included in all regressions. Children born in 1981-83 are the default group.

Because older workers of both genders are under-represented in the samples

and equation (5) is estimated with a smaller sample size, for this equation

we aggregate the cohorts into three, one for the older ones born in 1947-75,

one for the younger cohorts born in 1976-1980 and the reference group born

in 1981-83.

Various measures of household characteristics are included in our regressions.

The definition of a household in the RLMS includes people living

together and having common income and expenditures, including unmarried

children under 18 who study in a different population centre. The total number

of family members, the number of children 17 or under and the number

of children 3 or under are used as measures of household composition. The

variable for residence ownership takes 1 for individuals living in their own

dwelling and 0 for those occupying a rented property or living in a dormitory.

Car ownership takes value 1 for all members of the household if there is at

least one passenger car at the disposal of the household, and 0 otherwise.

The living-space square of dwelling specifies the number of square meters of

living-space at the disposal of the household.

Several time series published by the state statistical agency Rosstat are

used in our estimation. Nominal income measures by region are adjusted by

the cost of a consumer basket by region to arrive at real regional incomes.

Any variable entering equations (1)-(5) is defined as the average for an individual

taken over all non-missing values in all rounds of the survey in which

an individual participated. The averages of binary dummy variables are then

rounded to the nearest integer to keep the binary format. The averages are

estimated on the sample of individuals of age 30-65 to exclude those who are

at the beginning of their career, whose income is subject to measurement


Because of data availability, we used slightly different samples across the

estimated equations, aiming always to get the maximum information in each.

Appendix Table 5 shows all the descriptive statistics of our samples. Equations

(1) and (2) were estimated with the sample shown in column 1 of Table

5. It includes all parent-child pairs, of either gender, who reported earnings


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