNICEF) states

that: “Significant

my mum and dad

believed the best tool

and weapon and wealth

they could give ALL OF

us was school

ANGELIQUE KIDJO,

Amnesty International

Ambassador of Conscience 2016

work remains to be done in terms of

protection issues”.

According to Rwanda’s 2010 Demographic

& Health Survey, 41.2% of women aged 15-49

have experienced violence since the age of 15;

22% of these were classified as sexual violence.

Again, more women across the continent

need to add their voice to this urgent issue.

The words of Liberian peace activist Leymah

Gbowee and 2011 Nobel Peace Prize winner are

worth noting: “I can unequivocally state that

women’s active engagement in ending wars and

all types of violence is critical. The only sad fact

is that policymakers at the global and national

levels are too slow to

embrace this reality.”

In 2016 the gender gap

in sub-Saharan Africa

has closed by 68% since

records began in 2006,

according to the WEF

index. Worth noting,

however, that not one

country in the world

has gender parity yet.

In natural resources

Africa is one of world’s

wealthiest continents but

the sooner the untapped

potential of its human

resource – both women

and men – is realised,

the better. •

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GOOD GOVERNANCE AND HUMAN RIGHTS

High-end shoe company, Buqisi-Ruux, is one example of

the growth of female entrepreneurship in Africa

Showing steps

to success

25%

of female adults

in Uganda are

either ‘nascent

entrepreneurs’

or engaged in

some sort of

new business

13%

is the youth

unemployment

rate in

sub-Saharan

Africa

Nuba Elamin, one of the three female

founders of high-end Ugandan

shoe company Buqisi-Ruux, is as

passionate about changing the

narrative of African women as she

is about heels.

“All our shoes are named after African women,”

she says. “We have our own Oprah Winfreys and

Michelle Obamas here in Africa and we want to

share their stories to inspire another generation of

African women. That’s at the core of what we do.”

Ugandan-born Elamin and her two cousins, Tetsi

(Creative Director) and Lynn Bugaari (Chief

Financial Officer) founded the company in 2012.

Rukungiri, their hometown in Western Uganda, gives

the brand the second part of its name, Ruux, while

Buqisi comes from an Egyptian word for ‘queen’.

Elamin had just returned to Africa after a 12-year

stint studying and working in the US and UK, and

shoe-mad cousin Tetsi had just finished her

master’s. At the time all three were looking for work.

However, given high youth unemployment rates in

sub-Saharan Africa – 13.5% according to the UNDP

Human Development Index – that was proving more

difficult than anticipated.

“It dawned on us that we had to do something for

ourselves,” Elamin says, an indication of how a

growing number of Ugandan women are turning to

entrepreneurialism. According to the Global

Entrepreneurship Monitor 2013, 25.1% of female

adults in Uganda are either ‘nascent entrepreneurs’

or engaged in some sort of new business (in Nigeria

it’s 40.7%, Ghana and Malawi, around 27% and

Botswana 19%).

With a combined passion for Africa’s creative

industries and fine shoes, the trio believed they had

spotted a gap in the market for high-quality branded

heels in vibrant local prints. Aimed at aspirational,

trendy Afrocentric women aged between 25 and 40,

the shoes would be designed and made in Africa.

“Most people were doing flat shoes or covering

an existing shoe, but we felt that this could

compromise on quality,” Elamin explains.

While Buqisi-Ruux has achieved the first part of the

dream, the firm has not yet found a local

manufacturer. So while the fabrics are sourced from

women in Kenya, Nairobi and Tanzania, and

designed in Africa, currently they are made in China.

“We did find a company in Ethiopia but the

minimum order was for 20,000 pairs and we just

don’t have that sort of working capital,” says Elamin,

adding that the hunt continues for a local producer.

Like all start-ups Buqisi-Ruux has faced

challenges, not least access to finance and human

capital. “None of us had a background in business

and though we have been learning fast there are

some skills that we still lack,” she says.

Another hurdle is logistics. Right now the shoes

are sold online and distributed to select stores in

Kampala, Nairobi and Cape Town. Thanks to the

ongoing push towards regional integration by the

African Union and organisations like the East

African Community, it has become easier to

transport products across Africa’s borders. But this

remains a costly exercise, and red tape, bureaucracy

and bribes can complicate matters further.

Barriers to export

As an online company, Buqisi-Ruux has had

interest from outside Africa, including stores in

London and Paris, but the shipping costs are

prohibitive. The shoes retail for around $100 a pair

but getting a pair from Uganda to the US costs $70,

as Elamin discovered recently when she sent a pair

to Washington DC. •

Buqisi-Ruux is in discussions with some

celebrities who are considering their own footwear

ranges, which would boost the group’s marketing

and branding efforts. Partnerships and collaboration

with other brands are also being considered.

In spite of the challenges, she is confident in the

product. “Women just love shoes,” she says. She is

also hugely excited to be back in Africa. “There is so

much potential here and so many young people

doing amazing things. The sky really is the limit. We

must just not give up.” •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 85


good governance and human rights

86 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


good governance and human rights

Rwanda’s example as a country of empowered women

heralds a blueprint for African social development writes

Josepha Mushabe Musabyemariya

Holding

up half

the sky

In Greek mythology, the phoenix is a bird

representing new life that rises from the

ashes of its destruction. Today, Rwanda is the

‘new phoenix’ – a country rising from the

ashes of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi.

Leading Rwanda’s regeneration and

renewal is a government development programme

known as ‘Vision 2020’, a blueprint designed to

transform this landlocked, East African country of

slightly less than 12 million, into a knowledge-based,

middle-income country. Clearly, the cornerstone of this

already successful initiative is one which all of Africa,

and nations everywhere, can rally around: bring

diverse people together as one.

But for many in the world, and even for

Rwandans, there is a perplexing question: how

did a country destroyed by genocide and given

up for dead perform an amazing turnaround and

resurrect itself in a span of less than 10,000 days?

Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 87


GOOD GOVERNANCE AND HUMAN RIGHTS

WOMEN’S

EMPOWERMENT

PRINCIPLES

1

2

Treat

3

Ensure

4

Promote

5

Implement

6

Promote

7

Measure

Establish high-level

corporate leadership

for gender equality

all women

and men fairly at

work – respect

and support

human rights and

non-discrimination

the

health, safety

and well-being of

all women and

men workers

education, training

and professional

development

for women

enterprise

development,

supply chain and

marketing

practices that

empower women

equality

through community

initiatives and

advocacy

and

publicly report on

progress to achieve

gender equality

So much so that it has become a global

leader in development and growth?

Institutions, politicians, and academicians

dedicated to development agree the secret to

a nation’s success lies not in money, nor natural

resources. In truth, the secret to a country’s

success is ‘committed leadership’ and Rwanda

ranks as outstanding in that category.

Paving the way for gender equality

Thanks to Rwanda’s committed leadership,

Rwanda is exceeding all expectations, and

firmly behind this exemplary showing are

women. Because, following the genocide,

Rwanda’s leadership was wise enough to see

women as the asset they truly are and, without

hesitation, Rwanda moved aggressively to

empower its residents. Now, Rwanda is

showing the world she is indeed the ‘new

phoenix’, and she has risen. What’s more,

thanks to her committed leadership and

empowered women, Rwanda continues to rise.

Gender equality is more than a goal or an

objective in Rwanda – it is a basic human right

– a human right, when fully exercised, fuels

societies, creates thriving economies and

spurs productivity and growth. As empowered

business leaders, employees, consumers

and entrepreneurs, women are driving the

economic growth and improving conditions in

communities around the world and Rwanda is

exemplary. But let us be clear, our tremendous

success, and the success of women in other

countries, does not mean women do not still

face challenges. Are women running into brick

walls and glass ceilings when it comes to

finance, accessing markets, technology,

training and networking? Of course they

are. Of course many men are facing similar

situations, but it is even more so with women.

But are glass ceilings not meant to be broken?

Speaking at the first Rwandan Diaspora

Women’s Convention in the United States

earlier this year, Rwanda’s First Lady Jeannette

Kagame captured the essence and significance

of women’s empowerment and gender equality:

“The narrative of women’s empowerment

in Rwanda is all too real, and has a global

resonance, and significance. People cite gender

equality in Rwanda, as an example to emulate.

We should all derive great pride, from this

major accomplishment that enhances our own

standing in the world, and also be thankful for

our capable and exemplary leadership, that

truly understands, and acts upon the universal

truth that ‘women’s rights are human rights’.

Dear sisters, we have much to contribute to

Rwanda and to the world we live in.

When the world was collapsing around

them, women were among the important

groups in Rwanda that carried the heaviest

burdens, and may have seen the worst of it

all. Some became widows, others orphans,

too many became victims of rape and other

atrocities. And yet, they picked up the pieces

and started to mend the torn fabric of their

society. They fixed, reconciled, held their

head high, and lived again.”

Not long after First Lady Kagame’s

comments, the United States First Lady,

Michelle Obama, also addressed common

challenges that women face through her White

House Council on Women and Girls, which

hosted the United State of Women Summit.

This Washington DC event brought together

thousands of super-powered women leaders

to discuss important issues ranging from

equal pay, reproductive health, economic

independence and civic duty.

All this gives me optimism that the whole

African continent and the world will eventually

follow Rwanda and walk in the same accord

towards total women’s empowerment because,

after all, it is a smart thing to do.

An end to gender-based violence

In July 2010, the United Nations General

Assembly created UN Women to be an

organisation dedicated to gender equality

and the empowerment of women. UN Women

is considered a global champion for women

and girls worldwide. Working in partnership

with the United Nations Global Compact,

these two organisations fostered the Women’s

Empowerment Principles. Of the many

principles, there are seven key ones that have

received the rubber stamp of more than 1,000

businesses globally. Look closely and one can

see how these principles can be adapted to

apply to all women and girls in all facets of life.

The UN’s work serves to underscore the

point I made earlier, that women still face

challenges. One wise woman said recently,

“Woman cannot be empowered without

power.” The power, in this case, is electric

power because one of the biggest challenges

women face is having access to basic services.

