Peel

brandonzoras

IPC%20-%20October%2027,%202016

Peel District

• School Board

...........,

AGENDA

Instructional Programs/Curriculum

Committee

Thursday, October 27, 2016

6:00p.m.

Brampton Room


PEEL DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD

Instructional Programs/Curriculum Committee

Agenda

October 27, 2016-6:00 p.m.

October 27, 2016

Open Session

1. Call to Order

Approval of Agenda

2. Declaration of Conflict of Interest

3. Minutes

3.1 Minutes of the Instructional Programs/Curriculum Committee

Meeting held on 2016-09-14

4. Chair's Request for Written Questions from Committee Members

5. Notices of Motion and Petitions

6. Special Section for Receipt

6.1 Celebrating Faith and Culture Backgrounder- November, 2016

7. Delegations

8. Old Business

9. New Business

1 0. Reports from Officials and Staff

1 0.1 EQAO Assessments of Reading, Writing and Mathematics Primary

Division (Grades 1-3) and Junior Division (Grades 4-6); Grade 9

EQAO Assessment of Mathematics; Ontario Secondary School

Literacy Test (OSSL T) Results 2015-2016

10.2 We Rise Together: The Peel District School Board Action Plan to

Support Black Male Students


11. Communications - For Action or Receipt

12. Special Section for Receipt

13. Reports from Representatives on Councils/Associations

14. Questions asked of and by Committee Members

15. Public Question Period

16. Further Business

17. Adjournment


September 14, 2016

Instructional Programs/Curriculum Committee:lf

3.1

PEEL DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD

Minutes of a meeting of the Instructional Programs I Curriculum Committee of the Peel

District School Board, held in the Brampton Room, the H. J. A. Brown Education Centre,

5650 Hurontario Street, Mississauga, Ontario on Wednesday, September 14, 2016 at

18:00 hours.

Members present:

Rick Williams, Chair

Stan Cameron

Kathy McDonald

Suzanne Nurse

Members absent (apologies received):

Robert Crocker (on Board business)

Sue Lawton (on Board business)

Administration:

Poleen Grewal, Superintendent, Curriculum and Instruction Support Services

(Executive Member)

Joy Uniac, Superintendent of Education, Early Years (Executive Backup Member)

Lorelei Fernandes, Board Reporter

1. Approval of Agenda

Chair Williams welcomed everyone back in the new school year. He acknowledged

Harjit Aujla, newly appointed Coordinating Principal for First Nations, Metis and Inuit

(FNMI) and Equity, who was present at the meeting.

IP-32, moved by Stan Cameron, that the agenda be approved.

.. ............ carried

2. Conflict of Interest

There were no declarations of conflict of interest.

3. Minutes of the Instructional Programs I Curriculum Committee Meeting,

May 18,2016

IP-33, moved by Kathy McDonald, that the Minutes of the Instructional Programs I

Curriculum Committee Meeting, held May 18, 2016, be approved.

1

.. ............ carried


September 14, 2016

Instructional Programs/Curriculum Committee:lf

4. Celebrating Faith and Culture Backgrounder- October 2016

IP-34, moved by Suzanne Nurse, that the report re Celebrating Faith and Culture

Backgrounder - October 2016, be received.

. ............. carried

5. EngageMath - Comprehensive Numeracy Strategy: Work Plan for 2016·2017

Superintendent of Curriculum and Instruction Support Services, Poleen Grewal, stated that

the Board's comprehensive numeracy strategy, EngageMath, is in its third year and is

aligned with the Ministry's Renewed Math Strategy. She introduced School Effectiveness

Leads, Soni Gill and David Jack, to present on the work planned to support schools and

student success. The presenters referred to the 2016-2017 comprehensive numeracy

strategy work plan included in the report, and provided information using PowerPoint

slides. Soni Gill stated that the Kindergarten to Grade 12 strategy is based on three

foundational drivers which are, instructional core, instructional strategies, and assessment,

with a renewed focus on support for students with learning disabilities. David Jack

reviewed the professional learning content, based on school effectiveness framework,

which includes deepening of content knowledge, intentional instructional practices,

cross-curricular numeracy, and assessment for learning. The presenters also provided

information on: supports such as instructional coaching and training programs;

professional learning structures for elementary and secondary panels; communication

through messages to the Peel system, meetings and websites; resources published on the

EngageMath website. Stating that the strategy is purposeful and about understanding the

mathematical content, Superintendent Grewal explained that a Differentiated Instruction

approach is being adopted and networks are being organized by Families of Schools to

support learning structures.

Superintendent Grewal responded to trustees' questions of clarification with regard to:

instructional practices and the effectiveness of using games with teaching methods;

possible reasons for low EQAO scores in mathematics; co-relation between EQAO scores

and how Kindergarten students fare in the first test; training for teachers; feedback from

instructional coaches. She suggested reviewing the EQAO test once the results are

released, considering the amount of independent time given to students for problem

solving, assessing gradual release of responsibility, reviewing the organization of

mathematics classes, and introducing 60-minutes of uninterrupted mathematics.

Responding to the query as to whether colleges are increasing training for teachers,

Poleen Grewal advised that the Board is in contact with the Ontario College of Teachers

and is also looking into offering Advanced Qualification (AQ) courses internally, to continue

to build capacity. With regard to parent engagement and the need for parents to portray

mathematics positively to children, Poleen Grewal advised that schools offer Math Night for

parents and students, and invite speakers as part of the outreach for parents.

Superintendent Grewal responded to further questions of clarification with regard to

cross-curricular activities and assessing whether rote learning, such as multiplication

tables, is helpful. She provided clarifying information on the process for arriving at

solutions to mathematics problems and the importance of understanding concepts. She

indicated that Board staff work closely with the Ministry on concerns and will continue to

provide feedback on EQAO and evaluation.

2


September 14, 2016

Instructional Programs/Curriculum Committee:lf

5. EngageMath- Comprehensive Numeracy Strategy: Work Plan for 2016-2017

(Continued)

IP-35, moved by Kathy McDonald, that the report reEngage Math- Comprehensive

Numeracy Strategy: Work Plan for 2016-2017, be received.

.. ............ carried

6. Early Literacy Plan 2016-2019

Superintendent Grewal welcomed Joy Uniac, who has been recently appointed as

Superintendent of Education for Early Years, and will also be the Executive Backup

Member for the Instructional Programs and Curriculum Committee Meeting. Joy Uniac

spoke on key areas of focus of the Early Literacy Plan 2016-2019. She advised that the

Early Literacy Plan is in the initial stages of development and will integrate numeracy and

literacy. She provided an overview of the Early Literacy Strategy which will focus on:

instructional core, in which Kindergarten to Grade 2 educators will engage in learning

experiences that integrate the understanding and creation of texts; instructional strategies,

such as a gradual release of responsibility; assessment, using a combination of

observations, conversations and/or representations including diagnostic testing as part of

assessment for learning tools. Superintendent Uniac reviewed the content, structures,

supports and communication of the Early Literacy Plan as outlined In the report. She

commented that the plan will include involvement of special education, early years, and

instructional coaches.

Trustees' questions of clarification were responded to regarding: relationship of literacy

levels to EQAO scores and related concerns; whether there is an expectation for

Kindergarten children to use printing devices and their capacity to use digital tools; if nap

times are dictated by the curriculum, or based on practicality.

IP-36, moved by Stan Cameron, that the report re Early Literacy Plan 2016-2019, be

received.

.. ............ carried

7. Question Period

Trustee Cameron recalled that, at the Physical Planning and Building Committee meeting

last week, he had raised the topic of having a balanced calendar school for the community

in the South Fields Village area in Caledon. Responding to the trustee's query about

proposals for balanced calendar schools, Superintendent Grewal advised that reports for

balanced calendar schools have been brought to Instructional Programs/Curriculum

Committee in the past. She provided history and background information on

Roberta Bondar Public School and Ray Lawson Public School which have balanced

calendars.

3


September 14, 2016

Instructional Programs/Curriculum Committee:lf

7. Question Period (Continued)

Poleen Grewal outlined the considerations for balanced calendar schools as: communities

with a high social risk index, where regularity of school helps year-round student

engagement; a high population of English Language Learners; a new community, as it is

difficult to shift an existing school community from the regular school calendar to

year-round calendar; ease of transition to schools in the area. Indicating that some of the

considerations mentioned apply to the South Fields Village area, Trustee Cameron

expressed his interest for a balanced calendar school in Caledon and his hope for Board

support. The trustee suggested that Planning department consider the possibility of a

balanced calendar school in Caledon, along with provision for air-conditioning.

Trustee Nurse commented that teachers are appreciative of the balanced calendar school

schedule for various reasons, including travel plans. She noted that from an equity

standpoint, existing schools should also have the opportunity to move to a balanced

calendar model, if desired, and Trustee Williams commented on an analysis done which

indicated significant additional costs involved.

Trustee McDonald inquired whether a parent can choose to send a Kindergarten child to

school for half day. Superintendent Uniac replied in the affirmative, but explained that the

student will not have the same school experience as other students in the class.

Superintendent Grewal added that the school works closely with the parent on setting

modified timings to accommodate the child and have minimal impact on the classroom.

Trustee Cameron commented that according to the Education Act, children must attend

school at age six.

8. Public Question Period

There were no public questions.

9. Adjournment

IP-37, moved by Suzanne Nurse, that the meeting adjourn (19:25 hours).

carried

Chair ..................................................... Secretary

4


PEEL DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD 6.1

Instructional Programs/Curriculum Committee October 27, 2016

Celebrating Faith and Culture Backgrounder -

November, 2016

Recommendation

It is recommended that this report be received.

Background

The Peel District School Board is a mosaic of many cultures and faiths from all over

the world. Recognizing that faith is a part of the lives of many of our students, the

Board committed to provide resources to help schools increase their connections to

communities and better acknowledge faith and culture events of students and staff.

The Celebrating Faith and Culture Backgrounder, November 2016 continues the

monthly publication highlighting faith and culture days to celebrate and remember.

Prepared by: Varsha Naik, Community Uaison Coordinator

Submitted by:

Brian Woodland, Director of Communications & Community Relations Support Services

Poteen Grewal, Superintendent of Curriculum & Instruction Support Services

5


6


Celebrating Faith and Culture Backgrounder

November 2016

The Peel District School Board is a mosaic of many cultures and faiths from all over the

world. To commemorate this diversity, the board recognizes special faith and culture

days of our communities. November 2016 has several special faith and culture days to

celebrate and remember:

November- Gwilatkw and Freezing Moon in Aboriginal Spirituality

This season is celebrated by Nisga•a people of the Nass Valley in northwest British

Columbia. It is a time when the earth is blanketed with the first snow and also prepares

itself to be covered for the long winter months.

The eleventh moon is known as the Freezing moon by the Ojibwe people. This period is

a reminder for the people to devote themselves to spiritual paths through sacred

learnings and teachings.

November 1 - Birth of the Bab in Baha•i

Baha•rs around the world celebrate the Birth of the Bab, on this day. It is one of 11 holy

days in the Baha•r calendar where adherents suspend work. They often refer to the Bab

as the herald of the Baha•r faith, because they believe it was his mission to prepare the

way for Baha'u'llah, the founder of the Baha•r faith. The Bab called upon the people to

purify themselves for the coming of the day of God.

Baha•rs celebrate the birth of the Bab in various simple but joyous ways. In most

communities, celebrations are held. After beginning with prayers and devotional

readings, these celebrations can take any number of forms. Most often they are simply

social gatherings.

November 1 -All Saints• Day in Christianity

All Saints• Day began as the Feast of All Martyrs on May 13, 609 A.D. All Saints• Day is a

universal Christian feast that honours and remembers all Christian saints known and

unknown. It is celebrated on Nov. 1 in the West. In medieval England, the festival was

known as All Hallows, hence the name Halloween (All Hallows• eve) for the preceding

evening- October 31. How churches observe the Feast of All Saints differs widely.

7


November 1 - Samhain in Wicca

Samhain (pronounced saw-an) 1 commonly referred to as Halloween 1 is a religious

holiday celebrated by the followers of the Wicca faith and celebrates the Celtic New

Year. The festival traditionally includes gathering of families in love and remembrance 1

including ancestors for a festive meal.

November 2- Birth of Baha'u'lliih in Baha•r

The followers of Baha'i faith commemorate the Birth of Baha 1 U 1 IIah 1 the founder of the

Baha•i faith.

