1104 Environment and Behavior 48(9)

Figure 1. The format for (i) each individual image for the experimental conditions

and (ii) an example of the four experimental conditions: (A) clean, (B) seaweed,

(C) fishing-litter, and (D) public-litter used in Studies 2 and 3 (ns = 79 and 19,



Experimental stimuli. All of the photographical stimuli consisted of the same

format and backdrop (see Figure 1) and were taken on dry days under clement

weather conditions. Photographs were taken during low tide (as rated as

more restorative in Study 1) at numerous rocky shore sites. By positioning

the camera accordingly, the images were taken from a perspective as though

the viewer was sitting on the shore looking out to sea. Lighting, weather

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