Rwanda is tackling that challenge head-on, too.

The Rwanda Electricity Access Scale-Up and

Sector Wide Approach Development Project

enables Rwandans to access reliable and

cost-effective electricity. The World Bank

said developing countries suffer from what is

known as ‘energy poverty’, and women are

88 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


GOOD GOVERNANCE AND HUMAN RIGHTS

Rwandan First Lady

Jeannette Kagame

Access to electricity could

make a world of difference

in unleashing women’s

aNd girls’ potential

affected disproportionately. The fact remains

that women and girls perform the unending

and time-consuming chores of collecting

biomass fuels. Access to electricity could make

a world of difference in not only “unleashing

women’s entrepreneurial potential”, for

example, but allowing school-age girls to study

and women with families to survive.

Another seemingly intractable challenge

women face around the world is gender-based

violence (GBV). Rwanda is also leading the way

in confronting what is considered a ‘private

matter’. The Isange One Stop Centre, where

women survivors of GBV find specialised,

personnel and police who deal with their cases.

Furthermore, the centre is aimed at providing

psychosocial, medical, police and legal services

to adult and child survivors of GBV and child

abuse occurring in the family or in the

community at large.

Thanks to the African Union (AU),

our continent and

women globally have

benefited from what

is known as the Maputo

Protocol. Considered the

first comprehensive

legally binding instrument

on the promotion and

protection of women’s

human rights in Africa,

the Maputo Protocol

guarantees comprehensive rights for women

including the right to take part in political

processes, the right to social, economic and

political equality with their male counterparts,

the right to control of their reproductive

health, and the right to end harmful cultural

practices such as female genital mutilation –

perhaps the worst GBV.

When the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi

ended after the 100 days of slaughter, an

unfathomable 800,000 to more than 1 million

people lay dead. When it was time to bury

the dead, heal the wounded and bring the

perpetrators to justice, Rwanda decided to

institute the ‘Gacaca’. The Gacaca (pronounced

ga-cha-cha) took its name from the traditional

councils and tribunals in Rwanda in which

elders were used to resolve conflicts and

administrate justice. Gacaca means a resting

and relaxing green lawn outside the Rwandan

home where family neighbours and family

members meet to exchange views on issues

directly affecting the community. This

traditional community court brought about

punitive justice. But, perhaps more affirmingly,

the Gacaca resulted in a strengthening and a

reconciliation as well as a mechanism to bring

out the truth pertaining to the genocide.

Maintaining momentum

Empowered women played an active role

as Gacaca judges. Elected by the population,

these women tried cases in front of members

of the entire community.

Today, with leadership roles put forth

during the Gacaca and elsewhere and buoyed

by a supportive and committed government

leadership, Rwandan women are without a

doubt an important catalyst for creating this

successful country.

In Rwanda’s parliament, women hold 64%

of the seats. This means Rwanda currently

accounts for the highest percentage of female

legislators in the world.

As Rwanda moves to further modernise

its agriculture, develop its human resources

and infrastructure, and further establish its

knowledge-based economy, empowered women

and girls – will play an increasingly important

role in Africa and the world. •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 89


A peaceful and secure Africa

viewpoint

Half a century ago

Africa embarked

on the journey of

liberating itself

from colonial rule

and the tyranny of

apartheid. This process is almost

concluded following the historic

defeat of apartheid regime in South

Africa in 1994. Decolonisation is yet

to happen in Western Sahara. The

adoption of the Constitutive Act

establishing the African Union in

2002 marked an important step in

Africa’s journey towards re-shaping

her destiny. These efforts culminated

in the adoption of Agenda 2063 as a

consensual document that was borne

out of a consultative process

involving all segments of African

society ranging from the Regional

Economic Communities 9RECs,

member states, women and youths to

civil society organisations. The First

Ten-Year Implementation of Plan of

Agenda 2063 provides a clear

roadmap in ten key areas including

peace and security.

The African Union Peace and

Security Council (PSC) which was

established in 2003 as the nerve

centre of the African Peace and

Security Architecture (APSA) has

contributed tremendously to the

reduction of the number of armed

conflicts across the continent, and

has more critically ensured

compliance with AU’s governance

norms such as the zero tolerance for

the unconstitutional change of

government. The PSC’s interventions

and pronouncements on critical

issues of peace, security and

governance issues are contributing

to the consolidation of good

governance and democratic

practice in Africa.

The APSA consisting of the PSC,

the Continental Early Warning

System (CEWS), the African Standby

Force (ASF), the Panel of the Wise

and the Peace Fund and in

partnership with the RECs/RMs

provide the AU’s Department of

Peace and Security with the required

90 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


A peaceful and secure Africa

HE Ambassador

Smail Chergui

Commissioner for Peace and Security

African Union Commission

tools to prevent and manage

conflicts, and more significantly to

support countries emerging from

conflict through targeted

intervention based on its Post

Conflict Reconstruction and

Development Policy which was

adopted a decade ago. The ASF, the

sharp edge of the APSA, composed of

military, police and civilians

designed to intervene in a crisis

within 14 days now has the capacity

and capability to intervene to stop

mass atrocities anywhere on the

continent. Cooperation between the

RECs/RMs, the building blocks for

the AU is vital during the

operationalisation of APSA.

Nevertheless, Africa still faces

instability over contested regions,

violent extremism and transitional

insurgencies, mass distress

migration, social, political and ethnic

exclusion, violation of human rights

and poor governance. It is against

this background that the AU is

targeting a conflict-free Africa

through concerted continental

efforts geared towards silencing the

Africa still faces instability

over violent extremism, social,

political and ethnic exclusion

and violation of human rights

guns by 2020. Needless to say, the

realisation of the objective of

silencing the guns by 2020 would

require strong coordinated action

between the AU, RECs, member

states, bilateral and multilateral

partners, non-governmental

organisations and the public.

Silencing the guns by 2020 would

also require conscious and deliberate

efforts aimed at mainstreaming

gender in all AU programs and

initiatives, most notably in the area

of peace and security. It is

encouraging to note that the AU has

put in place various instruments

and programs to promote the

protection of women during and

in the aftermath of conflicts, and

giving women an active role in

peace building.

There is no gain saying that the

attainment of Africa’s long-term

socio-economic development agenda

is contingent on building strong

accountable institutions that should

tackle the root causes of conflict

such as poverty and provide the

adequate and desired responses to

the peace and security challenges

that the continent is faced with. We

must, as our responsibility to future

generations ensure that the AU

delivers on its mandate of silencing

the guns by 2020; doing so would

pave the way for a prosperous Africa,

which will occupy its rightful place

in the international arena. •

AFRICAN LIBERATION

1994

HISTORIC DEFEAT

the end of the apartheid

regime in South Africa

2002

IMPORTANT STEP

the adoption of the

Constitutive Act

establishing the African

Union (AU)

2003

ENSURING

COMPLIANCE

the African Union Peace

and Security Council (PSC)

established

2020

COORDINATED

ACTION

the AU is targeting a

conflict-free Africa

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 91


Aspiration

4

A

peaceful and

secure Africa

Addressing the challenges of peace and security in Africa has always

been at the centre of concerns for leaders. They are a prerequisite for

the sustainable development of Africa, writes Dominic Dudley

Africa

and global

security

Sustained efforts have been

made to strengthen the

capacities of the premier

continental organisation,

the African Union (AU),

to enable it to meet the

challenges of peace and security.

However, no one can deny that the state

of peace and security in Africa remains a

concern. While significant progress has

been made in resolving some conflicts

and crisis situations, there are still a

number of challenges yet to be overcome.

According to the London-based

International Institute for Strategic

Studies (IISS), there are 11 active conflict

zones around the continent..

The continent also continues to suffer

from the insecurity and terror created

by various terrorist and criminal groups

driven by different agendas, and

operating at times as part of larger

networks, including al-Qaeda and Islamic

State. What is even more worrisome is

that terrorist groups have strengthened

their ability to work together with

criminal organisations in a phenomenon

known as “motivational convergence”

where criminal groups work side by side

and reinforce each other.

So dealing with these new threats

requires a comprehensive approach

allowing a wide spectrum of responses

by military and non-military actors. Such

a comprehensive response has to be in

partnership with other stakeholders

such as international and regional

organisations as well as civil society.

The AU’S pledges

In 2013, the African Union (AU)

pledged to end all wars, civil conflicts,

gender-based violence and violent

conflicts and prevent genocide by 2020.

That remains a noble objective and

formidable challenge, but there has been

progress in recent years and AU forces

have often played a key role.

According to IISS, in 2015 Nigeria

recovered all of the towns it lost to Boko

Haram the year before, helped by the

AU-backed Multinational Joint Task

Force (MNJTF) with troops from Chad,

Cameroon, Niger and Benin. The AU

Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) also

conducted successful operations

alongside the Somali National Army

against Al Shabaab strongholds in 2015

and 2016. The fight is far from won,

though, and Al Shabaab has continued

to mount raids of its own.

Such missions are very different

from the sort of peacekeeping

operations that the United Nations

typically launches, as Ambassador Smail

Chergui, AU Commissioner for Peace and

Security noted in a speech in Addis

Ababa on 14 April 2016.

“The African Union and our regional

organisations are commonly the first

responders to crises, dispatching troops

at short notice,” he said. “Quite often…

92 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


An AMISOM police officer holds

a young Somali boy after a

foodstuff donation

AMISOM Photo / DAVID MUTUA

we have deployed into situations in

which the UN would not have been

ready to deploy, on missions that the

UN would not consider suitable. We

are ready to deploy a peace operation

where there is no peace to keep, or

where the mission requires combat

operations against terrorists.”

Trend in active conflicts

These are often complex, dangerous

missions and some setbacks are all but

inevitable, but there is reason for

optimism. “The dominant trend in active

conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa is

towards de-escalation or resolution,”

says John Chipman, Director-General

and Chief Executive of IISS. “The

prospects for conflict resolution in Mali,

the Central African Republic and Somalia

improved during the course of 2015.”