Baha 1 U 1 11ah was born in Teheran in August 1817 into a noble family. He declined the

ministerial career of his father that was open to him in government and chose instead to

devote his energies to a range of philanthropies which hadl by the early 1840s 1 earned

him a reputation as "Father of the Poor. 11 Baha 1 u%3h founded the faith in 1852 from the

roots of many world faiths.

There are no set practices or services to commemorate the various holy days of the

Baha•i faith. Different communities may organize devotional days of prayers and

readings appropriate to the event.

November 3 to November 21- The month of Qudrat in Baha•r

In the Baha'i calendar 1 there are 19 months of 19 days each. Each month represents an

attribute of God. November 3 is the beginning of Qudrat 1 the thirteenth month of the

Baha'i calendar~ signifying .. power ...

The Baha'i day starts and ends at sunset. The first day of each month is known as a

Feast Day.

November 5- Gnan Panchami in Jainism

Gnan Panchami is the celebration that takes place on the 5th day of the first month of

the Jain year. On this day 1 the scriptures~ which impart knowledge to the people 1 are

worshipped with religious devotion. Svadhyaya (group discourses and prayers) 1

meditation~ and Pratikraman (asking forgiveness) are carried out.

8


November 11- Remembrance Day in Canada

Canada honours the memory of men and women who have served our country in times

of war, conflict and recent peace duties on this day. It remembers those lost during

World War 1, World War 2, the Korean War and other recent conflicts by observing a

moment of silence at the 11th hour. Poppies are distributed Red ones as flowers of

remembrance and White ones for peace.

November 14- Dev Diwali or Lokashah Jayantl in Hinduism and Jainism

Dev Diwali is celebrated on the full moon day in the month of Kartik (first month in

Hindu/Jain calendar). Tulsl Vivah (marriage ofTulsi- Mahalaxmi incarnate with Lord

Shaligram- Vishnu incarnate) is celebrated on this festival. Followers of the two faiths,

resolve on this day, to give up negative traits like ego, anger, greed, etc. in pursuit of

spirituality. On this day, Jains remember their spiritual leaders and also commemorate

the liberation of Tirthankara Mahavir by lighting lamps and reading the scriptures.

November 14- Birth of Guru Nanak in Sikhism

This day, one of the biggest celebrations in the Sikh faith, honours the birthday of Guru

Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion. To celebrate, followers of Sikhism read the Sikh

holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib, continuously from beginning to end. This is done by a

team of men and women, each reading for two to three hours over 48 hours, ending

early on the morning of Guru Nanak's birthday.

The gurudwaras are decorated with flowers, flags and posters depicting various aspects

of Sikhism. Sikhs join together to sing, pray, offer and eat special foods like karah

prashad, a sweet made from semolina, sugar and ghee (clarified butter).

November 16- Louis Riel Day in Aboriginal Spirituality

This day is celebrated in memory of Louis Riel, the Metis leader who helped his people

form a government and become part of the newly created Dominion of Canada in 1870,

and preserve Metis rights and culture. Today his name is a symbol of native

independence.

9


November 22 to December 10- The month of Qawl in Baha'i

In the Baha'I calendar, there are 19 months of 19 days each. Each month represents an

attribute of God. November 22 is the beginning of Qawl, the fourteenth month of the

Baha'I calendar, signifying 11 Speech. 11

The Baha'I day starts and ends at sunset. The first day of each month is known as a Feast

Day.

November 24- Martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur in Sikhism

This day pays homage to the martyr, Guru Teg Bahadur, the ninth guru, who willingly

sacrificed himself for the right to practice the Sikh faith.

To celebrate this day, followers visit gurudwaras (Sikh places of worship) and observe

the martyrdom of this guru with prayers, processions and kirtans (religious songs).

Langar or community lunch is served, and is open to people from all walks of life and all

faiths. Volunteers serve food with a spirit of seva (service) and bhakti (devotion).

November 25 - Day of Covenant in Baha'i

On this day, Baha'fs commemorate the establishment of the covenant that their

founder, Baha'u'llah, made with his followers in order to prevent division of the faith

into sects and denominations. He designated his son, 'Abdu'I-Baha, as the .. center of the

covenant 11 and Shoghi Effendi, as 11 the guardian .. of the faith.

November 27- Ascension of 'Abdu'I-Baha in Baha'i

On this day Baha'I followers commemorate the passing of Abdui'Baha, son of the

Prophet-Founder of the Baha'f Faith. He died in Haifa, Palestine in 1921.

November 27 or 28 (J) -First day of Advent (Christmas fast) in Christianity

Christmas or winter fast is the Lenten Season observed from Nov. 27 up to Dec. 24. The

followers of the Gregorian calendar begin their fast from Nov. 27. It is a period of

fasting, praying and reflecting- in preparation and anticipation of the coming of Christ

and Christmas. The followers of the revised Julian calendar begin their fast from Nov.

28th and observe it over a 40 day period.

10


November 27- First Sunday of Advent in Christianity

The Western Christian church year begins with Advent which is also a time when

Christians prepare to celebrate the birth of Christ. Advent begins on the Sunday closest

to November 30 and lasts until Christmas Eve.

Many churches include an advent wreath in their Advent services. The wreath consists

of four candles (three purple and one rose) arranged in a circle of evergreen which

symbolizes eternal life. The candles are lit progressively as follows:

• First Sunday: one purple candle

• Second Sunday: two purple candles

• Third Sunday: two purple candles and the rose candle

• Fourth Sunday: all four candles

The rose candle is also called the "Joy" candle and it comes out of the history of Advent.

The Advent fast was broken on the third Sunday in anticipation of the great event to

come. Often a fifth white candle is placed in the center of the circle. This is the Christ

Candle, symbolizing Christ•s birth, and it is lit on Christmas Eve or Christmas Day.

Ideas for celebrating special faith and cultural days in your school

If you have a colleague who celebrates one of these days, don•t forget to offer them

best wishes I If you have students in your school who are followers of any of the listed

religions:

- Make sure the dates are included on your school calendar

- Have your principal announce the day over the PA system

- Hold an assembly to talk with students about the importance of these days

-Include a mention of these days in your school newsletter

-Include information on your school website

- Display student artwork announcing these days or depicting their ideas about these

days

-Invite a member of a local faith group to come in and discuss the significance of this

day with students

-Have class discussions about these days

-Ask some of your students who celebrate certain holidays to write a short essay on

how they celebrate this day at home. Have them read it to the class to share this

celebration with the other students.

- Have parents offer a cultural session

11


Questions?

If you would like any more information on how to celebrate these days, please call

Varsha Naik, Community Liaison Coordinator at 905-890-1010, ext. 2573 or e-mail her

varsha.naik@peelsb.com

12


PEEL DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD 10.1

Instructional Programs/Curriculum Committee October 27, 2016

EQAO Assessments of Reading, Writing, and Mathematics

Primary Division (Grades 1-3) and Junior Division (Grades 4-6);

Grade 9 EQAO Assessment of Mathematics;

Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSL T) Results

2015-2016

Recommendation

It is recommended that this report be received.

Background

The first report contains an overview of the 2015-2016 EQAO provincial assessments in

reading, writing, and mathematics for grades 3 and 6.

The second report contains an overview of the 2015-2016 EQAO provincial assessment

in mathematics for grade 9 students in academic and applied programs.

The third report contains an overview of the 2015-2016 Grade 10 EQAO Ontario

Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSL T).

These reports contain an overview of the Peel District School Board and Provincial

results and results for gender, English language learners, and students with special

education needs (excluding identified gifted). Highlights of the student questionnaire

results are also presented. Two and five year trends are presented in these reports.

Copies of the full Provincial Reports for all EQAO assessments can be downloaded

from EQAO's website, which is located at www.eqao.com.

Prepared by: Angela Mash ford-Pringle, Chief of Research & Accountability

Rosanne Brown, Research Officer

Submitted by: Poleen Grewal, Superintendent of Curriculum and Instruction Support Services

13


14


Peel School District

Board

~

Research & Accountability

Curriculum and Instruction Support Services

EQAO Assessments of Reading, Writing, and Mathematics:

Primary Division (Grades 1-3) and Junior Division (Grades 4-6)

2015-2016

Overview of Results

September 2016

15


Poleen Grewal, M. Ed.

Superintendent

Curriculum and Instruction Support Services

Research and Accountabilitl) Department

Kim Bennett, M.Sc.

Research Officer

Rosanne Brown, Ed.D.

Research Officer

Elana Gray, M.Sc.

Research Officer

Pat Hare

Administrative Assistant

Angela Mashford-Pringle, Ph.D.

Chief Research Officer

Aimee Wolanski, Ed. D.

Research Officer

© Peel District School Board

Suggested Citation: Peel District School Board. (2016, September). EQAO assessments of reading,

writing, and mathematics: Priman; division (grades 1-3) and junior division (grades 4-6) 2015-2016:

Overview of results. Mississauga, ON: Author.

16


TABLE OF CONTENTS

EQAO Assessments of Reading, Writing, and Mathematics: 2015-2016

Primary Division (Grades 1-3) and Junior Division (Grades 4-6)

@ Introduction ...................................................................................................... ......................................... 2

G) Contextual Information ........................................................................................................................... 5

@ Overall Achievement for the PDSB- Detailed Results ....................................................................... 6

@ Primary and Junior Divisions-Trends over Time .............................................................................. 8

@ Primary and Junior Divisions- Gender-Trends over Time .......................................................... 10

G) English Language Learners (ELLs)-Trends over Time ................................................................... 12

@ Students with Special Education Needs (excluding identified gifted)- Trends over Time ....... 14

@ Primary Division- French Immersion (FI) Students -Trends over Time ..................................... 16

(!) Grade 3 and Grade 6 Student Questionnaire Results by Gender .................................................... 17

17


EQAO Assessments of Reading, Writing, and Mathematics

2015-2016

How did the Peel District School Board's results

compare to the province?

Primary Division

Junior Division

73%

72%

• peel ~~rBoard

........

Province

81%

81%

1%

higher

76%

82%

74%

80%

.

I

some J

Percentage of students at or above the provincial standard

18


• Introduction

This report contains an overview of the 2015-2016 Education Quality and Accountability Office

(EQAO) provincial assessments in reading, writing, and mathematics for the primary and junior

divisions for the Peel District School Board and the province. It brings together the information

regarding what EQAO has learned over the past year about student learning in Ontario. Copies of the

full Provincial Report can be downloaded from EQAO's website, which is located at

http://www.eqao.com.

About

Education Quality and

Accountability Office

EWAO

~ -~

EQAO is an independent, arm's length agency of the provincial government that provides

parents/guardians, teachers, and the public with reliable and valid information about student

achievement. EQAO reports provide information for improvement, which educators,

parent/guardians, policy makers, and others in the education community can use to improve learning

and teaching.

EQAO develops and implements provincial assessment programs for primary, junior and secondary

school students in Ontario. EQAO assesses all students in Grade 3 and Grade 6 in reading, writing

and mathematics. EQAO also administers two secondary school assessments: Grade 9 Assessment of

Mathematics and the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT).

Key Benefits of EQAO Assessments*

EQAO assessments provide data, information, and insights on student achievement for individual

students and multiple system levels.

Students know more about how well they are doing in reading, writing and/or mathematics and what

they need to do in order to improve.

Teachers and principals have more feedback on how well students are meeting the expectations in the

provincial curriculum and how effectively teaching strategies and school programs are meeting

students' needs.

Parents/Guardians are more familiar with the expectations in the provincial curriculum and better

informed about their children's achievement and progress.

Ontarians have accurate and objective information about student achievement and education quality

in the publicly funded education system.

•Excerpt from: http://wwru.eqno.comlmlnbout_eqnolnbout_the_ngency!Pnges/Genern/Questions.nspx_Lnng-E.nspx

EQAO Assessments of Rending, Writing, nnd Mnthemntics- Primary nnd Junior Divisions 2015-2016

Research & Accountability, Curriculum nnd Instruction Support Services

2

September 2016

19


About the Primary and Junior Division Assessments

The primary and junior assessments measure how well students have met the provincial expectations

in The Ontario Curriculum in reading, writing, and mathematics at the end of the primary division (up

to the end of Grade 3) and the junior division (up to the end of Grade 6).

EQAO assessments are "large-scale" assessments which measure student achievement across the

province at critical times in students' school careers. These summative assessments present a

snapshot of student learning and achievement by having students demonstrate their knowledge and

skills independently on standardized tasks and under standardized conditions. Students demonstrate

their knowledge and skills by answering two different types of questions: multiple-choice and openresponse.

