Dwelling in Density: Opportunities for Civic Agency and Collective Social Captial

armng

Paper presented at Spaces and Flows Conference 2016, at the University of Philadelphia. All hand-drawn diagrams are original and a copyright of Amelyn Ng.

Dwelling in Density:

Opportunities for Civic Agency and Collective Social Capital

Session Presentation

Human Environments and Ecosystemic Effects

Spaces & Flows 7th International Conference 2016

Amelyn Ng

Melbourne, Australia


dwelling in density

Density prompts new thinking.

Re-evaluating the financialisation of the inner-city urban housing market & the architecture

profession’s ‘permissive’ relationship with neoliberal real-estate.


Docklands Drive & Bourke Street, Docklands, Melbourne

Source: Film Victoria Australia


Southbank, Melbourne

Source: Urban Melbourne


fishermans bend, melbourne

Fishermans Bend, ‘Australia’s Largest Urban Renewal Project’: 485Ha ex-industrial land to house 80,000 residents by

2050. Source: FBURA Recast Fact Sheet, DELWP, Victorian Planning Authority Website, April 2015.

Amendments to Planning Scheme: Interim mandatory maximum height controls for brownfield site

New residential & employment precincts to accommodate 80,000 people & support 60,000 new jobs by 2050.

Authentic or token ‘mixed-use’ development? “The next Docklands”?


Fishermans Bend Urban Renewal- various multi-tower masterplan developmentts

Source: Urban Melbourne.


Fishermans Bend Urban Renewal- various approved schemes

Source: Urban Melbourne.


dwelling in density-beyond affordability

Solutions beyond supply to the housing affordability problem

OPINION

The Conversation By Nicole Gurran, Robin Goodman, Steven Rowley and John Daley

Updated Mon 24 Oct 2016, 7:04pm

Treasurer Scott Morrison has outlined his vision for increasing home ownership at a speech to the Urban

Development Institute of Australia.

The Treasurer acknowledged it was hard for first home buyers to get into the Australian housing market and suggested a

number of barriers to increasing housing supply.

We asked an expert panel to analyse these and suggest what other ideas they might have for easing the problem.

What the states need to do

The Treasurer's comments about the planning system are out of date. A decade of state reforms to alleviate supply

constraints have enabled the inner city apartment boom, and generated a steady supply of outer suburban land to build

on.

With housing construction at record numbers, state planning systems are clearly able to respond to rising market

demand. Putting aside questions about the location and quality of new housing, increased construction hasn't delivered

cheaper homes, nor does the Treasurer seem to want that.

In fact, he spends much of his speech cautioning about risks to the housing market from the removal of negative gearing

or from an over-supply of apartments.

With our housing system so dependent on the private sector, the real question is how to keep construction running when

the market cools.

If Treasurer Morrison is truly concerned about affordability he should also be asking how to secure affordable homes as

part of new development, without lowering values across the established market.

Providing incentives for developers to provide affordable homes is an obvious solution and one that the property industry

itself has been lobbying for. This entails government support to drive investment towards affordable rental housing and to

enable a new range of housing products such as shared equity and low cost home ownership.

At present, only around 2 per cent of new homes are delivered by affordable and non profit housing providers. A larger

affordable housing sector, assisted by government to draw on innovative sources of institutional finance, would be able to

sustain new housing construction, irrespective of the market cycle.

The commonwealth should negotiate with states so that infrastructure investment and land release is closely linked to


eyond affordability

Broadening current discourse on inner-city development beyond quantitative, short-term

market delivery/feasibility, to include long-term social value & sustain rights of the citizen.

“...the city [is] not simply an economic or geographic

phenomenon, but above all, a social complex.

...If first place is given to questions of financial remuneration

and if no more of the common human factor enters into the

picture than can be enforced by building codes, then... the

life of the individual becomes atomised.”

- Sigfried Gideon, ‘Contact Between the Individual & Community’, Architecture You & Me, 1958, p158.


eyond affordability

Broadening current discourse on inner-city development beyond quantitative, short-term

market delivery/feasibility, to include long-term social value & sustain rights of the citizen.