A number of Africa’s conflicts spill

across international borders, in the form

of fighting between armed groups as

We are ready to deploy

a peace operation

where there is no

peace to keep, or where

the mission requires

combat operations

against terrorists

well as terrorism and huge migrant

flows, making cooperation between

governments an important part of any

solution, as has been particularly seen

with the large flows of migrants crossing

the Mediterranean Sea from North

Africa. That necessitates working closely

with international partners. Indeed,

overseas assistance has often played a

useful role in bolstering AU activity and

capacity. The AU and the UN jointly run

the UNAMID mission in Darfur for

example, one of nine UN peacekeeping

missions around the continent. This is

just one model of partnership, though,

and the AU’s approach is to be flexible.

“Each case of a peace operation is

different,” said Ambassador Chergui, in a

speech to the Munich Security

Conference in February this year. “We

have AU-only peace support operations,

for example in Somalia. We have AU

missions that transition to UN

peacekeeping operations, which is

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 93


A peaceful and secure Africa

A French army soldier explains his plan

to US Army Sgt Dare Crusade during

a field training exercise in Arta, Djibouti

U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Kate Thornton/Flikr

what occurred in Mali and

Central African Republic. We have

African enforcement troops inserted

into UN missions, such as the Force

Intervention Brigade in the Democratic

Republic of Congo.”

But military force and peacekeeping

operations are only part of

the approach in trying to make the

continent safer. While it is important

to contain and solve ongoing conflicts,

it is also vital to find ways to address

problems before they become that

serious, and there are several ways

in which the AU is doing that too.

Supporting democracy

African heads of state regularly meet

at AU summits and at Peace and

Security Council meetings, as well as

in other formal and informal settings.

Collectively, such meetings have

helped to build cross-country support

for negotiated transitions over

unconditional regime change and for

sanctions to be imposed on coup

leaders in addition to authorising the

peacekeeping and peacemaking

missions noted above.

A number of other tools have been

developed to support democracy and

good governance. The African Peer

Review Mechanism (APRM) was set up

in 2003 as part of the New Partnership

for Africa’s Development. The main

objectives are to foster the adoption

of policies that encourage political

stability, economic growth, sustainable

development and economic integration.

To date 35 countries have joined the

mechanism and 17 of them have

completed their review.

Momentum was lost for a time, but

there now appears to be a concerted

effort to deal with a backlog of reviews.

“Everybody should know that the APRM

is out of its comatose state, we are ready

to claim our rightful position as the

premier governance hub in Africa,” said

Professor Eddy Maloka, Chief Executive

of the APRM, on 2 April.

Even more central to the issue of

stability is the Peace and Security

Council. It was established in 2003 with

the aim of promoting peace around the

continent, anticipating and preventing

conflicts and promoting post-conflict

reconstruction. It is supported by a

series of inter-related programmes,

including a Continental Early Warning

System, which advises on potential

conflicts, the AU Border Programme,

which deals with disputed or porous

borders, and the African Standby Force,

a rapid reaction force that can be

deployed to deal with war crimes

and other horrors.

Other initiatives under the umbrella

of the council include the African Peace

and Security Architecture, the AU

counter-terrorism framework, and a

disarmament, demobilisation and

reintegration programme.

Even if the AU does manage to hit its

admirably ambitious target of ending all

wars by 2020, the work of such bodies

will not be finished. The cost of trying to

maintain peace is constant vigilance, not

least in terms of keeping an eye on old

conflicts that could reignite, as recent

events have testified. •

The Peace and Security Council was

established in 2003 with the aim of

promoting peace around the continent

94 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


COMMON HERITAGE

HE Dr Mustapha

Sidiki Kaloko

Commissioner for Social Affairs

African Union Commission

For development to be

sustainable, it must be

inclusive. As outlined in

Agenda 2063, the African

Union’s (AU) first goal is to

deliver “a high standard of

living, quality of life and well-being for

all citizens.” With Africa’s population

expected to more than double by 2050, it is

crucial to ensure an effective social policy

framework is in place. The AU is working

with member states to improve basic

infrastructure; provide better social

services; eliminate hunger and

malnutrition; support female

empowerment; and engage the continent’s

youth. One of the key aspirations behind

Agenda 2063 is creating an Africa whose

development is people-driven. This means

relying on the potential of African people,

especially its women and youth, in order

to transform Africa’s growing population

into its greatest asset.

Stemming communicable diseases is

crucial to securing a prosperous future.

New data suggests that approximately $40

of gross domestic product is generated in

return for every dollar invested in fighting

malaria in Africa. The AU’s project to

blanket Africa with mosquito nets has

helped drive a 60% reduction in annual

deaths linked to this parasite.

Now we are focusing on making

Africa’s healthcare systems more resilient

in order to withstand future shocks. As the

Ebola crisis reminded us, it is essential to

develop each country’s ability to swiftly

detect, treat and manage outbreaks. Better

immunisation quality and coverage, as

stipulated in the Regional Strategic Plan

for Immunisation 2014-2020, will also

improve health outcomes.

Africa is faced with a shortage of

skilled workers; it loses some 70,000

skilled workers every year due to outward

migration. We are working to

simultaneously provide Africans with

world-class skills and supply decent job

opportunities. Greater labour mobility will

also help retain skilled workers who would

otherwise seek better opportunities

abroad. By 2018, AU leaders want to

establish a continent-wide visa-free

regime and create the African passport.

For those who choose to work abroad

and send money home, the African

Institute for Remittances is working to

cut the cost of money transfers and

is developing policies to leverage

remittances for social and

economic growth.

As urbanisation rates continue to rise,

we are turning our attention to making

cities and towns more accessible and

inclusive. Carefully planned urbanisation

creates value and raises productivity.

We are also launching campaigns to

facilitate dialogue between religious

leaders, civil society organisations

and the public, in order to end child

marriage, amongst other harmful

traditional practices.

By 2063, we aim to entrench a culture

of respect for human rights, democracy,

gender equality, inclusion and peace.

In other words, we must leave no one

behind in Africa’s pursuit of growth

and development. •

WE want to establish

a continent-wide

visa-free regime

and create the

African passport

PHOTO: CHIARA FRISONE/GIRLS NOT BRIDES.

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 95


aspiration

5

Common

heritage

African culture is as ancient and

rich as the soil that cradled the

first soul into life in Mapungubwe,

as complex as the class structure

of Ancient Egypt, as diverse as

the multitudinous faces which

populate the continent. African cultures are each

as individual as the hundreds of languages spoken

across the continent, only a small fraction of

which have been transcribed, although stories

and histories were told and retold as cultural

heritage, and written down as literature in

Amharaic and Arabic. Dance and music were

central aspects of daily life. Plaques and friezes

adorned city walls, temples and buildings were

adorned alike in sophisticated sculptures and

statues of brass, ivory, rock, metal, and in turn

embellished in intricate gold, silver and copper,

and painted. Wooden sculptures were found in

every culture; sycamore had religious significance

for the Ancient Egyptians. Gold and copper

jewellery and headpieces all adorned the human

form. Rock paintings coloured with ground iron

oxides, manganese ores, quartz, calcite and clays

for colour are found all over the continent’s

mountains, and religious paintings were made

and kept on canvas too. From the pharaohs of

Ancient Egypt, through the scholars and scribes

at Timbuktu, gold traders at Ghana, the Yoruba,

and the monarchs of the Great Zimbabwe Ruins,

all these African cultures symbolise an ancient

and mighty cultural history which continues

to inspire and lead African, and indeed world,

cultural identity and heritage.

Yet this rich history of African identity is

scarred by violence. Over the past four hundred

years, the continent has seen civil strife at the

hands of intra- and inter-continental violence,

which has overshadowed, denied and destroyed

these ancient communities and knowledge.

This violence was compounded by 19th-century

sciences that sought to prove the idea of racial

supremacy. The continued degradation of

African cultures and histories took a heavy

toll on our perceptions of African own strengths.

Pan-Africanism was born in the early 19th

century when African American anti-slavery

spokespeople such as Prince Hall and Paul

Cuffe fought for freedoms they associated with

an idyllic African life from before the colonial

era. Pan-Africanism is a philosophy of redemption

and solidarity, which allows Africans and global

African populations to nurture self-pride. These

men sought to settle in Africa and reconstitute

their lives and communities in Africa, which still

South African Tourism / Flikr

Our

magnificent

heritage

Informed by the philosophy of Pan-Africanism

and with a presence worldwide, the African

diaspora seeks to build on its historical links,

explains Joanne Davis

96 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


David Stanley / Flikr

Prehistoric rock paintings in Manda Guéli Cave, Chad

Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III, Egypt

Elena Pleskevich / Flikr

xxxxxx

Manuscript pages from Timbuktu

gomagoti / Flikr

From top

to bottom:

Prince Hall;

William

Wells

Brown;

and the

Reverend

Doctor

Henry

Highland

Garnet

formed a large part of their heritage and

consciousness. These people were fearless

promoters of black equality, sovereignty and

suffrage, resilient in a historical era marked

by race subjugation. They recognised that the

oppression and suffering of black people all over

the world was due to nothing more or less than

skin colour. They recognised that while the

treatment of African people was different in

different parts of the world, it contained common

traits, and was not particular to any one group,

but was rather an indiscriminate behavioural

pattern all over the world by white supremacists.

They were spurred on in their work by the

meetings of the

international peace

conferences in Europe

in the mid-19th century,

for whom the plight

of enslaved people

across the globe was

a pressing issue. Early

anti-slavery spokesmen

who had been into

slavery in America were

key participants, for

example William Wells

Brown in the 1849

conference in Paris, and

the Reverend Doctor

Henry Highland Garnet

in Berlin in 1851. Their ideas are embedded in the

works of writers who depicted the themes

of Pan-Africanism as cultural and social equality

of African cultures with those of other races.