Please note that due to teacher job action, the Primary and Junior EQAO Assessments were not

written in the 2014-2015 school year.

In the reading assessment, students read a variety of fiction and non-fiction

materials, including narrative texts, non-narrative informational texts, graphic

texts, and poems. Students demonstrate their understanding of explicit (directly

stated) and implicit (implied ideas) meanings of the texts. They show how they

can extend their understanding of the text to their personal knowledge and experience.

In the writing assessment, students develop, support, and organize their

ideas in long writing formats (e.g., stories or letters) and short writing formats

(e.g., descriptions, paragraphs, procedural directions, advertisements). They

demonstrate their ability to use proper language conventions and communicate

effectively in their writing.

In the mathematics assessment, students were asked to apply concepts and

procedures, use a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems, and

communicate their mathematical thinking ("Show Your Work", "Justify Your Thinking"). The

mathematics assessment is based on the knowledge and skills in the five mathematics strands:

Number Sense and Numeration, Geometry and Spatial Sense, Measurement, Patterning and Algebra,

and Data Management and Probability.

Questionnaires

EQAO conducts student, teacher and principal questionnaires to collect contextual data, information

about attitudes and behaviours regarding literacy and mathematics, and instructional practices.

EQAO Assessmeuts of Rending, Writing, nnrl Mathematics- Primary nnrl Junior Divisions 2015-2016

Research & Accountability, Curriculum nnd Instruction Support Services

3

September 2016

20


EQAO Scoring and Reporting

Written responses are carefully and systematically scored by specially trained educators using rubrics

specific to each open-response item. The scoring was rigorously monitored to ensure that it was

objective, consistent, and reliable. Multiple-choice items were machine scored.

(See EQAO: Ontario's Provincial Assessment Program, Its History and Influence, page 15)

http:!lwww.eqno.comlenlnbout_eqnolnbout_the_ngencylcommullicntioll-docs/EQAO-historyillflttence.pdf#senrch>=Writtello/o20respo11seso/o20nreo/o20cnrefullyo/o20nndo/o2Dsystemnticnllyo/o2Dscored

EQAO reports student achievement in reading, writing, and mathematics using a four-level scale.

EQAO has aligned its four levels of achievement to those of the Ontario Provincial Report Card, Grades

1-8.

Levels of Achievement

Level 4

Level 3

Level 2

Levell

NEl

No Data

Exempt

The student has demonstrated the required knowledge and skills.

Achievement surpasses the provincial standard.

The student has demonstrated most of the required knowledge and skills.

Achievement is at the provincial standard.

The student has demonstrated some of the required knowledge and skills.

Achievement approaches the provincial standard.

The student has demonstrated some of the required knowledge and skills in limited ways.

Achievement falls much below the provincial standard.

Not Enough Evidence for Levell is used when students did not demonstrate enough evidence

of knowledge and understanding to be assigned Levell.

Students who did not have a result due to absence or other reasons.

Students who were formally exempted from participation in one or more components of the

assessment.

Achievement results in this report are expressed as the number of students achieving at each level as a

percentage of ALL students in the grade. This includes students who were exempted, for whom there

were no data, and students who did not have enough evidence for Levell (NEl).

EQAO results are reported for:

the province,

school boards,

schools,

and individual students.

EQAO Assessme11ts of Rending, Writi11g, n11d Mathematics- Primary n11d Ju11ior Divisious 2015-2016

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September 2016

21


G Contextual Information

Enrolment

PDSB

Grade6

All students 1 ~ 637 11 438

Province

Grade3 Grade 6

125 484 123 685

Participation in the Assessment

(•excludes "no dolo" and "exempt"}

Number of schools ~~~ 97

Participating students* ~ ~ 31 ~ 11 189

Exempted in all3 subjects 2% 1%

No data (nbsenl or otlrer rensons) 1% 1%

Received one or more accommodations

(students witll nn IEP and ELLq)

22% 17%

3152

115 222

2%

1%

18%

2 982

120 456

2%

1%

18%

Gender

Female 49% 48%

49%

48%

Male 51% 52%

51%

52%

Student Status

English language learners 55% 40%

13%

10%

Students with special education needs

(excluding identified gifted)

10% 18%

17%

21%

Place of Birth

Born in Canada 811 % 77%

90%

88%

Born outside of Canada 1~~ 23%

9%

12%

In Canada less than one year 3% 2%

1%

1%

In Canada one year or more but less than three years 3% 3%

In Canada three years or more 13% 18%

Language

First language learned at home was other than English 52% 54%

2%

6%

22%

2%

9%

22%

EQAO Assessmeuts of Rearliug, Writing, aurl Mathematics- Primary and Junior Divisions 2015-2016

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Primary

Division

DETAILED RESULTS

Percentage of All Students at All Levels

• peel District

-...;.,~'

School Board

Province

At or Above

Provincial Standard

m

c

ca

·- "a

G

a=

58% 56%

2% 3%

1% 1%


.. Junior DETAILED RESULTS

'I' Division Percentage of All Students at All LevC'Is

-

•peel =rBoan~

Province

At or Above

Provincial Standard

68% 68%

2% 2% 1% 1%


~ Primary TRENDS OVER TlivlE

.W Division l'l·I LL'Ilt,lgc· ' ' ' •\II


~ Junior TRENDS OVER TllVlE

~ Division l't'r< l ' llL1~',l'


74%

75%

77% Females

0 Reading


For provincial gender results,

see the EQAO report.

62%

70% Males

i Reading results for both

females and males increased

over the past five years.

Males performed at lower

levels compared to females.

The gender gap has been

decreasing over time.

GENDER.GA'P

Females - Males

2011 -2012 2012-2013

GENDER.GA'P

Females -Males

83% 83% 84%

t,)



Junior GENDER- TRENDS OVER TIME ~

Division 1\·Ju'Jlt.l•'l' ot ;\II ''ludl'nh ;\t u1 •\bl'' L' tlw I'll'' .nci.1l


0 6~~r::~ E~~~~'~l~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~)'~~)~.~~~,~,~~,,~~l~:.~~d~r~RENDS OVER TIME

,,

Reading 73%

53%

w

67%

~

70%

w

w

•peel

-

Province 55% 61% 65%

N/A

68%

2011-2012 2012-2013

PDSB

...........

Reading results

have been

increasing over

time, with the

greatest jump in

2012-2013. Five

years ago reading

was below the

province and in the

past four years rose

above the province.

Writing

•peel

-

..

70% ~ w \\i

79% 79%

77%

Writing results

increased from

2011-2012 to 2013-

2014. Over the past

two years, results

decreased.

Province 70% 74% 75% N/A 72%

2011-2012 2012-2013 201

Mathematics

•peel

.....,

59%

68% 69%

"'

~ 62%

w

Mathematics results

increased from

2011-2012 to 2013-

2014. Over the past

two years, results

decreased.

Province 61% 64% 64%

N/A

60%

2011-2012 2012-2013 201

EQAO Assessments of Rending, Writing, nnd Mathematics- Primary nnd Junior Divisions 2015-2016

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12

September 2016



ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELLs)- TRENDS OVER TIME

Junior

Division 1\ · l, .l'l lt.J ,' ~'' nl ,\ II 'itudvnh t\t lll i\b


e

Primary

Division

Students with Special Education Needs·- TRENDS OVER TIME

1\ 'JLl'lll.H'l' ,, ot !\II Slticll'lll' •\t llJ' ·\bu\t ' till' I'Jtl\ illLJ.li'lt,lJlci;-JJci

•excludiug ideutified gifted

Reading

•peel

.,

-

31%

24%

w

If

35% 35%

"

Province 31% 36% 40% N/A 43%

2011-2012 2012-2013

Reading results in

the PDSB and the

Province have

increased over time.

Over the past two

years, the results

have remained the

same .

Over the past five

years, the PDSB has

been below the

orovince.

Writing

-

43%

37% 39%

38%

•peel

w

fi

ti fi

Province

52% 53% 57% N/A 53%

Writing results in

thePDSB

increased from

2011-2012 to

2013-2014. Over

the past two

years, the results

have decreased.

Over the past five

years, the PDSB

has been below

the province.

2011-2012 2012-2013

Mathematics

•peel

-

25%

21% 22%

19%

~ w w

fi

Province 34% 34% 33% N/A 29%

2011 -20 12 2012-2013 201

I

~

Mathematics results

in the PDSB increased

from 2011-2012 to

2013-2014. Over the

past two years, the

results have

decreased.

Over the past five

years, the PDSB has

been below the

province.

EQAO Assessnreuts of Readiug, Writiug, aud Mathematics - Primary ami fuuior Divisious 2015-2016

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14

September 2016


A Junior Students with Special Education Needs·- TRENDS OVER TIME

W' Division

l'l·tn•nl,lgl' 111 ;\II ~tudL·nh -\t I ll ·\bu\'l' !Ill' l'1 (l\ 1nci.11 ~l.llld


A Primary French Immersion (FI) Students -TRENDS OVER TIME

W Division 1\•i,-l'nl,l)c~l' Dl ;\II ~;ludl'llh •\l t>l ;\bn\'(' tlw l'lt>\'lllli.ll ~l.llld.11d

Reading

-

•peel

83%




78%


85%

86%

PDSB

PNvlitce

Reading results in

the PDSB have

increased over

time.

In the province,

reading results

have remained

fairly constant.

Province 78% 78% 81%

N/A

81%

2011-2012 2012-2013 201

Writing

-

•peel

Province

88%

89%

• •

85%

• •

82%

83% 83% 83% N/A 80%

2011-2012 2012-2013 201

Writing results

in thePDSB

increased from

2011-2012 to

2013-2014. Over

the past two

years, the results

have decreased.

Over the past

four years, PDSB

results have

been above the

Province.

Mathematics

•peel

-

77% 78%


76%


75%

I


Mathematics

results in the PDSB

and the province

decreased over the

past two years.

Province 78% 74% 75% N/A 72%

2011-2012 2012·2013

EQAO Assessments of Rending, Writing, nnrl Mathematics- Primary nnrl Junior Divisions 2015-2016

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0 Grade 3 and Grade 6 Student Questionnaire Results' by Gender

Percentage of students who answered "most of the time" Grade 3 Studenb Grade 6 Students

Females Males Females Males

54% 42% 53% 37%

64% 62% 70% 64%

60% 46% 55% 33%

55% 42% 49% 37%

58% 70% 45% 63%

f ,t.f~

g '-.t :-

4

48% 65% 45% 62%

p 01renta~

we tall< about the reading and

writing wort< I do in school.

39% 32% 27% 24%

We tall< about the mathematics

wort< I do In school. 45% 39% 42% 39%

we read together.

31% 26% 6% 8%

*For nil PDSB nnd provincial survey

results, see the EQAO report.

EQAO Assessments of Rending, Writing, nnd Mathematics- Primary nnd Junior Divisions 2015-2016

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34


35


36


Peel School District

Board

...........,

Grade 9 EQAO Assessment of Mathematics

2015-2016

Overview of Results

September 2016

37


Poleen Grewal, M. Ed.

Superintendent

Curriculum and Instruction Support Services

Research & Accountability Department

Kim Bennett, M.Sc.

Research Officer

Rosanne Brown, Ed.D.

Research Officer

Elana Gray, M.Sc.

Research Officer

Pat Hare

Administrative Assistant

Angela Mashford-Pringle, Ph.D.

Chief Research Officer

Aimee Wolanski, Ed.D.

Research Officer

© Peel District School Board

Suggested Citation: Peel District School Board. (2016, September). Grade 9 EQAO assessment of

mathematics 2015-2016: Overview of results. Mississauga, ON: Author.

