Access Control/Biometric ID familiar with and neither is the traveler, it can call delays. There are lots of technical issues like these that 3M is considering, said Smallridge. “For example, if there’s a chip on the passport and it takes several seconds to open, and the user is used to seeing chips in a supermarket, he or she may need help in order to be processed. Our objective here is to make the systems easier to use, more intuitive, so that we can use them without having to think.” Automated Border Control is also being considered in the E.U. for sea borders. People arriving by ship may be coming off a car and may come to a barrier system where they are processed by password and fingerprint. Or they may have to get out of the vehicle, go into a building, or you drive next to a barrier of some sort. In the case of trains, an officer may have to walk through a with some kind of mobile device processing people as they go through. But often, because the train is going to arrive soon at the next station, and people are going to get off, there are more complications. Alongside all of that, there is the subject of biometrics. Typically, finger prints have been the most accurate and reliable system. They can also benefit law enforcement agencies, when they catch criminals or when they find evidence left behind, since the law enforcement officers do not typically have Iris processing. Finger prints have been the main biometric used for authentication. But that is changing, says Smallridge. “In order to process these people properly and to avoid queues, agencies are looking to use more than one type if biometric, because it takes too long to find the fingerprint. Thus we’re going to have to more than one biometric, because it takes too long to find the fingerprint. Thus many agencies around the world are now talking about ‘face and finger.’ If I select two of them on the way in, I can use anyone of them on the way out. It might be easier to face the people without stopping them.” The need for two means of processing has also created interest in iris usage, when neither face or finger are a good idea, such as where 40 it’s difficult to lean across a vehicle where someone is sitting next to the window, to finger print somebody, or when it is too dark to see their faces It also may be too dark to see their faces. Summing up on the logistical challenges, if you tighten up on the system, how do you avoid lines? If you’re going to the U.S., you don’t want to wait two hours to be processed. That’s why there’s so much effort being put into effect to make things smarter, and that’s why prebooking is getting more uses. When you book American Airlines, for example, they ask you for your passport during the booking process, and the information is supplied to the country of arrival, which will either use it to interview you when you arrive or possibly tell the airport not to board you. “We’re going to see more of these types of systems,” says Smallridge. “When I come to the United States, I get an ESTA, which is a kind of visa. The U.K. is a visa waiver country, where you buy a twelve month visa that costs something like $15. The ESTA determines validity of the entry to the country. In some countries, you have to go to the airport, where you provide ten fingerprints and probably will be asked a few More on page 44
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