The great enclosure and conical tower,

Great Zimbabwe

The first meetings of the official Pan-African

movement were in Europe in the early 1900s,

with the first in London in 1900, from which the

Pan-African Association was developed, and came

to be centred in Europe rather than Africa or

America. Large African communities were

resident in Europe, for whether African people

left Africa as captured slaves, or fled from war,

worked in the World Wars for the European

powers, or left as tourists, African people had

settled in every corner of the world, with or

without citizenship in these adopted homes.

These communities maintain strong cultural ties

with Africa and their African heritage informs

their identity directly. They support the work

of Pan-Africanists who were working between

Africa and Europe. Diaspora communities remain

important centres of the cultural heritage of

Africa, providing refuge to Africans in exile from

continued

warring on the

One of the reasons for the

surge in bond issuances is that

economies across Africa have

enjoyed a new lease of life

African continent,

and as the

members travel

between home

and host cultures,

bringing cultural

newness to each

and allowing

cultural exchange and growth. Off-shoot

organisations have grown but they seek the same

ends, via differing means: freedom, equality of

black and African people throughout the world. •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 97


People-driven development

viewpoint

The status of education,

science and technology is

improving in Africa. As you

may recall we just adopted

a people centred long-term

Agenda 2063, which strives

to enable Africa to remain focused and

committed to the ideals envisaged in the

context of a rapidly changing world. Action

is required in many domains to realise this

Agenda and deliver on the rising aspirations

of African citizens and global expectations.

To do so, among other things, we ensured

that this agenda is underpinned by

Education, Science and Technology as

enablers and tools of achieving the

continental development goals including

the Global Sustainable Development

Goals (SDGs). This will in the long run

create economic benefits for the continent

and beyond.

To effectively and efficiently contribute

to the implementation of the African Union

(AU) Agenda 2063, the AU Assembly adopted

3 distinct strategies for advancing education

and science, technology and innovation:

(1) Continental Strategy for Education

(CESA-16-25); (2) Continental Strategy for

Technical and Vocational Education and

Training; and (3) Science, Technology and

Innovation Strategy for Africa (STISA-2024).

Going forward with STISA-2024

Through STISA-2024 the Commission

is rapidly deploying science, technology

and innovation across various

socio-economic sectors with a view to

foster social transformation and economic

competitiveness. In the first 10 years of its

implementation STISA-2024 will focus on

addressing six distinct socio-economic

priorities namely (i) Eradicating Hunger

and ensuring Food and Nutrition Security;

(ii) Prevention and Control of Diseases;

(iii) Protection of our space; (iv)

Communication (Physical and Intellectual

Mobility); (v) Promoting Living together

and Building the Society; and

(vi) Weal Creation.

The Continental Education Strategy for

Africa (CESA) 2016-2025, was develop to

“create” a new cadre of African citizenry

who will be an effective agent of

change for the continent’s sustainable

development as envisioned by the

AU and its 2063 Agenda. This strategy

desires to set up a “qualitative system of

education and training that will provide

the African continent with efficient

human resources adapted to African

core values and capable of achieve the

98 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


PEOPLE-DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT

HE Dr Martial

De-Paul Ikounga

Commissioner for Human Resources, Science and Technology

African Union Commission

vision and ambitions of the Africa.

Those responsible for its

implementation will be entrusted

to “re-orient Africa’s education and

training systems to meet the

knowledge, competencies, skills,

innovation and creativity required

to promote sustainable development

at the national, sub-regional and

continental levels.

Technical and Vocational

Education and Training (TVET)

Strategy, is no longer business as

usual. The Commission is committed

to promote the acquisition of

knowledge and skills for the world

of work through TVET programmes

and to streamline it to economic

development and addressing the gaps

in labour skills mismatch. To this

end the Commission developed

a Continental TVET Strategy to

promote inclusive education and

equitable access, including the

important role that master craftsmen

and mentors play in skilling of youth

and prepare them to play a leading

role in the envisaged knowledge

based economy.

SMEs backbone of economy

There is a strong entrepreneurial

culture in Africa. If fact, small and

medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

form the backbone of the private sector,

a critical condition for growth and

prosperity. Constituting as high as

90% of enterprises in most countries

worldwide, SMEs are a key component

of economic mainstay. They play a

critical and strategic role in economic

growth, through employment creation,

investments, contribution to domestic

production, exports earnings, poverty

alleviation, and wider distribution of

wealth. This will be achieved by

encouraging Africa’s youth to develop

world-class science and technology

skills. The AU has partnered with the

African Society for Scientific Research

and Technology, United Nations

Education, Scientific and Cultural

Organisation and the COMESA Business

to hold an annual African Congress for

Youth in Science, Technology,

Innovation and Entrepreneurship in

order to achieve this. During the most

recent congress, all parties committed

to engaging more young scientists to

deliver Agenda 2063’s objectives. It is

hoped that through the establishment

of Young Scientists Clubs, business

development centres and technology

incubators, Africa’s technology

community can transform scientific

discoveries into tangible business ideas.

Encouraging entrepreneurship

in agriculture, industry and trade,

healthcare, energy, infrastructure,

the green economy and

biotechnology will increase Africa’s

resilience to global commodity price

fluctuations. Science and technology

is an effective instrument to diversify

and strengthen the economy.

One of the themes of the AU

Summit in Kigali this year is human

rights, which is too one of the seven

aspirations, and the right to be free

from hunger is a fundamental

human right. Already many African

countries have experience in

implementing school feeding

programmes, with varying levels

of success and impact. The Niger

Minister for Education introduced

the importance of school feeding to

the continental Conference of

Ministers of Education in Kigali in

April 2015 and organised a side event

at the World Education Forum in

Incheon. On 1 March 2016, the first

edition of the Africa Day of School

Feeding was held in Niamey, Niger.

In order to learn from the Brazilian

experience of success in school

feeding, the Commission organised

a High Level Mission to Brazil,

which produced a number of

recommendations including the

necessity to map out the school

feeding situation in African

countries and identify strengths,

weaknesses, opportunities and

challenges that need to be addressed

at the continental, regional and

national levels. Another meaningful

recommendation was that the AU

takes ownership of the school-feeding

programme in Africa. Hopefully these

measures will promote better

understanding of the development

dimensions of home-grown school

feeding in Africa. •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 99


Aspiration

6

People-driven

development

Students at the Midwifery School in

Masuba, central Sierra Leone

100 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


African countries are making headway when

it comes to providing citizens with quality

healthcare, Laura Lopez Gonzalez reports

The next

chapter in

healthcare

Marco Longari/AFP/Getty Images

More than 100 years

in the making, a

revolution in health

is rising across the

globe, and no

continent may be

better poised to lead it than Africa.

In the early 20th century, two models

of universal health care coverage (UHC)

emerged in the United Kingdom and

Germany. To reach UHC’s ideal of

affordable, health coverage for citizens,

the United Kingdom designed a system

in which general taxes would fund publicly

provided health care. In contrast,

Germany would build UHC on a

foundation of household premiums and

payroll taxes in a system that would rely

on private healthcare providers.

These two systems would dominate

nearly a century of thinking on UHC,

influencing countries like Canada,

France and Japan.

Now African countries are challenging

this narrative, looking to the global South

for inspiration and forging their own

UHC models. Over nearly two decades,

countries like Ethiopia, Ghana and

Rwanda have been pioneering UHC on

the continent, leading the way for

countries like South Africa eager to

reap UHC’s rewards.

With home-grown experience,

countries like these are set to lead not only

a continental debate fostered by the

African Union’s Agenda 2063 and new

World Health Organization (WHO)

leadership but a global push for UHC on the

heels of a new global development agenda.

Early UHC adopter Rwanda began

piloting its Community-Based Health

Insurance. Rwanda’s 2004 scale-up of

the scheme came at a time when both

Ethiopia and Ghana had also moved

towards UHC. In 2003, Ethiopia launched

its Health Extension Programme to

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 101


People-driven development

KEY POINTS

2003

Ethiopia launched its

Health Extension

Programme to deliver

primary healthcare to

the rural areas

84%

of Ethiopia’s population

lives in rural areas

2004

Ghanaian elections saw

UHC become a priority

among voters

2/9

A 2012 review conducted

among nine Asian and

African countries

implementing new UHC

models found that only

two out of nine relied

solely on public health

providers to roll out UHC

30%

As of September 2015,

the WHO Africa had

increased its universal

health coverage budget

by almost 30%

deliver primary healthcare to

the rural areas, home to about 84%

of the population.

As Ethiopian community health

workers began training to take

services such as health education,

immunisation and reproductive

health into homes, Ghana increased

value-added taxes by about 3% to

help fund its National

Health Insurance.

With Ghanaians tired of what

was dubbed a “cash and carry”

health system relying heavily on

out-of-pocket payments, policymakers

remarked the earmarked tax increased

was a relatively easy sell to voters for

whom UHC became a high priority in

the country’s 2004 election.

Costly healthcare

More than 10 years later, all three

countries have recorded health gains. In

Rwanda, access to healthcare has become

more equitable among Community-Based

Health Insurance members who report

substantially decreased out-of-pocket

payments. The Ethiopian Ministry of

Health credits its Health Extension

Programme with increases in vaccination

and contraception rates. Ghanaians

enrolled in the National Health Insurance

Scheme report accessing health services

more frequently than their unenrolled

neighbours and – like UHC members in

Rwanda – face a significantly reduced

risk of facing the kind of catastrophic

healthcare costs that can send a

household into poverty.

Poverty reduction is a central theme

in the African Union’s Agenda 2063, which

charts a 50-year course towards a

continent in which development is

people-driven but that boasts inclusive

growth and sustainable development.

Many of these ideals are echoed in the

recently adopted UN Sustainable

Development Goals, which include a

commitment to implementing UHC.

As countries like Ethiopia and Rwanda

continue to revisit the financing

structures that underpin their UHC

systems to ensure sustainability, relative

UHC newcomer South Africa inches

closer to fleshing out the financial and

policy frameworks that will guide the

country’s move towards UHC in the form

of its National Health Insurance. South

Africa has no doubt looked at not only its

neighbours for inspiration but also to the

larger global South, with health officials

undertaking learning trips to fellow

BRICS member country Brazil to watch

the country’s community-based UHC in

action.