38


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Grade 9 EQAO Assessment of Mathematics: 2015-2016

0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... l

0 Contextual Information .................................................................................................................................. 4

@ Academic and Applied Mathematics- Detailed Results .......................................................................... 5

@ Academic and Applied Mathematics- Trends over Time ........................................................................ 6

@ Academic and Applied Mathematics- Gender- Trends over Time ....................................................... 7

0 English Language Learners (ELLs)- Trends over Time ............................................................................ 8

@ Students with Special Education Needs (excluding identified gifted)- Trends over Time ................ 9

@ Grade 9 Student Questionnaire Results by Gender .................................................................................. 10

Tables

Table 1: Contextual Information ........................................................................................................................... 4

Table 2: PDSB Grade 9 Student Questionnaire Results by Gender ............................................................... 10

Figures

Figure 1: Summary of Results ............................................................................................................................... 3

Figure 2: Academic Mathematics Assessment- Detailed Results ................................................................... S

Figure 3: Applied Mathematics Assessment- Detailed Results ...................................................................... S

Figure 4: Academic Mathematics Assessment- All Students-Trends over Time ...................................... 6

Figure 5: Applied Mathematics Assessment- All Students-Trends over Time ......................................... 6

Figure 6: Academic Mathematics by Gender- Trends over Time .................................................................. 7

Figure 7: Applied Mathematics by Gender-Trends over Time ..................................................................... 7

Figure 8: ELLs' Academic Mathematics-Trends over Time ........................................................................... 8

Figure 9: ELLs' Applied Mathematics- Trends over Time .............................................................................. 8

Figure 10: Students with Special Education Needs (excluding identified gifted)

Academic Mathematics-Trends over Time .................................................................................... 9

Figure 11: Students with Special Education Needs (excluding identified gifted)

Applied Mathematics -Trends over Time ....................................................................................... 9

39


• Introduction

This report contains an overview of the 2015-2016 Education Quality and Accountability Office

(EQAO) provincial assessment in mathematics for Grade 9 for the Peel District School Board and the

Province. Copies of the full Provincial Report can be downloaded from EQAO' s website, which is

located at: http://www.eqao.com.

About

Education Quality and

Accountability Office

EW AO

Ito: -~

EQAO is an independent, arm's length agency of the provincial government that provides

parents/guardians, teachers, and the public with reliable and valid information about student

achievement. EQAO reports provide information for improvement, which educators,

parent/guardians, policy makers, and others in the education community can use to improve learning

and teaching.

EQAO develops and implements provincial assessment programs for primary, junior and secondary

school students in Ontario. EQAO assesses all students in Grade 3 and Grade 6 in reading, writing

and mathematics. EQAO also administers two secondary school assessments: Grade 9 Assessment of

Mathematics and the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT).

Key Benefits of EQAO Assessments

EQAO assessments provide data, information, and insights on student achievement for individual

students and multiple system levels.

Students know more about how well they are doing in reading, writing and/or mathematics and

what they need to do in order to improve.

Teachers and principals have more feedback on how well students are meeting the expectations in

the provincial curriculum and how effectively teaching strategies and school programs are meeting

students' needs.

Parents/Guardians are more familiar with the expectations in the provincial curriculum and better

informed about their children's achievement and progress.

Ontarians have accurate and objective information about student achievement and education quality

in the publicly funded education system.

EQAO Grade 9 Assessment of Mathematics, 2015-2016

Research & Accountability, Curriculum and Instruction Support Services September 2016

40


About the Grade 9 Assessment

The Grade 9 mathematics assessment measures how well shtdents have met the provincial

expectations in The Ontario Curriculum. The assessment covers knowledge and skills in

mathematics that shtdents are expected to have acquired by the end of the school semester in

both academic and applied programs. Specifically, the assessment is based on the four

curriculum strands of mathematics: Number Sense and Algebra, Linear Relations, Analytic

Geometry (academic program only), and Measurement and Geometry. Students enrolled in the

applied mathematics program complete a different assessment than students enrolled in the

academic mathematics program. Srudents enrolled in first semester applied and academic

mathematics programs wrote the assessment in January 2016, and students enrolled in second

semester and full year applied or academic mathematics programs wrote the assessment in May

and June 2016.

Please note that due to teacher job action, the Grade 9 EQAO Assessment was not written in the

2014-2015 school year by shtdents who took grade 9 mathematics in the second semester as well

as students enrolled in the full year applied or academic mathematics courses.

Levels of Achievement

Level4 The student has demonstrated the required knowledge and skills.

Achievement surpasses the provincial standard.

Level 3 The student has demonstrated most of the required knowledge and skills.

Achievement is at the provincial standard.

Level 2 The student has demonstrated some of the required knowledge and skills.

Achievement approaches the provincial standard.

Levell The student has demonstrated some of the required knowledge and skills in limited ways.

Achievement falls much below the provincial standard.

NEl

Not Enough Evidence for Levell is used when students did not demonstrate enough evidence of

knowledge and understanding to be assigned Levell.

No Data Students who did not have a result due to absence or other reasons.

Exempt

Students who were formally exempted from participation in one or more components of the

assessment.

EQAO reports student achievement in mathematics using a four-level scale. EQAO has aligned its

four levels of achievement to those of the Ontario Provincial Report Card, Grades 9-12.

EQAO results are reported at different levels: province, school boards, schools, and individual

students.

Achievement results in this report are expressed as the number of students achieving at each level

as a percentage of all of the students in the grade. This includes students who were exempted, for

whom there were no data, and students who did not have enough evidence for Levell.

EQAO Grnde 9 Assessment of Mathematics, 2015-2016

Research & Accountability, Curriculum nnd Instruction Support Seruices

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September 2016

41


Grade 9 EQAO Assessment of Mathematics

~015-2016

Summary of Results

Percentage of students at or above the provincial standard

• peel ~~ctBoard

~

Province

Figure 1 }

Academic

Course

84%

83%

\,

Applied

Course

LOWER

EQAO Grade 9 Assessment of Mathematics, 2015-2016

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September 2016

42


0 Contextual Information

Demographic data about students in the Peel District School Board (PDSB) and the province

provide valuable contextual information to help with the interpretation of the academic and

applied mathematics results.

Jiable 1

J

PDSB

Province

Enrolment

Academic

Applied

Academic

Applied

All students

7SU

2278

97 347

36 005

Number of schools 3~

37

683

706

Participation in the Assessment

Participating students (excludes no data) i/; 575

2205

96 501

34 656

Received one or more accommodations

arm

29%

6%

35%

Received one or more special provisions 13%

22%

4%

6%

Did not complete any part of the

assessment (no data)


G

Acade1nic and Applied Mathen1atics- DETAILED RESULTS

Percentage of All Students at All Lc\'els

•peel ~=.~

.._,

Province

fiigure 2

At or Above

Provincial Standard

Academic Mathematics Assessment

72% 73%


... Acade1nic and Applied Mathen1atics -TRENDS OVER TllVIE

.W Percentage of Students At or Above the Provincial Standard

Figure 4 )

•peel

-

86%


Academic Mathematics Assessment

85%


85%


84%


-

•peel

Province

Province

84%

2011-2012

84%

2012-2013

85%

2013-2014

N/A

2014:-20]5

Academic Math results in the PDSB and the Province have remained

relatively constant over the past 5 years. Please note that due to teacher

job action, the Grade 9 EQAO Assessment was not written in the 2014-

2015 school year by students who took grade 9 mathematics in the

second semester, as well as students enrolled in the full year applied or

academic mathematics courses.

Applied Mathematics Assessment

( Figure 5

•peel

......... •

45%

45%


43%


40%


Province 44%

44%

47%

N/A 45%

2011 -2012

2012-2013

2013-2014

201~2015 201.5,2016

Applied Math results in the PDSB and the Province have decreased over 5

years. Please note that due to teacher job action, the Grade 9 EQAO

Assessment was not written in the 2014-2015 school year by students who

took grade 9 mathematics in the second semester, as well as students enrolled

in the full year applied or academic mathematics courses.

EQAO Grade 9 Assessment of Mathematics, 2015-2016

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September 2016

45


0

Academic and Applied Mathematics - GENDER- TRENDS OVER TIME

Percentage of Students At or Above the Provincial Standard

Figure 6 )

~)

"i.

Female

2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016

Male

Province

Academic

86%

d

\'

85%

86% 86%

d rJ 84%

\,'

85%

8

t .l

~a'

84% 84%

8

GENDER

GAP

I

I

-·~ -·~

N/A

·~

-1%

Results for both males and females in the Academic Mathematics assessment in the PDSB

have remained relatively constant over the past five years. The gap between males and

females in the PDSB has remained relatively constant over time. For the 2015-2016 school

year, the gap closed between males and females.

[

Figure 7 )

Applied

GINDER

GAP -·~

45% 45% 45%

a ~


0

ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELLs)- TRENDS OVER TIME

Percentage of Students At or Above the Provincial Standard

Academic

•peel ..._,

Province

83%


81%


82%


78%


81%

81%

82%

N/A

81%

2011-2012

2012-2013

2013-2014

2014,.2015

Results for ELLs in Academic Mathematics in both the PDSB

and the province have remained relatively constant from 2011-

2012 to 2013-2014. From 2013-2014 to 2015-2016, the results

decreased by 4%.

Applied

41%


44%


39%


34%


33%

35%

38%

N/A 37%

2011-2012

2012-2013

2013-2014

201J.l4-2015

Results for ELLs in Applied Mathematics for the PDSB have

decreased over the past five years. The results for the PDSB

decreased by 5% from 2013-2014 to 2015-2016.

EQAO Grade 9 Assessment of Mathematics, 2015-2016

Research & Accountability, Curriculum and Instruction Support Services

47

8

September 2016



Students with Special Education Needs (excluding identified gifted)

TRENDS OVER TIIVIE

Percentage of Students At or Above the Provincial Standard

Academic

76%


71%


75%


70%


•peel

-

Province

72%

73%

74%

N/A

2011-2012

2012-2013

Results for Students with Special Education Needs (excluding

identified gifted) in Academic Mathematics in the PDSB decreased

over the past five years. There was a 5% decrease from 2013-2014 to

2015-2016. Results for the province have remained relatively

constant over the past five years.

Applied

34%


35%

35%


35%

34%


39% N/A

27%


37%

2011-2012

2012-2013

2013-2014 2014-201.5

Results for Students with Special Education Needs (excluding identified

gifted) in Applied Math in the PDSB have remained relatively constant from

2011-2012 to 2013-2014. From 2013-2014 to 2015-2016, the results decreased

by7%.

EQAO Grade 9 Assessment of Mathematics, 2015-2016

Research & Accountability, Curriculum and Instruction Support Services

48

9

September 2016


0 Grade 9 Student Questionnaire Results by Gender

Table 2: PDSB Grade 9 Student Questionnaire Results by Gender

I STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD MATHEMATICS

Academic Mathematics

Students

Females

(N=3 504)

Males

(N=3 629)

Applied Mathematics

Students

Females

(N=901)

Males

(N=1104)

j I like mathematics.

54%

65%

'j-Ia_m

__ g_o_o_d_a_t _m_a-th_e_m--ati-. c-s-. --------------------~

49%

62%

,.-----

I am able to answer difficult mathematics questions. 1 36% 55%

a_th_e_m_a_ti-.c-s-is--on_e_o_f_m __ y-fa_v_o_u_r_it_e-su_b_j-ec-t-s.--------, 37% ...----49_ 0

_Yo____

, M __

I

29%

25%

16%

17%

39%

38%

26%

23%

j I understand most of the mathematics I am taugh_t. __ j 76% 79% ...---5-9- 0 1.-o --- 64%

J Mathematics is an easy subject. j 24% 36% 11% 21%

J I do my best in mathematics class. ,.-----77_ 0 _Yo____ 71% 71% 64%

J The mathematics I learn now is useful for everyday I % ...----_o_Yo___

30 38 34

I % ~

life.

I ttui

.-----------------------------------~ The mathematics I learn now helps me do work in 58°, ,, 1

o 60°, ,, 1

o .---4-5°-uo---, ,,

51°, 1

o ,

1

other subjects.

I need to do well in mathematics to study what I want I ~ 6 % 71 % 4

9% I 56%

later.

,-I n_e_e_d_t_o_k_e-ep--ta_kin _'_g __ m_a-th_e_m_a_ti-.c-s-f-or __ th_e_k_in_d __ o_f J-.o-b_I_I

want after I leave school.

%

59

%

65

% I 47%

41

Percentage of students indicating they feel "confident" or "very confident" that they can answer mathematics

questions related to the following:

number sense (e.g., operations with integers, rational

numbers, exponents)

algebra (e.g., solving equations, simplifying

expressions with polynomials)

I 66% I 78%

I 68% I 74%

linear relations (e.g., scatter plots, lines of best fit)

I

59%

I

70%

analytic geometry (e.g., slope, y-intercept, equations

J of lines) l 61 % I 68%

-, r measurement (e.g., per~meter, area, volume)

I geometry (e.g., angles, parallel lines)

----

75%

jm

-~0-, 75%

38%

45%

52%

N/A

1 63%

1 40%

I

48%

46%

62%

N/A

r 70%

~

-

EQAO Grade 9 Assessment of Mathematics, 2015-2016

Research & Accountability, Curriculum and Instruction Support Services

49

10

September 2016


Table 2: PDSB Grade 9 Student Questionnaire Results by Gender

I DOING MATHEMATICS

Academic Mathematics

Students

Females

Males

Applied Mathematics

Students

Females

Males

Percentage of students indicating they do the following "very often" when studying mathematics or working on a

mathematics problem:

I connect new mathematics concepts to what I already know

about mathematics or other subjects.

