2 | International Alert When merely existing is a risk Acknowledgements The authors would like to explicitly thank the individuals and communities who shared their insights with us during the research, some at great risk. Special thanks are due to Georges Azzi, Lana Khattab, Diana López Castañeda, Charbel Maydaa and Jana Naujoks for their central role in carrying out much of the field research, and to Leila Lohman and Jean Paul Zapata for their background research. We also thank all of the International Alert staff, especially our numerous internal reviewers for their constructive input, as well as our external reviewers, Judy El-Bushra, Kit Dorey, Nvard Margaryan, Melanie Richter-Montpetit, Chloé Lewis, Kurniawan Muhammad, Lewis Turner and Callum Watson, for their supportive and invaluable comments. This research was generously made possible by a grant from the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. International Alert is also grateful for the support of our strategic donors: the UK Department for International Development; the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency; the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs; and the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. The opinions expressed in this report are solely those of International Alert and do not necessarily reflect the opinions or policies of our donors. About the authors Henri Myrttinen is the Head of Gender at International Alert. He has been working and publishing on issues of gender, peace and security with a special focus on masculinities and violence for the past decade and holds a PhD in Conflict Resolution and Peace Studies from the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Megan Daigle is an independent consultant specialising in gender and security. She has researched and published on issues of sexuality, gender, human rights, development, violence and peacebuilding, particularly in the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa. She holds a PhD in International Politics from Aberystwyth University.
When merely existing is a risk International Alert | 3 Contents Abbreviations 4 Key terminology 5 Executive summary 6 1. Introduction 8 1.1 Regarding terminology 9 1.2 Heterogeneous categories 10 1.3 Structure 12 2. SGMs and inclusive peacebuilding 13 3. Violence and vulnerability – in and out of conflict 15 3.1 Continuums of violence and discrimination 15 3.2 Intersectionality and differences in vulnerability 16 3.3 Forms of violence and discrimination 17 3.4 Targeted violence against SGM persons 17 3.5 Policing of gender norms 19 3.6 Blackmail, extortion and harassment 21 4. Legal, social and ideological frameworks of exclusion 23 4.1 Extralegal harassment and violence 24 4.2 Ideologies of exclusion 25 4.3 Social exclusion and isolation 27 4.4 Poverty and lack of access to social services 28 4.5 Impacts of SGM exclusion 29 5. Using peace processes to push for change 30 5.1 Claiming spaces 31 5.2 ‘Looking in’: What integrating SGM perspectives means for peacebuilders 32 5.3 Internal practices and policies 33 6. Conclusion 34 7. Recommendations 35