Introduced by South Africa’s

ambitious Health Minister Dr Aaron

Motsoaledi, South Africa’s final UHC

model is expected to borrow from

Thailand’s Universal Coverage Scheme,

which provides a comprehensive

package of care to about 75% of the

population through a mix of public

and private hospitals.

In South Africa, this will mean

harnessing the resources of South

Africa’s large private medical aid sector.

“The picture here in (South Africa) is

very much complicated by the fact that

you have a very big private healthcare

sector and you have pricing that is very

variable and in the private sector,

extremely costly,” said WHO Regional

Director for Africa

Dr Matshidiso Moeti at a 2015 UN

consultation in Johannesburg. “I think the

reality is that the country will always

have a private healthcare sector but it is

about how it is rationalised in

a country like this that is going to make

all the difference.”

In the wake of Ebola

A 2012 review conducted among

nine Asian and African countries

implementing new UHC models found

that only two relied solely on public

health providers to roll out UHC.

Elected in February 2015, Moeti

takes the reins in the wake of West

Africa’s devastating Ebola epidemic,

which laid bare the region’s weak health

systems and the WHO’s weak response.

She has vowed to reform the WHO to

respond better to emergencies and has

joined Motsoaledi in championing

UHC in the region.

As of September 2015, the WHO Africa

had increased its universal health

coverage budget by almost 30%. •

102 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


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Gilead makes it a priority to increase access to its medicines for HIV/AIDS,

viral hepatitis and visceral leishmaniasis for people who can benefit from them,

regardless of where they live or their economic status.

Over the past

decade, more

than 8.7 million

HIV/AIDS

While progress has been made,

sub-Saharan Africa remains

the most affected region in the

world, with 25.8 million people

living with HIV in 2014. Sub-

Saharan Africa accounts for

almost 70 percent of the global

total of new HIV infections.

HEPATITIS

More than 300 million people

worldwide are living with chronic

hepatitis B or C infection, making

viral hepatitis more common than

HIV. In Africa, approximately 30

million people are estimated to

be infected with hepatitis C and

over 75 million with hepatitis B.

patients in the

developing world

now receive Gilead’s

therapies for HIV/

AIDS, representing

60 percent of

all patients on

antiretroviral therapy

in resource-limited

countries

We work with a network of regional business partners, generic licensing partners,

the Medicines Patent Pool and other stakeholders, including the Global Fund and

US PEPFAR program, to provide our medicines at substantially reduced prices

throughout Africa.

Working Locally to Address Unmet Medical Needs

Across Africa, Gilead works with local partners and government to help ensure that

our medicines reach the people that need them. Our generic licensing agreements

have played a central role in expanding access to high-quality, low-cost HIV

treatment throughout Africa. Gilead invests considerable resources for in-country

activities that support drug availability and use, including product registration,

medical and clinical education, demand forecasting and collaborative research.

More information:

Gilead Sciences

Johannesburg

Ground Floor West Wing

No 6 Kilkuyu Road

Sunninghill Ext 56

Phone: +27 (11) 236-8698

© 2016 Gilead Sciences, Inc. All rights reserved. Updated May 2016. http://gilead.com/responsibility/developing-world-access


People-driven development

Individuals are increasing their share of

philanthropic contributions throughout

Africa, writes Sarah Rundell

Benefiting

from

altruism

Think of philanthropy in Africa,

and the likes of Bill & Melinda

Gates and other foundations

such as the Rockefeller and the

Ford immediately spring to mind.

American foundations have

a rich history of engagement in Africa and

according to the New York-based Foundation

Center, foundation giving to Africa had jumped

to nearly $1.5 billion by 2012 from $288.8 million

10 years earlier. The Bill & Melinda Gates

Foundation tops the list of the amounts given,

with Africa accounting for 25% of international

grant dollars in 2012, up from 14% in 2002.

Philanthropy in Africa drives advancements in

health, education and social equity and has

shown its power to transform the continent,

but increasingly giving isn’t just confined to the

US – or other developed nations.

Philanthropy has long been practised by

Africans at individual and community levels,

both formally and informally. Today economic

growth means Africa’s new wealthy elite have

the resources, networks and opportunities to

spur greater levels of social and economic

change through giving, potentially beyond what

donor governments and philanthropists have

done to date. Africa’s new high net worth

individuals (HNWIs) have given up to an

estimated US$7 billion every year in recent

$1.5bn

was the amount given by

foundations to Africa

in 2012

years, according to a report by the African

Grantmakers Network.

Money is not the only gift

Research from the foundation TrustAfrica and

Swiss bank UBS found that among African

philanthropists, education and health attracted

the most support with both perceived as key

springboards for African development. Their

study also found that most HNWI respondents

donated money to issues and groups beyond

their community, ethnicity or religion. Most

giving, however, was contained within their

country. The report highlighted informal giving

as involving HNWIs giving directly to the

organisations or people they want to support,

while others give their time to the cause by, for

instance, serving on the board of a foundation.

On the formal side, a significant number of

respondents institutionalise their philanthropy

through a legal vehicle such as a foundation or

trust. Giving also takes several forms. Although

most give money, wealthy individuals also gave

time, skills and experience to help the causes

that they support.

Nigerian businessmen Tony Elumelu and

Aliko Dangote, Sudanese telecoms entrepreneur

Mo Ibrahim and Toyin Saraki, Founder and

President of Wellbeing Foundation Africa,

a charity devoted mainly to children’s and

104 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


PEOPLE-DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT

Eric Roset

Ashish

Thakkar set

up the Mara

Foundation to

fund start-ups

and training

Foreign and Commonwealth Office

Philanthropy helps to support

projects such as this mental health

clinician training programme in

Monrovia, Liberia, jointly sponsored

by the Carter Center and the World Bank

© Dominic Chavez/World Bank

Mo Ibrahim at the launch of the Human Rights and

Democracy Report 2013, London 2014

women’s affairs, have become Africa’s own

celebrated philanthropists.

Africa’s own philanthropists are also taking

giving in new directions, such as helping to foster

the entrepreneurship and self-reliance that allowed

them to build their fortunes. Tony Elumelu,

Chairman of Heirs Holdings, an investment firm, set

up the Impact Economy Innovations Fund in 2013 to

provide start-up capital for young entrepreneurs in

ventures that will create jobs and accelerate

prosperity. Uganda’s Ashish Thakkar spent

$1 million last year through his Mara Foundation

to generate wealth through capacity building,

mentoring and peer networking. The foundation

provides financing for start-up businesses, or an

existing business with

high risk but high growth

Although most give money,

wealthy individuals also

gave time, skills and

experience to help the

causes they support

potential. It is also giving

money to help renovate

Ugandan high schools,

providing student

scholarships and offering

free training to start-up

entrepreneurs.

Other African

philanthropists are

pouring money into

promoting better governance. In 2007 the Mo

Ibrahim Foundation began awarding annual prizes

to African leaders who, while in power, developed

their countries, lifted people out of poverty, paved

the way for sustainable and equitable prosperity and

did not try to bend existing laws to extend their term.

Local philanthropy needed

The importance of an increased role for Africa’s own

philanthropists is underscored by declining aid flows,

and less philanthropy reaching Africa during economic

downturns. The UK government’s assistance to South

Africa, worth about $64 million in 2003, ceased in

2015. The US-based Center for International

Grantmaking reported that there had been a 4%

decline in international giving by American

foundations in 2010 following the 2009 global economic

downturn. As a result, many foundations were unable

to continue their work in Africa, creating an urgent

opportunity for the continent’s philanthropists.

Africa’s own philanthropists can also bring

a more direct approach to giving. According to the

Foundation Center, among organisations receiving

Africa-focused foundation funding in 2012, more

than two thirds were headquartered outside Africa,

led by the World Health Organization. Only about a

quarter of foundation funding for Africa went

directly to organisations headquartered in African

countries. Efforts to measure the impact of Africa’s

own philanthropy are also key. The TrustAfrica and

UBS research finds that many of Africa’s wealthy

donors judge impact based on what they see and feel,

rather than through a standardised approach. •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 105


People-driven development

viewpoint

High-quality basic

infrastructure is

the building block

for unity. The

physical integration

of Africa through

roads and energy will enable the free

movement of people, goods and

services, which will fuel sustainable

and equitable growth.The need for

accelerating the modernisation of

infrastructure is underscored in

Agenda 2063, specifically in its First

Ten-Year Implementation Plan. To

boost Africa’s productivity and

competitiveness in the global market,

the African Union has prioritised

development in transportation, water,

telecommunication and energy. One

of the seven key aspirations

underpinning Agenda 2063 is Africa

as a strong, united and influential

global player and partner. Integrative

infrastructure will support trade and

investment, accelerate technological

transformation and allow African

companies to compete on a

continental and, ultimately, global

level. Three of the agenda 2063

Flagship projects are continental

infrastructure projects; the

Continental High Speed Train

connecting the capitals and

development centres of the continent,

the Single Civil Aviation Market

in Africa and the development of

Grand Inga Project.

The Programme for Infrastructure

Development in Africa (PIDA)

has been formulated to plug the

infrastructure gap, outlining a single

vision of an integrated Africa. Under

PIDA’s framework, the African Union

Commission (AUC) is coordinating

with NEPAD Planning and

Coordinating Agency (NPCA),

Regional Economic Communities

(RECs) and the Member States to

harmonise infrastructure projects.

This will prevent duplication and

reduce waste of time and resources.

It is critically important that there are

no contradictions between national,

regional and continental strategies.

Improving and creating efficient

106 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


PEOPLE-DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT

HE Dr Elham

Mahmoud

Ahmed Ibrahim

Commissioner for Infrastructure and Energy

African Union Commission

transport corridors connecting all

major African cities will facilitate the

development of continental value

chains. PIDA is overseeing the

construction of more than 37,000km

of roads and 30,000km of railways,

and is increasing port capacity by 1.3

billion tons. Flight connectivity will

also expand with the establishment

of a Single Air Transport Market.