I check my mathematics answers to see if they make sense.

I I apply new mathematics concepts to real-life problems.

I take time to discuss my mathematics assignments with my

classmates.

11% 14% 4%

36% 31% r----,

4%

19% 16%

~---- ~, ------

8% 2% 6%

...---- 19% 15% 9% I 6%

~----------------------- ~, -----

I look for more than one way to solve mathematics problems. 15% 18% 12% 12%

I Percentage of students indicating they complete their mathematics homework at the following frequencies:

I I am not usually assigned any mathematics homework

I

1%

I

1% 6% 8%

I Never or almost never 1 1;:---1 5% 4% 7%

I Sometimes

I 13% I 19% 23% 28%

I Often I 37% I

I Always I 44% I

39% 35% 35%

31% 26% 14%

I OUT-OF-SCHOOL ACTIVITIES

I Percentage of students indicating they do the following "every day or almost every day'' when they are not at school:

I I read by myself. I 31%

I I use the Internet. I 91%

I play video games.

I 6%

I participate in sports or other physical activities.

I 29%

I participate in art, music or drama activities. I 26%

I participate in other clubs or organizations. I 11%

j6o/o

I volunteer in my community.

-

I work at a paid job. 1%

I

I 18%

I 90%

I 36%

I 48%

I 14%

I 13%

I

5%

24%

89%

10%

23%

27%

7%

5%

I 2% 3%

15%

82%

42%

49%

14%

12%

5%

5%

EQAO Grade 9 Assessment of Mathematics, 2015-2016

Research & Accollnfability, Cllrriculllm and lnstrllcfion S11pport Services

50

11

September 2016


51


52


Peel School District

Board

........_,

Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT)

2015-2016

Overview of Results

Research & Accountability

Curricrtlum and Instruction Support Seruices

~---

September 2016

53


Poleen Grewal, M. Ed.

Superintendent

Curriculum and Instruction Support Services

Research & Accountabilihj Department

Kim Bennett, M.Sc.

Research Officer

Rosanne Brown, Ed.D.

Research Officer

Elana Gray, M.Sc.

Research Officer

Pat Hare

Administrative Assistant

Angela Mashford-Pringle, Ph.D.

Chief Research Officer

Aimee Wolanski, Ed. D.

Research Officer

© Peel District School Board

Suggested Citation: Peel District School Board. (2016, September). Ontario secondanJ school

literacy test (OSSLT): Overview of results. Mississauga, ON: Author.

54


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSL T): 2015-2016

@ Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

0 Contextual Information .................................................................................................................................. 3

@ Fully Participating First-Time Eligible Students-Trends over Time .................................................... .4

@ Fully Participating First-Time Eligible Students by Gender- Trends over Time .................................. 4

0 Fully Participating First-Time Eligible English Language Learners (ELLs)- Trends over Time ........ 5

G) ~ully.~artic~pating First-Time Eli~ible Students with Special Education Needs (excluding

Identified gifted}- Trends over Time .................................................................................................. 5

@ OSSLT Student Questionnaire Results- First-Time Eligible Students by Gender ................................ 6

Tables

Table 1: Contextual Information ........................................................................................................................... 3

Table 2: OSSLT Student Questionnaire Results- First-Time Eligible Students by Gender ......................... 6

Figures

Figure 1: Summary ofResults ............................................................................................................................... 2

Figure 2: Fully Participating First-Time Eligible Students- Trends over Time ........................................... .4

Figure 3: Fully Participating First-Time Eligible Students by Gender- Trends over Time ......................... 4

Figure 4: Fully Participating First-Time Eligible Students- ELLs- Trends over Time ............................... 5

Figure 5: Fully Participating First-Time Eligible Students

-Students with Special Education Needs (excluding identified gifted}- Trends over Time .... S

55


0 Introduction

This report contains an overview of the 2015-2016 Education Quality and Accountability Office

(EQAO) provincial assessment for Grade 10 literacy for the Peel District School Board and the

Province. Copies of the full Provincial Report can be downloaded from EQAO' s website, which is

located at http://www.eqao.com.

About

Education Quality and

Accountability Office

EW AO

~ -~

EQAO, an independent arm's length agency of the provincial government, conducts a wide range

of province-wide assessments. The OSSLT has been in place since 2002. It occurs annually and

involves all eligible grade 10 students. The assessment provides both individual and system data

on student achievement. Students receive an individual report indicating whether or not they have

successfully passed the OSSLT. The results are reported as a single literacy outcome that includes

both reading and writing components. School and school board reports are produced locally for

parents/guardians and their communities in addition to reports from EQAO (available on EQAO' s

website).

The purpose of the OSSLT is to ensure that students possess the reading and writing skills that are

required by the end of Grade 9 as outlined in T1te Ontario Curriculum across all subject areas.

Students are eligible to write the OSSLT for the first time in their second year of secondary school.

Successful completion of the OSSLT is one of the 32 requirements for the Ontario Secondary School

Diploma (OSSD).

Students who have been eligible to write the OSSLT at least twice, and have not been successful at

least once qualify to complete the literacy requirement through the Ontario Secondary School

Literacy Course (OSSLC).

About the Grade 10 Assessment

Explanation of Terms (See EQAO Board report for complete details)

1) First-Time Eligible Students - typically entered Grade 9 in 2014-2015 or entered Grade 10 in the 2014-2015 school

year from out of province; working toward an Ontario Secondary School Diploma (OSSD)

2) Previously Eligible Students - students who were absent, deferred or unsuccessful during previous

administrations of the OSSLT; were previously exempted but now working toward an OSSD;

3) All Eligible Students - This reporting method provides percentages based on all students in the cohort working

toward an OSSD. The only students excluded were those who are not working toward an OSSD (exempt students).

4) Fully Participating Students- This reporting method provides percentages based on students for whom there is

work for both sessions of the OSSL T and who were assigned an achievement result. Students who are not working

toward an OSSD, who were absent, and those who were deferred were excluded.

Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLTJ, 2015-2016

Research & Accountability, Curriculum and Instruction Support Services September 2016

56


Summary of Results

•peel~~

- Province

( Figure 1 J

Fully Participating

First-Time Eligible

Successful

Unsuccessful

81%

.

19ct6

81% 19%

Difference in

% Successful

between

PDSB and the

Province

SAME

Successful

All

First-Time Eligible

(includes absent and deferred)

75%

77%

1%

2%

Successful

Unsuccessful

Fully Participating

Previously Eligible

51%

49%

2tMt

HIGHER

Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT), 2015-2016

Research & Accountability, Curriculum and Instruction Support Services

2

September 2016

57 I


• Contextual Information

Demographic data about students in the PDSB and the province provide valuable contextual

information to help with the interpretation of the OSSLT results.

Tablet

Enrolment

Participating Students (does not include students

who were absent, deferred)

Gender

First-Time

Eligible

Students

PDSB

Previously

Eligible

Students

All students 9458 3 024

8979 1900

Number of schools 41 39

First-Time

Eligible

Students

135111

124 977

788

Province

--

Previously

Eligible

Students

55284

26333

826

l

Female 47% 39%

Male 53% 61%

49%

51%

39%

61%

Student Status

English language learners 12% 25%

7%

17%

Students with special education needs

(excluding ideutified gifted)

13% 33%

19%

40%

Level of Study for English

Academic 79% N/A

Applied iJ!S% N/A

Locally developed courses 3% N/A

English as a Second Language (ESL) or English

Literacy Development (ELD) courses

2% N/A

OSSLC

Students completing the literacy requirement

through the OSSLC

Language*

N/A 19%

73%

20%

3%

2%

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

32%

First language learned at home was other than

English

Speak another language (or other languages) as

often as English at home

Speak only or mostly another language (or other

languages) athome

Note: *Based on Studen t Questionnaire data

45% 52%

38% 35%

10% 20%

24%

20%

7%

35%

21%

17%

Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT), 2015-2016

Research & Accorwtability, Curriculum and lnstructiou Support Services

3

September 2016

58


Fully Participating First-Time Eligible Students

TRENDS OVER TIME

Percentage of Successful Students

[ Figure Z J

-

•peel

82%


84%


84%


.83%


81%

•peel

-

Province

Province

82%

82%

83%

82%

2011-2012

2012-2013

2014-2015

OSSL T results for both the PDSB and the Province have remained

relatively constant over the past five years.

(


Female

Male

Fully Participating First-Time Eligible Students

GENDER- TRENDS OVER TIME

Percentage of Successful Students

2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016

88% 88%

86% 87% 86%

a

Province

~? ~? \) ~) \)1 @

78%

81% 81% 80%

77%

8

Results for males and females on the OSSLT in the PDSB have remained relatively constant over

the past five years. The gap between males and females on the OSSLT in the PDSB has also

remained relatively constant over time.

Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLTJ, 2015-2016 4

Research & Accountability, Curriculum and Instruction Support Seruices

September 2016

59


0

Fully Participating First-Time Eligible Students

ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELLs)- TRENDS OVER TIME

Perc(.'ntagc of Successful Students

81%


76%

73%

•peel .......

Province

66%

2011-2012

72%

2012-2013

75%

2013-2014

Results for ELLs on the OSSL T for both the PDSB and the

Province have increased from five years ago. Over the past four

years, the PDSB has surpassed the province.

Fully Participating First-Time Eligible Students

Students with Special Education Needs (excluding identified gifted)

TRENDS OVER TIME

Percentage of Successful Students

•peel

.........

Province

45%


46%


44%


45% 38%

• ..

52%

51%

51%

54% 53%

2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2()15!.2016

Results for Students with Special Education Needs (excluding

identified gifted) on the OSSLT in the PDSB have remained

relatively constant over time but did decrease this year. Over

the past five years, the PDSB has been below the province.

Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT), 2015-2016

Research & Accou11tability, Curriculum and Instruction Support Seroices

60

5

September 2016


• OSSL T Student Questionnaire Results- First-time Eligible Students by Gender

The OSSL T student questionnaire results yielded some interesting differences in literacyrelated

practices for females and males.

Table 2: OSSLT Student Questionnaire Results- First-time Eligible Students by Gender

Percentage of students in the PDSB indicating that:

for homework.

Females

(N = 4170)

98%

54%

e materials at home (print or electronic):

92%

books 98%

news a ers 86%

Males

N =4612)

magazines 66% 58%

they read the following kinds of material in English outside school most weeks (print or electronic):

( ercenta e who answered Three hours or more but less than ·ve hours or Five hours or more)

non-fiction books, e. 16% 13%

comics 5% 7%

Web sites, e-mail, chat messa 61% 52%

letters 1% 1%

rna azines 3% 2%

manuals, instructions 1% 3%

news a ers 4% 4%

novels, fiction, short stories 43% 19%

97%

51%

89%

95%

84%

30% 17%

8% 8%

they do the following types of writing in English outside school most weeks:

( ercenta e who answered Three hours or more but less than "ve hours or Five hours or more)

on social media (Twitter, Facebook, blo 54% J 41%

letters, ·ournals, diaries 8% I 2%

notes, directions, instructions 12% I 8%

11% I 8%

stories, fiction 14% I 5%

work-related writin 45% J 31%

Notable differences between males and females in electronic and social media practices:

• 9% more females (61 %) spend time reading Web sites, e-mails, etc. than males (52%).

• 13% more females (54%) spend time writing on social media or texting than males (41%).

Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT), 2015-2016

Research & Accountability, Curriculum and Instruction Support Seroices

61

6

September 2016


62


PEEL DISTRICT SCHOOL BOARD 10.2

Instructional Programs/Curriculum Committee October 27, 2016

We Rise together: The Peel District School Board

Action Plan to Support Black Male Students

Recommendation

It is recommended that this report be received.

Background

Research in Canada and North America has extensively documented the Black

youth experience in the educational system. The purpose of this project is to

examine the educational experiences and perceptions of Black male students in the

Peel District School Board. The report, Perspectives of Black Male Students in

Secondary Schools, clearly identifies key areas where the Board needs to act.

For the purposes of this interim report, the findings from the student focus groups are

reported. These findings illuminate areas in which students struggle while in school

and their community, and factors that help them to succeed.

We Rise Together: The Peel District School Board Action Plan to support Black Male

Students is a comprehensive response to that challenge. The plan is both defined

and open - there are clear, detailed first steps, and also a commitment to continue to

consult with the community on these steps.