‘the right to

self-management’

‘the right

to culture’

‘the right

to (public)

services’

‘the right to

identity within

difference’

‘Rights of the Citizen’, Lefebvre, Henri, eds. Stuart Elden, Elizabeth Lebas, &

Eleonore Kofman, Henri Lefebvre: key writings, New York: Continuum, 2003, p250-253.


the architect's framework

Navigating site & time constraints, types, public & private


civic agency

+

1 2

CIVITAS

agentia


civic agency

Magnette, Paul, Citizenship: The History of an Idea, Colchester: ECPR Press, 2005, p19.

1

CIVITAS

(Latin)

Citizenship, espcially as

imparting shared responsibility,

a common purpose,

and sense of community.

Instead of Greek politeia (city is superior to

citizen), Latin first recognises the citizen

(from which ‘city’ & ‘citizenship’ are derived)-

based on kinship not on territory.

“Citizenship is a status of reciprocity”.


civic agency

Online Etymology Dictionary, 2016.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2015.

2

agentia

(Medieval Latin, 1650s)

Active operation.

(Sociology / Philosophy)

The exercise of an agent’s capacity to act in a given environment.


agency

Hewson, Martin (2010). “Agency”, in Encyclopedia of Case Study Research, ed. Albert J. Mills et

al, LA: SAGE Publications, 2010, pp 13-17.

2

agency

Hewson’s Classification:

individual proxy collective

‘I act on my own

behalf ’

‘Someone else acts on

my behalf ’

‘we act together’


agency

Hewson, Martin (2010). “Agency”, in Encyclopedia of Case Study Research, ed. Albert J. Mills et

al, LA: SAGE Publications, 2010, pp 13-17.

‘I act on my own

behalf ’

‘Someone else acts on

my behalf ’

‘we act together’


social capital

OECD, ‘What is Social Capital?’, OECD Insights: Human Capital, last updated 20 Feb 2007,

https://www.oecd.org/insights/37966934.pdf.

social capital

(OECD, 2007)

“the links, shared values and understandings in society that enable

individuals and groups to trust each other and so work together”

(Robert Putnam, “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital”, 1995)

“social networks”

= norms of reciprocity

= trust + cooperation

= improved security + trade

“making democracy work”


social capital

OECD, ‘What is Social Capital?’, OECD Insights: Human Capital, last updated 20 Feb 2007,

https://www.oecd.org/insights/37966934.pdf.

social capital

(OECD, 2007)

“bonds” “bridges” “linkages”


1

common ground

Ground plane as civic interface & catalyst


common ground

“No apartment is an island”:

Connecting continguous residential sites & reinforcing sociocultural adacencies

• Conventional multi-residential towers

remain insular to individual

plots

• ‘Turning its back to the street’

Impermeability denies public

• engagement & breeds isolation

• Erosion of social capital & ‘neighbour’

Albert Tower, St Kilda Road Southbank

Source: Rothelowman


common ground

“No apartment is an island”:

Connecting continguous residential sites & reinforcing sociocultural adacencies

• Conventional multi-residential towers

remain insular to individual

plots

• ‘Turning its back to the street’

Impermeability denies public

• engagement & breeds isolation

• Erosion of social capital & ‘neighbour’

My80 Tower, Melbourne CBD

Source: Peter Clarke


common ground

“No apartment is an island”:

Connecting continguous residential sites & reinforcing sociocultural adacencies

• Conventional multi-residential towers

remain insular to individual

plots

• ‘Turning its back to the street’

Impermeability denies public

• engagement & breeds isolation

• Erosion of social capital & ‘neighbour’

• Potential to democratise through-access

and protect urban continuity

• Establish common ground plane across

multiple private developments:

new procurement model needed

• Permeable social layer at street level

• Implement horizontal ‘setback’ zoning?


common ground

“No apartment is an island”: Plot Ratio

Source (left): Plot Ratio: A Plan to Combat Congestion in London, London County Council, 1957


common ground

“No apartment is an island”: Planar Consideration of Plot Ratio


common ground

Architectural legibility of civic ground, diversity and access


common ground

High-rise homogeneity & insularity: prevailing apartment model

• ‘Locked Lobby’:

developer’s modus operandi

• Gated vertical communities

seen as a typological ‘norm’

• Inert street interfaces

• Monocultural branding

• Poor civic utility

My80 Tower, Melbourne CBD

Source: Peter Clarke


common ground

“No apartment is an island”:

Connecting continguous residential sites & reinforcing sociocultural adacencies

• ‘Locked Lobby’:

developer’s modus operandi

• Gated vertical communities

seen as a typological ‘norm’

• Inert street interfaces

• Monocultural branding

• Poor civic utility

• ‘Open Lobby’: Time-sensitive programming

• Intelligent, culturally productive shared interfaces

• Programmatic flexibility managed by both body

corporate and in part by residents

• Policy level change needed for large-scale adoption:

Re-evaluate zone overlays, prompt developers/

architects of adjacent sites to negotiate shared space

prior to lodging of planning drawings


HSBC Headquarters by Foster + Partners, Hong Kong - Atrium on Weekday

Source: Foster + Partners


HSBC Headquarters by Foster + Partners, Hong Kong - Atrium on Weekend

Source: Foster + Partners


HSBC Headquarters by Foster + Partners, Hong Kong - Occupy Protests Nov 2011

Photo by Thomas Lee / Bloomberg via Getty. Source: The New Yorker


2

amenity-share

Pooling public & private amenity, rethinking connections


Melbourne CBD Typical apartment amenities

Sources: Elenberg Fraser (above), Rothelowman (below).


amenity-share

Current model of private access to generic amenity assets in luxury apartment developments:

Unsustainable duplicates, siloing of social interactions


amenity-share

Best locations (views, solar access) in high-density environments are private:

Vertical gradient of real-estate value and displacement of street-level desirability casuses

power imbalances between public and private, and instigate identity-related inequality.


amenity-share

Current model of private access to generic amenity assets in luxury apartment developments:

Unsustainable duplicates, siloing of social interactions


amenity-share

Redefining ‘communal space’: disembedding amenity & sharing with adjacent sites

Reducing unnecessary duplication & strengthening existing civic infrastructure

Public gym, pool, oval, sports facilities

Public parks and landscaping

Home-offices & consultancies

Bookable multi-purpose

halls & recreation rooms

Subsidised studio &

workshop spaces

Community legal services

Childcare & education support services


amenity-share

Redefining ‘communal space’: disembedding amenity & sharing with adjacent sites

Reducing unnecessary duplication & strengthening existing civic infrastructure


amenity-share

Potential for high-rise residential typology to have more horizontal ‘rhizomatic’ relations:

Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari, A thousand plateaus: capitalism and schizophrenia.

London: Continuum, 2004.


amenity-share

Potential for high-rise residential typology to have more horizontal ‘rhizomatic’ relations:

Image source: eprints.usq.edu.au.


amenity-share

Potential for high-rise residential typology to have more horizontal ‘rhizomatic’ relations:

Programmatic links across sites, restructuring vertical hierarchies between public & private.


uilding review

Potential for high-rise residential typology to have more horizontal ‘rhizomatic’ relations:

Linked Hybrid, Beijing by Stephen Holl Architects. Source: Archdaily

+

walkable

intermediate

connections

programmatic

variation

typological

reinvention


uilding review

Potential for high-rise residential typology to have more horizontal ‘rhizomatic’ relations:

Linked Hybrid, Beijing by Stephen Holl Architects. Source: Archdaily


uilding review

Potential for high-rise residential typology to have more horizontal ‘rhizomatic’ relations:

Linked Hybrid, Beijing by Stephen Holl Architects. Source: Archdaily


uilding review

‘Rhizomatic’ relations not yet autonomous- many unconventional/experimental typologies are

costly and thus rely heavily on capitalist (even laissez-faire) development.

Linked Hybrid, Beijing by Stephen Holl Architects. Source: Archdaily

+ -

walkable

intermediate

connections

fortress’ site

single-developer

multi-tower

development

programmatic

variation

typological

reinvention

private program

private access

Unwalkable ground

plane & scale

imabalance

Poor street-level

density & intensity


uilding review

Potential for high-rise residential typology to have more horizontal ‘rhizomatic’ relations:

Linked Hybrid, Beijing by Stephen Holl Architects. Source: Archdaily

-

fortress’ site

single-developer

multi-tower

development

private program

private access

Unwalkable ground

plane & scale

imabalance

Poor street-level

density & intensity


uilding review

Potential for high-rise residential typology to have more horizontal ‘rhizomatic’ relations:

Linked Hybrid, Beijing by Stephen Holl Architects. Source: Archdaily


6

self-governance

Gaps for community ownership & operation


self-governance

Importance of distributed responsibility amongst occupants for mid-to-high density

neighbourhood creation and sustainable security.