PIDA is also managing the

simplification and harmonisation of

border procedures, including visa

restrictions and customs formalities.

Being able to transmit, process,

store and disseminate information in

all forms is deeply integrated in our

daily lives; it enables people to share

ideas and acquire knowledge.

Modern ICT infrastructure also

promotes greater transparency and

enhances human rights through the

delivery of education, healthcare and

e-government services.

Modern energy generation,

Modern energy generation and

distribution infrastructure

is key to the realisation of

Africa’s aspirations

transmission and distribution

infrastructure is key to the

realisation of Africa’s aspirations. The

success of Agenda 2063 relies on our

ability to satisfy our energy needs

from reliable, affordable and clean

energy sources. As Planned in PIDA,

we have to add around 700 gigawatts

of capacity by 2040. The African

Renewable Energy Initiative was

launched at COP21

in December 2015 to harness the

continent’s vast clean energy

potential by adding 300 GW capacity

from Renewable Energy by 2030.

Finally, while developing

infrastructure, we must keep climate

change in the forefront of our minds.

We cannot ignore the fact that

extreme weather conditions have

adverse effects on key economic

sectors. Building infrastructure that

is resilient to climate change is,

therefore, of utmost importance.

Public- and private-sector

stakeholders have everything to

gain from combining their efforts to

modernise Africa’s infrastructure.

This will be key in supporting trade

and investment, and enable Africa to

be a strong, united, resilient, peaceful

and influential global player and

partner with a significant role in

world affairs. •

AFRICAN PROGRESS

ROAD

37,000km

being overseen by

the Programme

for Infrastructure

Development in Africa

RAIL

30,000km

will strengthen Africa’s

infrastructure significantly

POWER

700gw

of capacity has to be

added by 2040

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 107


People-driven development

15%

company sales

lost in Ghana

and Tanzania

as a result of

power outages

Power

shortages are

estimated to

cost Africa

2-4%

of GDP

every year

Investment in renewable energy has the potential to

reduce African governments’ reliance on fossil fuels

and connect millions of Africans without access to

electricity to the grid, writes Julian Turner

Electrifying

Africa

The low global oil price

has hit the African

members of OPEC

especially hard. In

Angola, where around

90% of exports are

oil-related, the kwanza has hit record

lows against the US dollar, while

Nigeria, Africa’s largest economy, has

introduced strict capital controls and

slashed fuel subsidies.

Yet oil’s decline represents a

historic opportunity for African

governments to diversify economies,

reduce their reliance on fossil fuels

(and thus their exposure to volatile

global commodity markets) and

embrace innovation in the field of

renewable energy sources such as

wind, solar and biomass.

Africa’s vast renewable energy

resources can meet most of the

continent’s energy demands by

2050,” states Monika Froehler, Energy

Efficiency Programme and

Communication Officer at Sustainable

Energy for All (SE4ALL). “The major

development challenges that we face

– poverty, gender equality and health

– can be tackled if we deliver on the

UN sustainable energy goal [SDG7].

“People cannot have equal

opportunities without energy; that’s

why ‘Sustainable Energy for All’ is

central to achieving the goals of

ending extreme poverty by 2030

and boosting shared prosperity.”

A sustainable future

This potential energy revolution

chimes with the United Nations

108 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


PEOPLE-DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT

Sustainable Development Goals

(SDGs) and the African Union’s

(AU) manifesto, and cannot come

fast enough for ordinary Africans,

645 million of whom have no access

to electricity. In sub-Saharan Africa,

only 58% of healthcare facilities are

currently connected to a grid while

90% of schools on the continent

lack electricity.

The task confronting governments

is immense. Electrifying Africa will

require 130 million grids and roughly

75 million off-grid connections, the

equivalent of adding 800 new 200

megawatt (MW) power plants.

Increasingly, funding for essential

energy infrastructure projects comes

in the form of public-private

partnerships between African

authorities and foreign direct

investors from the private sector.

“If we use renewable and efficient

energy to power up homes, schools,

hospitals and offices, we can make

huge strides in tackling access and

the effects of climate change,” says

Froehler. “This requires

comprehensive policy changes, the

adoption of new technology and

private sector participation.”

“As SE4ALL CEO Rachel Kyte

says, the technology revolution

in Africa is happening, the policy

revolution is stuck or nascent in

places, and the finance revolution

has to keep up with both.

Energy efficiency is no longer

an afterthought; prices for wind

and solar power have dropped

steadily, making them a realistic

investment option.”

Sustainable Energy for All

The SE4All Hub in Africa

a partnership between the

African Development Bank (AfDB),

African Union Commission, NEPAD

Planning and Coordination Agency,

and United Nations Development

Programme − offers technical

assistance, policy dialogue, advisory

services and advocacy to multiple

stakeholders in the field of

sustainable energy.

“SE4ALL is being implemented in

Africa by governments, development

partners, the private sector, civil

society and academia,” says Froehler.

“The SE4ALL Action Agenda has

been widely adopted as a national

umbrella framework for energy

sector development. To date,

28 countries are developing or

have finalised Action Agendas and

several countries are developing

Investment Prospectuses.

“Our Sustainable Energy for

All Advisory Board recently met

in Brussels under the chairmanship

of Ban Ki-moon and Jim Yong Kim,

and the Board welcomed the new

Sustainable Energy for All Strategic

Framework for Results 2016-21, titled

‘Going Further, Faster’. This strategy

marks a turning point.

“Sustainable Energy for All

will empower leaders to broker

partnerships, unlock finance

to achieve universal access to

sustainable energy, and contribute

to a cleaner and prosperous

world for all.” •

Africa’s vast

renewable energy

resources can

meet most of the

continent’s energy

demands by 2050

MONIKA FROEHLER, Energy

Efficiency Programme and

Communication Officer at SE4ALL

CLEAN ENERGY

PROJECTS

THE AFRICA CLEAN

ENERGY CORRIDOR

Launched in 2014 by the

International Renewable

Energy Agency (IRENA),

and endorsed by the

Eastern and Southern

African Power Pools,

the Africa Clean Energy

Corridor from Egypt to

South Africa aims to

reduce fossil fuel sources

by half by 2030 using

clean, cost-effective

renewable power.

NAIROBI:

PAY-AS-YOU-GO

MOBILE SOLAR

POWER

In the Kenyan capital of

Nairobi the cell phone is

transforming the way that

people consume energy.

After paying a deposit of

around $35, consumers are

given a solar system to

install at their homes. Using

a mobile payment system

they can then top it up

every day with around 45¢

to get energy.

LAKE NGOZI IN MBEYA

In Tanzania, a geothermal

power project at Lake Ngozi

will help the country reach

a total capacity of 200MW

by 2020, and will help to

mitigate regular power

outages and climatechange-induced

droughts.

It is being funded by the

AfDB and, prospectively,

the Icelandic International

Development Agency, the

Nordic Development Fund,

Britain’s Department for

International Development

and the Japan International

Cooperation Agency.

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 109


Aspiration

7

GLOBAL

INFLUENCE

Obama’s

Africa

legacy

As the US President prepares to leave

office, Witney Schneidman explores the

positive effects his contributions have

made to the continent

No American president has entered

office with as deep a connection to

Africa – and as high expectations –

as Barack Obama, given his Kenyan

heritage and personal experiences

on the continent. In key respects,

Obama has met those expectations and made several

transformative investments in Africa during the course

of his administration.

Six months into his administration, in a speech

before Ghana’s parliament, Obama identified governance,

leadership, and strong, accountable institutions as his

top priorities for US policy to Africa.

Significant initiatives

On the issue of leadership, Obama’s Young African

Leaders Initiative (YALI) and the creation of the

Mandela Washington Fellowship for Young African

Leaders programme could become one of the most

significant initiatives created toward Africa by any US

administration. The programme has already engaged

several thousand young Africans through training,

mentoring and skills development in business and

entrepreneurship, public management, and civic

leadership. Over time, through the Fellows programme,

the YALI online network, the four Regional Leadership

Centers, alumni meetings, and partnerships with nearly

40 US universities and many US companies, YALI

US President Barack Obama

during his historic trip to the AU

headquarters in 2015, where he

discussed US-Africa trade relations

and economic opportunities

110 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


GLOBAL INFLUENCE

At the first US-Africa

Leaders Summit, deepening

the US commercial

engagement in Africa also

emerged as a top priority

for the administration

inevitably will have a profound impact for positive and

sustainable change in Africa. By investing in Africa’s

emerging leaders, the president has made a vital

contribution to ongoing efforts to improve governance

and make African institutions more effective.

At the first US-Africa Leaders Summit, deepening

the US commercial engagement in Africa also emerged

as a top priority for the administration. By inviting

representatives from 50 governments to the White

House, Obama signalled a willingness to engage in a new

level of candid dialogue on a broad range of issues,

including trade and investment, with

African leaders.

All of the administration’s key

initiatives, including Feed the Future,

Power Africa, Trade Africa, and YALI

are dependent on the US and African

private sectors for success. The

US-Africa Business Forum, first held

during the summit in 2014 and planned

again for this coming September, has

become a key forum for promoting US

investment in Africa and creating

partnerships with African and

businesses. The 10-year extension of

the African Growth and Opportunity

Act (AGOA) and efforts to negotiate a

trade and investment framework with the East African

Community (EAC) are key initiatives that create

diplomatic and commercial architecture on which the

next US administration will build.

SAUL LOEB/AFP/Getty Images

Trade barriers

At the same time, there are outstanding issues that the

president has not addressed. The Economic Partnership

Agreements (EPAs) between the European Union and

many African governments have become a barrier to

US-African trade and regional integration. In addition,

there needs to be a consultative mechanism to link Africa

to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and Trans-Atlantic

Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). Without such

a link, Africa risks being outside the emerging global

trade framework as the continent focuses on establishing

a continental free trade agreement.