The Action Plan has four key goals:

• Integrate the experiences of black Canadians into the curriculum

• Deliver bias and anti-racism professional development

• Engage with the community

• Inspire black student leadership and engagement

Each of these four areas has defined aims, activities, short-term outcomes and longterm

outcomes. The goals directly reflect the findings of the report.

Prepared by: Harjit Aujla, Coordinating Principal, First Nation, Metis & lnuit!Equity

Submitted by: Poleen Grewal, Superintendent of Curriculum & Instruction Support Services

63


64


Peel District

• School Board

~

The Peel District School Board Action Plan

to Support Black Male Students

In the new Peel Board Plan for Student Success, one ofthe four goals is "Achieve inclusion for all through

our continuous progress on equity." In the 2015-16 school year, we held focus groups with our black

students as part of the specific plan for Student Success project to support black male students.

October 2016

65


We Rise Together: The Peel District School Board Action Plan to

Support Black Male Students

In the new Peel Board Plan for Student Success, one of the four goals is "Achieve inclusion for all through

our continuous progress on equity." In the 2015-16 school year, we held focus groups with our black

students as part of the specific Plan for Student Success project to support black male students.

That report, Perspectives of Black Male Students in Secondary Schools, clearly identifies key areas where

the board needs to act. Certainly the results demonstrate that there is significant room for

improvement. Though the report reflects what has been seen in similar studies across North America,

the response needed, however, is to act.

In previewing the need for this work, Director Tony Pontes said at Starting Point, "what matters most is

not what is said in the report, but what we do about it. And so, I commit that we will act on the reporttogether.

We will be unflinching in response to the findings, and not resort to defensiveness. We will be

bold, courageous and decisive. We will do what needs to be done, because that is the work of

inclusion-that is how we make sure our students-all students-can truly rise. "

We Rise Together: The Peel District School Board Action Plan to Support Black Male Students is a

comprehensive response to that challenge. The plan is both defined and open-there are clear, detailed

first steps, and also a commitment to continue to consult with the community on these steps. The goal

is to balance the need to act on the findings without delay, while we honour and respect the powerful

knowledge and insight in our community to refine that work. The bottom line is that this action plan will

not succeed without the genuine involvement of the community. We can only rise together.

The attached action plan is really an intervention plan. A plan with clear, bold actions, defined

outcomes, and community involvement. The plan has an overarching purpose: to identify, understand,

minimize and eliminate the marginalization experienced by black males in Peel schools. This action plan

is separated into four focus areas:

Engage with the community

Deliver bias and anti-racism professional development

Integrate the experiences of black Canadians Into curriculum

Inspire black student leadership and engagement

Each of the four focus areas has defined aims, activities, short-term outcomes and long-term outcomes.

The areas reflect the findings of the Perspectives of Black Male Students in Secondary Schools report.

These focus areas provide an immediate road map for action, and also a starting point for our rich

consultation with the community.

With our work on these focus areas, together we rise our students, our community, our schools and the

Peel District School Board. That is how we will achieve our mission to inspire success, confidence and

hope in each student.

66


Focus area: Engage with the community

AIM ACTIVIliiES SHORT TERM Ot.ITCOMES LONG TERM OUTCOMES

What do we wont to lw/iot needs to be dont to achieve these alms? 'What are short term changes What a~ the long term changes that

achieve? we wont to be able to show and we wont to be able to show & measure,

measure?

to demonstrote we hollt! ben

SUCCI!Ssfu/?

Host a community forum • Schedule community forum and Invite • Deepen community • Black parents/families and

to consult with community community partners understanding of main community members feel

partners, Including: . Establish common menu of questions to ask each themes that emerge from welcomed In schools, valued

• Black Community group, each focused around themes identified In the Peel board's focus group and have opportunities to

Action Network of Peel the interim report through consultation with the interim report. engage with schools and school

. Malton Black Peel board's Research department activities

Development

• Schools and/or system

Association

structures enable black families

. Peel Association of to participate in school

African Canadian

activities

Educators (PAACE)

. Black parents/ fam ilies/

Peel board Trustees community members have

Peel Regional Police regular communications from

United Achievers' Club schools re school functions,

U nlted Achievers' practices and programs etc.

Community Services

. United Way Peel

Consultation with other . Scheduled consultation. Determine who will be . Schools encourage reciprocal

school boards to Investigate Involved, I.e. Peel board Equity Team conversations with black families

the various targeted . Establish common menu of questions to ask · there are mechanisms in place

Interventions developed to around themes Identified in the Interim report

for parents/families to participate

address opportunity and

fully in the schooling/education of

through consultation with the Peel board's

achievement gaps

their children

research department

eKperienced by black males

. Ongoing opportunities e.


Focus area: Deliver bias and anti-racism professional development

AIM Ac:TIVITIES . fSHORT TERM OUTCOMES LONG TERMIOUTCOMES

What do we want to What needs ta brr done to aclileve these alms? What are short term changrs What are the long term changes

achieve? , we want ta be able to show that we want to be able ta sliaw &

and measure?

measure, to demonstrate we have

been succes,sfMI?

Culturally respons ive . Alms in the curriculum focus area (see above) will • All staff participate in . Through purposeful/

pedagogy training with a support this work culturally responsive Intentional professional

focus on Inquiry, student • Develop a workshop for teachers on the Big Ideas pedagogy training development activities -

voice, critical literacy and behind the refresh of The Future We Want Project system-wide teachers are equipped to

social justice

create Inclusive teaching and

learning environments

that promote the intellectual

engagement of black males

and reHect their, narratives,

interests, strengths and

cultural perspectives

Cultural competence • Meet with individuals such as Dr. Beverly Jean • Educators regularly engage In

training with a focus on Daniel and Lawrence Hill personal and professional

black history and . Build on work developed in Curriculum (described renectlons that encourage

blackness (I.e. Or. Beverly above) them to Identify/challenge

Jean Daniel and Lawrence

personal privileges and biases

HHI)

and the Impact these have on

equitable outcomes for black

males

Develop an ethic of care • Collaborate with Climate for Learning and Working . Climate teams begin to see • Educators value and treat

with respect to all black team to build this work anti-racism as the work of black males with care,

students their teams too respect, empathy and

demonstrate a belief in the

ability of black males to

succeed

68


Equity training for Senior • This work Is being conducted through the • Equity and Inclusive • All staff have the requisite

Leadership, School "Mandatory Equity Leadership Training" project led Education (EIE) Teams training/skills needed to

Administrators and School by Robert Lobovsky In Leadership Development become a permanent support personal success,

Success Action Teams and School Support Services, and the Journey feature of annual achievement and well-being

(lncludin& school social Ahead Steering Committee group In support of Superintendent of of black males

workers and suidance Journey Ahead Finding 33 Education (SOE) planning • Educators work with

counsellors) to include:

• Full-day equity program, designed to sharpen (or EIE becomes an explicit students, family members

power and prlvilese

administrators' equity lens to better understand focus for every SOE Steering and colleagues, engaging

dynamics, race (societal

and navigate the complex landscape of Identities Committee) student voice to build

constructs of whiteness and

blackness), Identification

within their teaching staff, support staff, • EIE becomes a permanent learning environments that

and unpacking of personal

parent/guardian community and student professional development are relevant, authentic and

stereotypes, bias and racial population. It will cover such topics as: focus In every Peel school in meaningful for black students

stereotyping of students, • Critical Race/Anti-Oppression Theory two to three years and are free from

understand ins student • Deconstructlng Identity Bias discriminatory bias

resistance when It manifests

in the classroom and overall

school environment

. lntersectlonallty and Identity Politics

The negation of the Raclallzed experience as a

form of oppression

. Equity and Organizational Change

• Understanding Privilege

. Gender Inequity and Its Impact on School

systems

. Inclusive Mechanisms and Practice

. Support administrators to build explicit EIE and

anti-racist school success planning goals through

the following supports (already Identified In the

Draft EIE Implementation Roadmap):

1. Establish administrator led EIE Working

Groups within the steering committees of all

13 SOE units (by 2018), and within four SOE

units (Haarmann, Rossall, Daws, Roberston) by

the end of 2016-17

2. Develop draft terms of reference for each EIE

Working Group to adapt and adopt

3. Develop and deliver 'train-the trainer'

modules to each EIE Working Group

4. Provide administrators with a menu of EIE

goals to support Implementation of EIE Into

their school success planning goals

69


Focus area: Integrate the experiences of black Canadians into curriculum

®@ ACTIVITIES SHORT TERM OUTCOMES LONG TERM OUTCOMES

What.da we want ta What nl!eds ta be dane ta achieve these alms? What are short term changi!S What are tlie fang term Changes

achieve? WI! want ta be able ta shaw and that we want to be able to shaw

measure?

fr;;II!asure to demonstrate we

been successful?

Explicit curriculum . Request a literature search from the Research . The teacher librarian • Schools have engaging and

connections of black department, focusing on established workshop along with the Inclusive curricular that reflect

historical and bibliographies/resources regarding black history Collaborative Inquiry will the identities, lived

contemporary and Identities, contemporary cultural connections provide early data regarding experiences, cultures and

contributions and and blackness Peel readiness and needs to histories of black Canadians

Identities, and Blackness . Winter 2017: Workshop with teacher librarians on engage with black history and support high achievement

ingrained within all how Learning Commons can support student and and Identities, contemporary for black males

curriculum areas teacher understanding of black history and cultural connections and • Black males will see

identities, contemporary cultural connections, and blackness ingrained within all themselves reflected In

blackness ingrained within all curriculum areas curriculum areas classroom curriculum, learning

. 2017-18: Collaborative Inquiry (CI) on using materials, displays and learning

multiple sources to examine race, racializatlon,

resources and will feel valued,

and anti-racism In the Social Studies/

respected and included

History/Geography curriculum

• Develop a report and workshop from the above Cl

for 'train the trainer' book/resource talks

Further development of • The activities from the above aim will also help to . Review and further • Diverse voices, stories, cultures

black history resources for achieve this aim. development of resources and histories of black

schools (In consultation . Consultation with PAACE and other community to support black history Canadians are included in our

with African diasporlc members about resources that could help to classrooms, curricu lum,

community partners), supplement school resources around Black History learning materials, displays and

providing schools with Month learning resou rces

greater resources to • Consultation and support through the National • A more Intentional focus and

celebrate and recognize Alliance of Black School Educators (NABSE) about celebration of Black History

Black History Month key Black History Month resources Month and a celebration of

black history beyond the

month of February

70


Develop an explicit focus . Develop the language, concepts and pedagogy of . Examine workshop data and • Align curriculum materials,

on the dynamics of race, anti-racism for teachers and support staff through feedback on teacher and instruction and assessment

raclalization and anti- a workshop series akin to Teaching for Diversity student understandings and practices with the principles of

racism into age- and Social Justice readiness to engage in topics equity and Inclusive education,

appropriate curriculum of race, raciallzatlon and with specific focus on critical

areas anti·racism literacy, student voice and

choice and the components of

culturally responsive pedagogy

Development of The . Develop the African diasporlc black-Canadian lens . Examine data and feedback . System-wide development and

Future We Want resource through: on teacher and student use of anti-discriminatory

-Instruction/assessment A. literature Review (for example) understandings and instructional and assessment

through an African Ladson-Billings' Culturqllv Rc!evpnt readiness to engage in topics practices (Inquiry, student

dlasporic black-Canadian ~ specifically the idea of building of race and racialization from voice and choice, culturally

lens built around culturally 'cultural competence', or an education that Semester 2 Collaborative responsive/relevant pedagogy)

responsive pedagogy does not alienate students away from their Inquiry "Exploring racial that support high

while considering student culture Identity in grade 9 and 10 achievement for black male

voice, critical literacy and ~ work on culture and anti-racist English texts" students

social justice

education

Mica Pollock's Evetydqv Anti·Radsm

B. Professional Focus Groups

(renarchtrs/groups that rxomln~ the

opportunlty/achlevrmtnt gaps ol and int~rvtntion programs

far black stud•nt>)

- Toronto District School Board work on

Afrocentric Schools

- Natasha Henry

Anne lopez (OISE)

. Professor carl James (York University) and

the York Centre for Education and

Community

Grace Edward Galabuzl

- Course Directors from York University's

Regent Park Program

Anti-Racism Directorate

. Semester 2 Collaborative Inquiry "Exploring

racial identity In grade 9 and 10 English

texts"

71


Focus area: Inspire black student leadership and engagement

AIM IAimVffiES SHORT TERM OUTC::OMEs j.ONG TERM OUTfOMES

What do [WI![wantlto1. W1iat nef!ds to be dane to achieve these alms? What. are short tf!rm changes What orelthe lang term changes

achieve? we wont to be able to shaw that we want to bf! able to sliaw I

and measure?

lllf!DSUre, to d~nstrate we have

l,j!ftn sucassful?

