Macular edema is condition in diabetes patient’s that results in a retinal thickening within 2 disc diameter of the center of the macula. This results from changes in retinal microvascular that compromise the blood retinal barrier and cause leakage of plasma in the surrounding retina causing retinal edema. Due to the leakage in blood vessels fluid is accumulated in part of retina that controls most of the vision. Diabetic Macular Edema (DME) is caused in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is disease that damages the normal functioning of blood vessels in retina. The untreated blood vessels begins to create pressure in the eyes and leakage in eye. DME and diabetes retinopathy is common problems faced by diabetic patients. As per the report of American Diabetes Association in 2012, 29.1 million of Americans were diagnosed diabetic that contributes 9.3% of population have diabetes. In 2005-2008, in U.S. adults with diabetes aged 40 years and older, 4.2 million were diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy. As per a research published in 2013 reported 2.6% of global blindness is caused by diabetes condition. As per the report of WHO in 2016, the number of prevalent cases of diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 and is expected to be rising faster in middle and low income countries. There are two kind of DME based on the mechanism of in which fluid enters macula: Focal DME is caused due to abnormalities in blood vessels, which is also known as microaneurysms. Diffuse DME is caused by the widening or swelling of retinal capillaries. The treatment for focal and diffuse DME differ but both involves treatment with laser procedure. Focal DME is mostly treated with focal laser and diffuse DME is treated with grid laser treatment. Both the treatment processes involves treating the leakage in the macula. Chronic inflammation is also expected to promote vascular dysfunction and occlusion. The consequences of vascular dysfunction includes hypoxia. In response to local hypoxia affected tissues increases the production of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The ideal treatment for diabetic macular edema includes primary prevention.