The security agenda remains a work in progress. US

support for counterterrorism efforts across the continent,

has been significant under Obama. The Security

Governance Initiative (SGI), designed to improve security

sector management and capacity in six African countries,

is a welcome start. Nevertheless, the US needs a high-level

security dialogue with African leaders to develop a

comprehensive and coordinated approach to the key

challenges on the continent.

As Obama prepares to leave office, he can do so with

pride and a sense of accomplishment for what he has

established with his friends and partners across Africa. •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 111


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GLOBAL INFLUENCE

Africa is continually making strides to become a true

global player in the world economy, Macky Sall explains

We must act now

Africa needs ‘win-win’

partnerships rather than

aid, which shrinks daily

MACKY SALL,

President of Senegal

and Chairman of the

Steering Committee of

Heads of State and

Government of the

NEPAD

Africa is the future of the world,

all the experts agree. It is on

this continent that the main

growth areas are identified.

Africa is home to some of the

world’s largest reserves. Africa

has the youngest population in the world, and

we have recorded tremendous growth at all

levels of education and training. Democracy has

also made significant advances. African peoples

aspire to prosperity, well-being and freedom.

Africa, an active global player

With these strengths, Africa is now active on

the international scene, more as partner and no

longer as a suffering humanity to rescue. The

continent’s voice is making itself more and

more heard, loud and more significant. Africa is

now an active player and is determined to take

control of its own destiny.

We find ourselves in an

increasingly global world.

The continent is evolving

in a close relationship with

the wider world. Africa,

all together with the

international community,

face the major challenges

that structure the current international

situation. Specifically terrorism, the dramatic

migrants situation, and climate change

particularly endured on our continent. The

international community must have a common

approach to develop solidarity with regard to

these major challenges.

If Africa is the future of the world, if

we want Africa to participate fully in the

prosperity of the world, we should build on the

economic potential of our continent drawing on

the human capital and the actual requirements

of our populations. It is against this background

that we should accelerate the implementation

of our programmes within the framework of

NEPAD. It is also a matter of making decisive

progress in the creation of suitable conditions

so that all our countries achieve, without delay,

access to electricity and power.

Africa’s development, therefore, depends

to a great extent on appropriate responses to

these crucial questions. From this perspective,

Africa needs ‘win-win’ partnerships rather

than aid, which furthermore, shrinks daily.

It is in the interests of the global community

to contribute to financing infrastructure. The

private sector must play the leading role in

this matter by being aware of the benefits of

investing in Africa. In effect, the continent is

a vast space where there is everything to be

done, and where investing poses no greater

risk than anywhere else.

It is within this same context that we should

review the international tax system from which

Africa gains very little, and relax the conditions

for access to credit in the capital markets so

as to allow Africa to mobilise the required

resources for the purpose of financing major

infrastructure projects.

I note with satisfaction that these demands

are being increasingly understood by our

partners. We must act now. •

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 113


Directory

National investment organisations

Official investment and development agencies of African Union member states

People’s Democratic

Republic of Algeria

ANDI, Route Nationale No5

Cinq Maisons Mohammadia

Algiers, Algeria

T: +213 (0)21 52 20 15

E: sg@andi.dz

www.andi.dz/en

Republic of Angola

Agencia Nacional para o

Investimento Privado

T: 001 202 962 0380

E: hcosta@anip-us.org

www.anip-angola-us.org

Republic of Benin

Centre de Promotion des

Investissements du Benin

Cotonou 01 BP 2022

T: (+229) 21 30 30 62

E: cpibenin@yahoo.fr

Benin Chamber of

Commerce and Industry

01 BP 31 Cotonou

(Rep. du Bénin)

T: (229) 21 31 43 86

E: info.ccib@ccibenin.org

www.ccibenin.org

UK office Consulate of Benin

Millennium Business Centre,

Humber Road

NW2 6DW, London, United

Kingdom

T: +44 (0)20 8830 8612

E: beninconsulate@hotmail.

co.uk

www.beninconsulate.co.uk

US office

2124 Kalorama Road, NW

Washington DC, 20008, United

States

T: (202) 232-6656

E: info@beninembassy.us

www.beninembassy.us

Republic of Botswana

Botswana Export Development

and Investment Authority

(BEDIA)

Plot 28 Matsitama Rd,

PO Box 3122

Gaborone, Botswana

T: +267 318 1931

E: bedia@bedia.bw

South Africa office

RSA 88 Stella Street

3rd Floor Building

2 Sandown Me ws

PO Box 781371 Sandton

South Africa

T: +2711 884 8959

E:: mogaral@bedia.co.za

UK office

Montle Phuthego,

6 Stratford Place

London, W1C 1AY,

United Kingdom

T: +44 (0)20 7499 0031

E: montle@bedia.co.uk

India office

No 43 Maker Chamber VI

Nariman Point

Mumbai 400 021,

India

T: +91 2243 602100

E: monangeno@bedia.co.in

www.bedia.co.bw

Burkina Faso

Office National de

Commerce Extérieur

Direction de la Normalisation et

de la Promotion de la Qualité

Immeuble APEX - Burkina

(ex ONAC) 30

Avenue de l’UEMOA

BP: 389, BF-Ouagadougou 01

T: (+226) 50 31 13 00

E: secretariat.onac@gmail.com

www.iso.org

Republic of Burundi

API – Agence Burundaise de

Promotion des

Investissements

3 Salah, Salem Road

Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

T: (+202) 2405 5428

E: info@comesaria.org

www.comesaria.org

Republic of Cameroon

Cellule de Gestion du Code des

Investissements (CGCI)

BP 15304, Douala

Cameroon

T: (+237) 342 5946

E: cgci2000@yahoo.com

Republic of Cape Verde

Palácio das Comunidades

Palace of Communities

Achada Santo António Beach

CP 237 Cape Verde

T: +2607911

E: info.ic@ic.gov.cv

www.ie.ic.cv

Central African Republic

Ministère de l’Economie, du

Plan et de la Coopération

Internationale

Rue Luther King, Bangui Central

African Republic, BP 696

T: +236 21 61 78 11 / +236 75 57

E: info@minplan-rca.org

www.minplan-rca.org

Republic of Chad

Ministère du Commerce

et de l’Artisanat

Palais du Gouvernement

PO Box 4546, N’Djaména, Chad

T: (235) 52 21 99

Division de l’industrie

T: (235) 52 21 79 / (235) 52 27 33

Direction du Commerce

T: (235) 52 30 49

E: chad@wto.refcen.org

www.primature-tchad.org

Union of the Comoros

Comoros National Investment

Promotion Agency

T: +269 77 38 570

E: investcomoros@

comorostelecom.km

www.comesaria.org

Republic of the Congo

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Government of Republic of

Congo

BP 2070 Brazzaville

Democratic Republic of the

Congo

T: 00242 814160 / 00242 814161

/ 00242 814162

Republic of Côte d’Ivoire

Centre de Promotion des

Investissements en Côte

d’Ivoire

5ème étage immeuble CCIA

Boîte Postale, 152 Abidjan

Côte d’Ivoire

T: (225) 20 21 40 70

E: info@cepici.go.ci

www.cepici.gouv.ci

Democratic Republic

of the Congo

Agence Nationale pour la

Promotion des Investissements

Avenue Colonel Ebeya, No 54,

2nd Floor, Immeuble de la

Reconstruction

(ex-Sozabanque), Kinshasa/

Gombe Democratic Republic of

the Congo

T: +243 99 99 25 026

E: anapirdc@anapi.org

www.anapi.org

114 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


Directory

Republic of Djibouti

Invest in Djibouti

Rue de Marseille 1884

Djibouti, Republic of Djibuoti

T: +253 31 21 02

E: anpi@intnet.dj

www.djiboutinvest.dj

Arab Republic of Egypt

General Authority for

Investment in Egypt (GAFI)

T: +202 2405 5452

E: investorcare@gafinet.org

www.gafinet.org

State of Eritrea

Department of Foreign

TradeMinistry of Trade and

Industry

PO Box 1844,

Asmara, Eritrea

T: +291 12-66-94

Federal Democratic

Republic of Ethiopia

Ethiopian Investment Agency

PO Box 2313

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

T: +251 11 5510033

E: ethiopian.invest@

ethioinvest.org

www.ethioinvest.org

Gabonese Republic

Finatra – La Financière

Transafricaine

Bord de Mer, BP 8645, Libreville

Gabonese Republic

T: +241 77 40 82

E: finatra@bgfi.com

www.bgfi.com

Fodex – Fonds De

Développement

Et D’expansion Des Pme-Pmi

Route de l’aéroport, BP 3896

Libreville, Gaboese Republic

T: +241 44 42 30

AU IN NUMBERS

1963

the Organization of

African Unity (OAU)

was established

32

African countries

that had gained

independence joined

2002

the African Union

was created with

53 member states

2011

South Sudan joined the

AU, and there are now

54 member states

OAU

was established in

Addis Ababa,Ethiopia,

where the headquarters

are still today

27th

African Union Summit is

taking place this year in

Kigali, Rwanda

APIP – Agence De Promotion

Des Investissements Privés

Boulevard du bord de Mer, BP

13740 Libreville, Gaboese

Republic

T: +241 76 87 65

gabon.golden-trade.com/cnt/

gt

Republic of the Gambia

The Gambia Investment and

Export Promotion Agency

GIEPA House, 48a Kairaba

Avenue Serrekunda, KMC PO

Box 757

Banjul, The Gambia

T: +220 4377377

E: info@giepa.gm

www.gipfza.gm/

Republic of Ghana

Ghana Investment

Promotion Centre

Public Services Commission

Building Ministries, Accra,

Ghana

T: +233 302 665 125

E: info@gipcghana.com

www.gipcghana.com

Republic of Guinea

Guinea Private Investment

Promotion Office – OPIP

T: +224 41 49 85

Republic of

Guinea-Bissau

Ministry of Economy and

Finance Private Investment

Promotion Office

Rua Justino Lopes

74a Bissau CP 67

T: +245 20 36 70 / +245 25 48 07

Republic of Kenya

Kenya Investment Authority

Kenya Railways Headquarters

Block D, 4th Floor

Workshop Road, PO Box 55704-

00200, City Square,

Nairobi, Kenya

T: +254 (20) 2221 4014

E: info@investmentkenya.com

www.investmentkenya.com

Kingdom of Lesotho

Lesotho National

Development Corporation

LNDC Headquarters, Block A

Development House, Kingsway

Street

Maseru, Lesotho, 100

T: +266 22312012 / +266

52000214

E: info@lndc.org.ls / ce@lndc.