Student leadership • Proceed with planning. aiming for a 2017 or 2018 • Examine conference and Black males will have opportunities

conference conference date. mentorlng program to

• Conference will be designed to Inspire, motivate feedback about teacher and • Develop and explore personal

and encourage our students to want more, do student understandings and competencies (confidence,

more and provide pathways and avenues towards readiness to engage In resilience, and self-efficacy) and

achieving success (I.e. real life role models to topics of race, racialization Integrate their lived experiences

share their stories) and anti-racism into the process of leadership

development

• Engage with their local school

communities and with their

communities at large to explore

their rights and responsibilities as

leaders both in the school setting

and in the larger community

School-based mentorlng • Gather data on method, structure and Impact of . Black males are discourse

groups Involving Peel Obama Effect and other mentorlng partners/leaders and work with

board Alternative groups/programs staff to create classroom and

Programs, Curriculum and

school activities that represent

Instruction and Climate

their Interests, Identities, and

teams

lived experiences

lnvestlcate external • Contact the non-profit organization 'Boys to Men' Black Males will have opportunities

mentorshlp programs • Contact Donald Mcleod of the 100 Strong to

specific to black males In Foundation with Justice • Reflect on their own Identities

order to Implement • Contact United Way of Peel Black Community and on ways their Identities

mentoring program at 13 Advisory Council regarding their mentorshlp shape their leadership capacities

pilot secondary schools program specific to black youth - matching them • Develop, use and learn how to

across each up with mentors who look like them articulate Ideas about their

superintendency

leadership skills

72


Peel School District

Board

.......__,

Research and Accountability

Curriculum and Instruction Support Seruices

Perspectives of Black Male Students in Secondary School

Understanding the Successes and Challenges

Student Focus Group Results

we

together

Elana Gray, M.Sc.

Rose-Ann Bailey, M.Ed. Janelle Brady, Ph.D.(c) Sam Teele, Ph.D.(c)

September 2016

73


Poleen Grewal, M.Ed.

Superintendent- Curriculum and Instruction Support Services

Research & Accountability Department

Kim Bennett, M.Sc.

Research Officer

Rosanne Brown, Ed.D.

Research Officer

Marti Carpenter, B.A.

Research/Assessment Specialist

Elana Gray, M.Sc.

Research Officer

Pat Hare

Administrative Assistant

Angela Mashford-Pringle, Ph.D.

Chief of Research and Accountability

Aimee Wolanski, Ed.D.

Research Officer

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the following schools for participating in this project: Brampton Centennial

S.S., Castlebrooke S.S., Central Peel S.S., Fletcher's Meadow S.S., Glenforest S.S., Lincoln

Alexander S.S., Mayfield S.S., Meadowvale S.S., and Rick Hansen S.S. Gratitude is also extended to

the students who participated in the focus groups. Thank you for sharing your perceptions and

experiences with us.

© Peel District School Board

Suggested Citation: Gray, E., Bailey, R., Brady, J., Teele, S. (2016, September). Perspectives

of Blacll Male Students in Secondary School: Understanding the Successes and Challenges­

Student Focus Group Results. Mississauga, ON: Peel District School Board.

74


Table of Contents

Introduction .................................................................................................................................... !

Purpose ........................................................................................................................................... 2

Focus Group Methodology ............................................................................................................. 2

Data Analysis ................................................................................................................................. 3

Study Limitations ........................................................................................................................... 3

Participant Information .................................................................................................................. 3

Focus Group Results ...................................................................................................................... 5

Students' Experiences in School ........................................................................................... 5

What Students Like About School ........................................................................................ 6

What Students Dislike About School .................................................................................... ?

Factors That Help Students Engage or Succeed in School ................................................... 8

Factors that Prevent Students from Engaging or Succeeding in School ............................... 9

Suggestions for Supporting Students in School .................................................................. ! 0

Considerations for Next Steps ...................................................................................................... 11

References .................................................................................................................................... 11

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Perspectives of Black Male Students in Secondary School

Understanding the Successes and Challenges

Student Focus Group Results

I

Introduction

Research in Canada and North America has extensively documented the Black youth experience in

the educational system. This research examined issues of anti-Black racism and its impact on the

well-being of Black youth. As a follow-up to this research, a number oflocal research initiatives have

focused on the issues faced by Black youth in the Region of Peel. Through consultations, interviews,

focus groups, focused conversations, and surveys; perspectives from Black adults and youth were

compiled to identify issues of equity and inclusion within schools, workplaces, and communities. Of

particular interest to the Peel District School Board are the findings pertaining to the educational

experiences of Black youth in the Region of Peel. A brief review of the findings is provided below.

I. Fighting an Uphill Battle: Report on the Consultations into the Well-Being of Black Youth in Peel

Region. 2015.

Consultations conducted with Black residents, Black youth, and service providers in the Region of

Peel indicated that Black youth feel isolated and marginalized in school due to: low expectations; the

absence of Blacks and Black culture in the curriculum; a low number of Black teachers; receiving

more encouragement to engage in sports than academics; being streamed away from math, science,

and academic level courses; receiving harsher discipline than non-Black students; and the presence

ofpolice in schools (F.A.C.E.S. of Peel Collaborative, 2015).

The above study reports findings that are based on feedback obtained from adult and youth residents

of the Region of Peel and service providers in the Region of Peel. For the purposes of this project,

the results regarding the educational experiences and perceptions of the Black youth participants are

of particular interest (Education section found on pp. 29-37). Upon review, the following limitations

were identified:

• The report notes the intent to conduct an asset-based approach to the research. However, the

majority of the feedback reported in this section focuses on the issues, challenges, and barriers

occurring in schools; thus reflecting a deficit model focus.

• The experiences and perceptions of a small proportion of Black youth participants (n=23

interviewees, n=5 focus group participants) may not be generalizable to the Black youth

community throughout the Region of Peel.

• Much of the reported data in this section reflects the perceptions of adult informants and parents,

rather than the experiences and perceptions of the Black youth participants.

2. Voices of Ontario Black Educators: An Experiential Report. 2015.

Survey and interview responses from a non-random selection of 148 current and retired African

Canadian educators in Ontario, indicated that these Black educators experienced and/or witnessed:

an achievement gap between Black and White students; the systemic racism Black students face; a

lack of Black teachers as role models in schools; a lack of culturally informed relationships between

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Black students and White teachers; a lack of effective classroom management strategies used by

White teachers with Black students; the struggles White teachers experience when trying to build

home-school connections with parents of Black students; and the high expectations Black teachers

hold for Black students (Ontario Alliance of Black School Educators, 20 15).

The above study reports the collective findings from African Canadian educators across Ontario.

However, the proportion of respondents who are educators teaching in the Peel District School Board

is not reported. As a result, it is not possible to determine the extent to which these data represent the

experiences and perceptions of educators in the Peel District School Board.

3. Peel District School Board Superintendent Inquily. 2015.

In October 2015, focused conversations were conducted with a total of 18 at risk, Black male students

in two secondary schools in the Peel board. Commonalities among participating students included:

(I) multiple absences from school, (2) low credit accumulation, (3) special education designation,

and (4) a challenging home situation. Students discussed their experiences in school, personal

strengths, perceptions of success, and future aspirations. The conversation narratives will be available

in the near future.

Purpose

The purpose of this project is to dig deeper into the educational experiences and perceptions of Black

youth in the Peel District School Board. In order to fully understand these experiences, both

challenges and successes of Black male secondary students will be explored. The information

obtained in this research project will illuminate areas in which students struggle, and areas of success;

and will inform a plan of action for practices and programs to improve the educational experiences

of Black male students.

'. Focus Group Methodology

During the months of May and June 2016, a total of nine focus groups were conducted with male

Black students in secondary schools (N=87). Schools were selected based on: (1) relatively large

population of Black families residing in the catchment area of the school (using data from Environics

Analytics, 20 16), and (2) geographical location - four groups were conducted in schools located in

Brampton, one group in Caledon, and four groups were conducted in schools located in Mississauga.

Four of the focus groups consisted of Black male students who were engaged and/or experiencing

academic success in school, four groups involved students who were disengaged and/or struggling

academically in school, and one group involved a mixture of engaged and disengaged students.

Students volunteered to participate in the focus groups, and were invited to attend a session through

invitational posters and word-of-mouth from school administrators and teachers. Each focus group

was conducted in a private room at the respective school, during the lunch hour. Focus groups lasted

I to 1.5 hours in length.

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Focus Group Questions

1. What are your thoughts about, and experiences in school?

2. What do you like and/or dislike about school?

3. What factors help you engage in, or succeed in school?

4. What factors prevent you from engaging in, or succeeding in school?

5. How can your school better support you, or improve your life in school?

Data Analysis

Content analysis was conducted on the feedback provided by focus group participants. Discussion

items were coded, summarized, and analyzed for themes.

Study Limitations

The focus group participants consisted of a self-selected sample of 87 students in Grades I 0-12.

Therefore, the results obtained during these sessions may not be representative of the entire Black

male student population in the Peel District School Board. It should also be noted that the findings

reported in this study reflect the perceptions of students; and include the thoughts and experiences of

Black male students only. Perspectives from other stakeholder groups, such as other racialized and

non-racialized student groups, teachers, school administrators, parents/guardians, and community

members were not collected. Multiple perspectives would provide a more comprehensive picture of

the successes, issues, and challenges experienced by all members of the school community.

Participant Information

Student Background

Number of students = 87

School

Location

Participant Background

51% 33%

Brampton

Mississauga

Participants in a Specialized Program

Dual Credit

Grade

Level

50%

Grade 12

9

Co-op

Group

Composition

48%

Engaged/Successful

Students

36%

Discngaged/Struggl1ng

Students

II

.

-

SHSM

Regional Learning

French Immersion

OYAP

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Type of Courses

Taken This Year

(students in grades 11 & 12) 51%

42%

Educational Information

Post-Secondary

Plans

Graduation Plans

.

7% 5"'

.-.::...::..

.Yes • No • Not Sure

Grade 11 - Plan to graduate next year

Grade 12 - Plan to graduate this year

Parent/Guardian Education

Did your

parents/guardians Parents'/Guardians'

complete post-secondary Highest Level of

education?

Education

Where

Parents/Guardians

Completed their

Education

University

In Canada

College

Not Sure

Apprenticeship

Outside of Canada

Both in and outside

of Canada

Expected/Suggested Pathways

In Grade 8, what pathway did you, your parents/guardians,

and your teachers expect/suggest for you?

55%

• Yourself

• Your Parents/Guardians

• Your Teachers

University

College

20%

Not Sure

8%

11.::.;

Work

--

5%

2% 1% .

Apprentice

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Focus Group Results

The following section presents an analysis of the focus group discussions conducted with 87 Black

male students in grades 1 0-12. The emerging themes and connected elements reflect the perceptions,

perspectives, and reported experiences of participating students.

Students' Experiences in School

Racial Separation

• In school and in the community, Black students primarily hang out with other Black students,

South-Asian students stay together, and White students hang out with White students.

• In school, non-Black students rarely play sports with Black students. Black students suspect this

happens because Black males are seen as aggressive, their serious spirit of competition is viewed

as arrogance, and White students are intimidated by Black students.

• When Black students join a stereotypically "non-Black" sport in school (baseball, cricket), or a

team without Black students, they are sometimes excluded from conversations (other languages

are spoken) and/or they are made fun of.

Academic Expectations

• Teachers and students hold low academic expectations for Black students. Some non-Black

students and teachers show surprise or disbelief when Black students do well or receive a good

grade, while others suspect that Black students cheat if they perform well on an assignment or

test. Students make offensive remarks when Black students succeed in school (e.g., "you talk

white," "you're a smart Black guy").

Stereotyping and Stigma

• Black students struggle to "fit in" at school and, at times, feel ostracized by their peers. Many

non-Black students will not speak to Black students.

• Students, teachers, and the police are quick to judge Black students based on their appearance

(i.e., clothing), race, and behavior. They think all Black people are from rough neighbourhoods,

and are quick to conclude that Black people are "gangsters" or "drug dealers."