33M by Elenberg Fraser, Melbourne CBD

Source: Peter Clarke (left), Domain (right)


Heller Street Park & Residences by Six Degrees Architects, Brunswick

Source: Patrick Rodgriguez


Heller Street Park & Residences by Six Degrees Architects, Brunswick

Source: Hansen


4

social stamina

Demographic diversity, mixed-dwelling models


demographic diversity

Democratising urban fabric and access to inner-city housing

Integration over fragmentation in zoning controls


demographic diversity

Democratising urban fabric and access to inner-city housing

Integration over fragmentation in zoning controls


demographic diversity

Democratising urban fabric and access to inner-city housing

Integration over fragmentation in zoning controls


ethinking delivery

Commitment to a more equitable property market


Nightingale Model instigated by Breathe Architecture, across various inner Melbourne sites

Triple-bottom-line, architect driven multi-residential development model geared towards owner-occupiers.

Source: Andrew Wuttke


melbourne: nightingale model

Triple-bottom-line “open source” multi-residential development model, architect-driven, geared towards owner-occupiers.

Source: Nightingale website.


melbourne: nightingale model

Triple-bottom-line “open source” multi-residential development model, architect-driven, geared towards owner-occupiers.

Source: Nightingale website.


First Nightingale Project: The Commons, Brunswick by Breathe Architecture

Source: Andrew Wuttke


First Nightingale Project: The Commons, Brunswick by Breathe Architecture

Source: Andrew Wuttke


First Nightingale Project: The Commons, Brunswick by Breathe Architecture

Source: Andrew Wuttke


First Nightingale Project: The Commons, Brunswick by Breathe Architecture

Source: Andrew Wuttke (left), James Geer (right)


melbourne: nightingale model

Staging of architect-led open-source model + ethical investors + purchaser engagement

Source: Nightingale website.

?

1 2 3

4 ?

?

?


eadjusting the architect's framework

Where is civic amenity in the Better Apartment Standards?

‘Better Apartments’, DELWP, Victorian Planning Authority Website, April 2015.


the architect's framework

Detail > Form > Type > Adjacent > Urban > Timescale > Market Behaviour > New Norms

Gifu Kitagata Apartments, SANAA


the architect's framework

Detail > Form > Type > Adjacent > Urban > Timescale > Market Behaviour > New Norms


the architect's framework

Detail > Form > Type > Adjacent > Urban > Timescale > Market Behaviour > New Norms


the architect's framework

Detail > Form > Type > Adjacent > Urban > Timescale > Market Behaviour > New Norms


the architect's framework

Detail > Form > Type > Adjacent > Urban > Timescale > Market Behaviour > New Norms


the architect's framework

Detail > Form > Type > Adjacent > Urban > Timescale > Market Behaviour > New Norms

Deterministic

‘a-hand-in-everything’

Darwinistic

‘hands-off ’

Opportunistic

‘hands-on’

Jesko Fezer, Civic City CAhier 6: Design In & Against the Neoliberal City,

London: Bedford Press, 2013, p24.


next steps

From abstract research to tangible reality: incremental changes to policy, management,

interdisciplinary probing required to enable liveable realities to surface at the citizen interface.


next steps

From abstract research to tangible reality: incremental changes to policy, management,

interdisciplinary probing required to enable liveable realities to surface at the citizen interface.


next steps

From abstract research to tangible reality: incremental changes to policy, management,

interdisciplinary probing required to enable liveable realities to surface at the citizen interface.


next steps

From abstract research to tangible reality: incremental changes to policy, management,

interdisciplinary probing required to enable liveable realities to surface at the citizen interface.


next steps

From abstract research to tangible reality: incremental changes to policy, management,

interdisciplinary probing required to enable liveable realities to surface at the citizen interface.


next steps

From abstract research to tangible reality: incremental changes to policy, management,

interdisciplinary probing required to enable liveable realities to surface at the citizen interface.


next steps

From abstract research to tangible reality: incremental changes to policy, management,

interdisciplinary probing required to enable liveable realities to surface at the citizen interface.


next steps

From abstract research to tangible reality: incremental changes to policy, management,

interdisciplinary probing required to enable liveable realities to surface at the citizen interface.

More magazines by this user