org.ls

www.lndc.org.ls

Republic of Liberia

National Investment

Commission

Airfield, New Road, Chesseman

Avenue, Sinkor, Monrovia,

Liberia

T: +231 77-333-222 / 78-73001

E: info@nic.gov.lr

www.nic.gov.lr

Libya

LIDC, Tripoli Tower, 9th floor

office, no 99, Tripoli, Libya

T: 00 2 1821 335 1034

www.libyaninvestment.com

Republic of Madagascar

Economic Development

Board of Madagascar

Immeuble EDBM,

Avenue Gal Gabriel

Ramanantsoa

Antaninarenina Antananarivo,

Madagascar

T: +261 20 22 670 40 / 681 21

E: edbm@edbm.mg

www.edbm.gov.mg

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 115


Directory

Republic of Malawi

Republic of Niger

Somali Republic

Togolese Republic

Malawi Investment

Promotion Agency

Aquarius House,

1st Floor,

Private Bag 302,

Capital City Lilongwe 3,

Malawi

T: +265 1 770 800 / 771 315

E: mipa@mipamw.org

www.malawi-invest.net

Republic of Mali

Agence pour la Promotion des

Investissements au Mali

Quartier du Fleuve,

BP 1980 Bamako,

République du Mali

T: +223 20 22 95 25

E: contact@apimali.gov.ml

www.apimali.gov.ml/api/en

Republic of Mauritania

www.economie.gov.mr

Republic of Mauritius

Board of Investment

10th Floor, One Cathedral

Square Building,

16 Jules Koenig Street,

Port Louis, Republic of

Mauritius

T: +230 203 3800

E: contact@investmauritius.

com

www.investmauritius.com

Republic of Mozambique

Rua da Imprensa 332 R/C

Maputo, Mozambique

T: +258 21313310

www.mozbusiness.gov.mz

Republic of Namibia

Namibia Investment Centre

Ministry of Trade and Industry

Block B, Brendan Simbwaye

Square, Goethe Street, Private

Bag 13340

Windhoek, Namibia

T: +264 61 283 7335

E: nic@mti.gov.na

www.mti.gov.na

La Commission des Affaires

Étrangères et de la

Coopération

Place de la Concertation

BP 12234, Niamey, Niger

T: (227) 20 72 27 38

E: an@assemblee.ne

www.assemblee.ne

Federal Republic

of Nigeria

Nigerian Investment

Promotion Commission

Plot 1181, Aguiyi Ironsi Street

Maitama District PMB 381

Garki Abuja, Nigeria

T: +234 9 290 4882

E: osicinfodesk@nipc.gov.ng

www.nipc.gov.ng

Republic of Rwanda

Rwanda Development Board

Boulevard de l’Umuganda,

Gishushu, Nyarutarama Road,

PO Box 6239 Kigali, Rwanda

T: info@rdb.rw

F: +250 252 580 388

www.rdb.rw

Republic of Senegal

52-54 Rue Mohamed V,

BP 430 CP 18524,

Dakar RP, Senegal

T: +221 33 849 05 55

E: contact@apix.sn

www.investinsenegal.com

Republic of Seychelles

Seychelles Investment Bureau

Caravelle House, 2nd Floor,

Manglier

Street, PO Box 1167, Victoria,

Mahe

Republic of Seychelles

T: +248 295500 / 295502

E: sib@seychelles.sc

www.investinseychelles.sc

Republic of Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone Investment and

Export Promotion Agency

O.A.U. Drive, Tower Hill

Freetown, Sierra Leone

T: +232 22 220788

E: info@sliepa.org

www.investsierraleone.biz

Somali Business and

Investment Council

Cinwaanka golaha, Djibouti City

PO Box 2693, Republic of

Djibouti

T: +253 35 46 48

E: info@somaliinvestment.com

www.somaliinvestment.com

Republic of South Africa

Department of Trade and

Industry

77 Meintjies Street, Sunnyside

Pretoria, Gauteng 0002, South

Africa

T: +27 (12) 394 9500

E: contactus@thedti.gov.za

www.thedti.gov.za

Republic of the Sudan

Ministry of Investment

Khartoum – West Hilton

T: + 249 787193

E: investment@sudanmail.net

www.sudaninvest.org

Kingdom of Swaziland

Swaziland Investment

Promotions Authority

1st Floor

Nkhotfotjeni Building

Cnr Msakato & Dezeliwe Street

Mbabane, Swaziland

T: +268 2404 0470/2/3/4

www.sipa.org.sz

United Republic of

Tanzania

Tanzania Investment Centre

TIC House

Shabaan Rober Street

PO Box 938, Dar es Salaam

Tanzania

www.tic.co.tz

Zanzibar Investment

Promotion Authority

PO Box 2286, Zanzibar

T: +255 (0)24 223 3026

E: zipa@zanzinet.com

www.zanzibarinvest.org

Sociéte d’Administration des

Zones Franches

2564 Avenue de la Chance

BP 3250, Lome-Togo

T: (+228) 253 53 69

E: n.potcho@zonefranchetogo.

tg

Tunisian Republic

Foreign Investment Promotion

Agency

Rue Slaheddine

El Ammami Centre

Urbain Nord, 1004, Tunis,

Tunisia

T: +216 71 752 540

E: boc.fipa@mdci.gov.tn

www.investintunisia.tn

Republic of Uganda

Uganda Investment Authority

The Investment Centre

Plot 22B Lumumba Avenue

TWED Plaza, PO Box 7418

Kampala, Uganda

T: +256 414 301000

E: info@ugandainvest.go.ug

www.ugandainvest.go.ug

Republic of Zambia

Zambia Development Agency

Privatization House

Nasser Road, PO Box 30819

Lusaka, Zambia

T: +260 211 222 858

E: info@zda.org.zm

www.zda.org.zm

Republic of Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe Investment

Authority

Investment House, 109 Rotten

Row

PO Box 5950, Harare

Zimbabwe

T: +263 4757

E: info@zia.co.zw

www.zia.co.zw

116 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


Index of

advertisers

Broadband for Africa (Eutelsat) 8 & 120

Capital Markets Authority, Kenya 48

Corporate Council on Africa 32 & 119

G7G20.com 112

Gilead Sciences 103

Global Environment Facility 21

Nazounki 16

New Holland 81

Oshen Healthcare 26

PwC2

Randgold Resources 5

Rwanda Energy Group 30

SASOL10

SUMMA 22

UN Women 12

Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit | 117


Events

Events in Africa

MINERAL POLICY AND

CONTRACT NEGOTIATIONS

11 – 22 July 2016

DAKAR, SÉNÉGAL

The overarching objective of the course is

to contribute to the development of a

critical mass of highly skilled middle and

senior policy officials and decision makers

who will be suitably or better equipped to

design and manage mining policy for the

development of their countries,

sub-regions and the continent.

AFRICAN ECONOMIC

CONFERENCE 2016

Date: 5 – 7 December 2016

ABUJA, NIGERIA

The theme of the conference is

“Feeding Africa: Towards

Agro-Allied Industrialization

for Inclusive Growth” and is

jointly organised by the

African Development Bank

(AfDB), the United Nations

Economic Commission for

THE FIFTH ANNUAL HIGH

LEVEL DIALOGUE ON

DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS

AND GOVERNANCE IN AFRICAA

21 – 23 November 2016

YAOUNDÉ, CAMEROON

This event is hosted by the African

Union Commission and will

address the issues of trends that

are taking place across Africa,

challenges facing the continent

and the inevitable prospects Africa

stands to gain with good planning

and hard work

2016 GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT

FINANCE CONFERENCE

23 & 24 November 2016

UMHLANGA, SOUTH AFRICA

The Review of Development

Finance Journal in partnership with

the Chartered Institute of

Development Finance will be

bringing together development

finance practitioners, economic

clusters of government, academics

and researchers.

THE SIXTH TOKYO

INTERNATIONAL

CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN

DEVELOPMENT

27 & 28 August 2016

NAIROBI, KENYA

This is the first time that this

Summit will be held on African

soil, and the African Union

Commission is proud to be a

part of this landmark event. HE

Dr Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma

welcomed the participants of

the ceremony on behalf of the

AU and underlined the

importance of this event to

Africa. She expressed her

appreciation to the Government

of Kenya for accepting to host

the Summit.

118 | Invest in Africa 2016 - The Kigali Summit


AFRICA TRAVEL ASSOCIATION

A DIVISION OF CORPORATE COUNCIL ON AFRICA

41ST ANNUAL

WOrld tourism conGRESS

KIGALI, RWANDA NOVEMBER 14-17, 2016

REGISTER NOW!

WWW.ATACONGRESS.COM

The Africa Travel Association (ATA) is now a division of the Corporate

Council on Africa. ATA, a global leader in the promotion of travel and

tourism to Africa, will convene its 41st Annual Tourism Congress in

Kigali, Rwanda 14-17 November, 2016.

IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THE RWANDA DEVELOPMENT BOARD

TWITTER: AFRICATRAVELATA

FACEBOOK: AFRICATRAVELASSOCIATION

INSTAGRAM: AFRICATRAVELASSOCIATION


Broadband for Africa

Boost social and economic

development in Africa

Our satellites enable telecom operators and

internet service providers to offer reliable

broadband access all over Africa.

Contact us:

BB4Africainfo@eutelsat.com

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bb4africa.html

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