• When Black students talk about their interests, pathways, or careers, other non-Black students

joke about their choices, criticize them, or act surprised if the choices are not within the "Black

stereotype" (i.e., if they [Black students] indicate that they would like to be a film maker or a

pianist).

Racial Profiling

• Teachers frequently stop Black students in hallways and ask if they should be in class at that

time. Teachers will also approach Black students first if something (negative) happens at school.

• In school, police blame school incidences (e.g., graffiti, vandalism) on Black students without

asking questions first. In the community, Black students are stopped or randomly pulled over by

police more frequently than non-Black students (e.g., for walking with headphones on, driving

their parent's luxury car).

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Experiences in the Community

• Community store owners and staff do not trust Black students. When a group of students enter a

store, staff will often follow the Black students, ask them to remove their knapsacks, and/or

request a receipt of purchase before they leave the store. At some stores, staff will restrict the

number of Black students who enter the store at one time.

What Students Like About School

School Staff

• Some teachers are nice to all students, treat all students equally, take the time to help struggling

students during class time and after school, make learning fun and interesting, and genuinely

care about all students.

• Black teachers understand the challenges of Black students better than non-Black teachers. Black

teachers treat all students equally, and with more respect, care, and interest than other non-Black

teachers.

• Guidance counselors help all students with course selections, ensure all students are on track

with required courses, and talk to students about their interests and future jobs/careers.

• In some schools, the administrators are very helpful and friendly. These principals treat all

students equally, show an interest in all students, and attend many school events (i.e., sport

competitions).

Friends

• Friends are a large reason why many students attend school every day. Students look forward to

spending time with their friends during the lunch hour and during spares. Black students feel a

strong sense of camaraderie with other Black students. They rely on each other for friendship

and support during the good times and the tough times at school.

Sport Teams

• Participating on school sport teams is one way Black students have successfully connected with

non-Black students. If a Black student is athletic or good at a sport, he/she receives more respect

from other students, and is able to develop friendships easier with non-Black teammates.

Connections that form between Black and non-Black students during practices and sporting

events can carry over into school where friendships continue to develop.

Opportunities

• Students value the range of opportunities that are available to them at school. In particular,

students enjoy participating in the selection of different sports (intermural and competitive),

playing musical instruments during class time and in the school band, and engaging in leadership

opportunities.

School Climate and Safety

• Students generally feel safe in school, and some students appreciate the positive and respectful

atmosphere in their school. Although some schools have reputations for being unsafe, students

question these reputations and assume it is a result of the media, or past events unrelated to their

school.

• In some schools, students feel police presence has a positive impact on school climate. When

police are visiting these schools, student behavior and the school atmosphere improves.

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What Students Dislike About School

Student Behaviour

• Black students feel that many non-Black students are afraid of them. As a result, non-Black

students avoid Black students in hallways, in the cafeteria, and on the school yard.

• Black students are subjected to insults, racist jokes, and name-calling by non-Black students.

Teacher Behaviour

• Some teachers are disrespectful and display negative attitudes toward Black students (e.g., use

sarcasm, will not listen, provide negative responses on assignments or tests, do not choose Black

students when a question is asked in class). Students also noted that some teachers "expect us

[Black students] to mess up." Consequently, Black students feel they have to prove they are good

kids before teachers give them a chance.

• Some teachers choose to ignore Black students, or are scared to confront them. These teachers

do not approach Black students if they use their phone during class time, if they act up in class,

or are loud in the hallway. Instead, these teachers overlook these behaviours or send students

directly to the office.

Minimal Acknowledgement of Black History Month

• In some schools, the focus placed on Black History month is limited. Examples include: (I)

activities reflecting Black history are restricted to the end of the month, (2) Canadian Black

history is not discussed, (3) only Black students and Black teachers help organize events and/or

participate in the activities, and/or (4) teachers only focus on the contributions of Martin Luther

King. Students also noted that Asian Heritage month receives far more attention by teachers and

students than Black History month.

Preferential Respect for School Sports

• In some schools, there is a lack of respect and pride for basketball. Students feel that this is

because basketball is a sport that is predominantly played by Black students. Accomplishments

achieved by school basketball teams are not acknowledged, or included in school announcements

to the same extent as other sports (e.g., rugby, curling, skiing).

Lack of Leadership Opportunities

• Leadership opportunities are very limited for students who are not popular, or are not "in with

the cool crowds." At some schools, running for the Student Activity Council is not open to all

students, and often resembles a popularity contest.

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Factors That Help Students Engage or Succeed in School

Family Members

• Students value the support they receive from their family members. Students noted that their

parents/guardians, older siblings, and aunts and uncles consistently motivate them to attend

school, support their goals, talk to them about the importance of an education, encourage them

to attend college or university, and discuss future job and career opportunities.

• Students who were experiencing success in school also noted that their parents/guardians often

pressure them to achieve high grades, and encourage them to choose friends who also do well in

school.

Friends

• Students are highly motivated to attend school and go to their classes because they are able to

spend time with their friends.

Teachers

• In general, teachers motivate students to succeed in school if students show they are interested

in learning, participate in class, and do the work. In some instances, teachers will take the time

to talk with Black students when they [students] are "going astray."

• Black teachers hold high expectations for Black students regardless of their academic

performance and behaviours in the classroom.

Self-Motivation

• All students value their future and want to be able to support themselves when they are adults.

• Students who were experiencing success in school noted that they believe it is their responsibility

to push themselves to do well, and to achieve the best they can for themselves and their future.

• Some students have a strong desire to do well in school in order to prove to others that Black

people can be successful.

Other Peoples' Situations

• Students observe and reflect on the lives of other people (family members and friends) who have

dropped out of school or did not pursue post-secondary education. They see how these people

struggle, live in poverty, and/or constantly worry about money and being able to pay their bills.

Students do not want to live like this.

Extra-curricular Activities

• The extra-curricular activities available at school keep many students interested and engaged.

Participating in school-based events adds variety to life at school, allows students to be with their

friends, and enables students to pursue their personal interests.

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Factors that Prevent Students from Engaging or Succeeding in School

Teacher Behaviour

• Some teachers do not understand, or choose to ignore the various challenges students face

personally and at home. These challenges may impact punctuality, attendance, and/or

achievement at school, but teachers continue to reprimand students without considering the

reasons for their behavior.

• Students noted that guidance counsellors are quick to recommended that Black students enroll in

college level courses, when some of these students would do fine in academic courses and in

university. Black students feel they need to prove their intelligence and/or their work ethic more

than non-Black students.

Lack of Interest in School

• Some students generally do not feel connected to school, and others lack the motivation to apply

themselves. These students are not interested in many of the courses they are required to take, or

learning the material being taught. In addition, students do not see the relevance or value of the

material they are learning in school. These students find it difficult to make connections between

what is being taught in school and the real world. They are bored in class and feel that the

teaching styles used by many teachers are ineffective.

• For many students, participating in extra-curricular activities is their favorite part of school.

However, in some schools, there are a limited number of activities offered that address students'

interests (with the exception of sports). Some schools focus on academic achievement rather than

developing life skills or personal interests.

Differential Treatment

• Students feel teachers favor non-Black students. Some teachers overlook Black students when

they request help, and/or spend more time helping non-Black students with school work.

Teachers also tend to dictate where Black students sit in the classroom (at the front of the class

or away from others), and/or assign harsher consequences to Black students for behaviours

displayed by other non-Black students as well (e.g., arriving late to class, swearing).

• South Asian students are viewed by teachers as "model" students. Teachers tend to "play

favorites" towards these students, show these students more respect, compliment their work more

frequently, and are more patient with them, when compared to Black students.

School Environment

• At school, Black students feel they are under surveillance. Some students feel like they are being

followed by school staff, or that staff are constantly checking on them.

• For many students, school offers a safe and comfortable environment. However, other students

feel uneasy. Although police presence in school is supposed to make students feel safe, for some

Black students, police presence has the opposite effect due to the racial profiling they have

experienced.

Personal Behaviour

• Students concur that sometimes they create problems through their own actions. At times, they

may have a bad attitude, dress poorly, or display inappropriate or disrespectful behaviours in

school. Students also realize that they engage in behaviours that prevent them from succeeding

in school (e.g., get very little sleep at night, come to class unprepared, choose not to focus during

class time).

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Suggestions for Supporting Students in School

Curriculum

• Teach material and skills that are directly relevant to life after school (e.g., mortgages, taxes,

bills, budget, household management).

• Enhance and expand on the curriculum and school-wide activities during and beyond Black

History month, and ensure activities involve all (including non-Black) staff and students.

Teaching and Learning

• Ensure teachers are enthusiastic and interested in teaching. Encourage/train teachers to

incorporate engaging and relevant learning activities into their instruction.

• Teachers need to be more helpful. They need to help students when they ask for help, slow their

instructional pace down, support students in developing their interests, and understand and

address students' learning needs.

Staff Expectations

• Teachers need to raise their expectations for Black students, acknowledge that Black students

want to succeed, and provide the support students need to achieve success.

• Guidance counsellors need to guide Black students with high expectations in mind. They should

provide students with information relating to all course level options, including

academic/university level, and allow students to choose the type of courses they wish to take.

Extra-curricular Activities

• Offer more and diverse extra-curricular activities that align with student interests and encourage

student camaraderie. For example, a Boys to Men's club that offers outings periodically (i.e.,

sporting events) would allow students of all backgrounds to bond over similar interests. In

addition, a student support group, where students can share their thoughts, successes, and

challenges with each other, may foster friendships among students with different backgrounds.

Additional Student Support

• Offer the Counting on You program to students in grades II and 12. Extending this program to

higher grades will provide older students, who struggle in math and literacy, with extra support.

• Organize a mentorship program that will pair younger and older students together. Older students

can mentor the younger students, assist with their transition to secondary school, and help them

with school-based experiences.

Respect and Inclusion

• Teachers need to treat all students the same, regardless of student race, gender, academic

performance, and learning needs.

• All students should be able to participate in the school clubs of their choice (including leadershipbased

clubs). Ensure that all students are informed and aware of the clubs, and that all students

have an equal opportunity to participate in elections for leadership roles.

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Considerations for Next Steps

In an effort to better understand the experiences of Black male students in the Peel District School

Board, a series of focus groups were conducted to capture their perceptions of school, identify the

successes and challenges they encounter while in school, and explore factors that impact their

engagement and success. In an attempt to obtain a wide range of experiences, the focus groups

involved both successful and struggling Black male students attending schools across the Region of

Peel. Overall, students reported perceptions and experiences that are primarily framed by the

behaviours of students and staff, stereotyping and stigma, academic expectations held by others,

relevance of the curriculum, and opportunities available at school.

Many of the findings in this research project emulate those reported throughout the vast array of

literature addressing the underachievement and marginalization of Black students. In response to

these findings, research has also explored a variety of strategies used within classrooms and schools

to improve engagement among Black students, enhance their learning environments, and foster a

climate of equity and inclusion. In addition to this research, a review of the literature suggesting

evidence-based, effective practices would add value to the project. Considering the reported

challenges of our Black students, it seems they may benefit from implementing classroom, school,

and board-wide strategies that have demonstrated success among Black youth. Research in this area

can help guide and direct our next steps for creating school environments that are welcoming,

respectful, and inclusive of our Black students.

Findings from the focus groups indicate that Black students desire change to occur within their

classrooms and their schools. Specifically, students suggested implementing culturally responsive

and relevant curriculum, respectful and supportive school staff who hold higher expectations of them,

programs that support academic and social success, and equal opportunities to participate in activities

that align with their interests. In order to fully address these areas, it may be helpful to consult with

various stakeholder groups in schools and throughout their communities. Such groups can include

school staff; parents/guardians of Black students; and local networks, agencies, and advocacy groups

that represent and support Black communities throughout the Region of Peel. By sharing and

discussing the focus group findings, and honoring the ideas of various stakeholder groups, we can

co-create a strong plan of action involving strategies and solutions designed to effectively address the

academic, emotional, and social needs of Black students in the Peel District School Board.

References

F.A.C.E.S. of Peel Collaborative. (2015). Fighting an Uphill Battle: Report on the Consultations

into the Well-Being of Black Youth in Peel Region. Retrieved from

http://www.unitedwaypeel.org/faces/imageslfighting-an-uphill-battle-sm.pdf

Ontario Alliance of Black School Educators. (20 15). Voices of Ontario Black Educators: An

Experiential Report. Retrieved from

http://onabse.org/ONABSE_ VOICES_ OF _BLACK_EDUCATORS_Finai_Report.pdf

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