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Table 25: Livelihood by

Table 25: Livelihood by Province Copperbelt Eastern Lusaka Western Total Micro-Retail Business 2 26 26 48 102 Farmer 1 40 2 29 72 Informal Labor Services 5 26 17 21 69 Formal Worker 20 4 7 1 32 Dependent 24 15 39 2 80 Total 52 111 91 101 355 As mentioned in Chapter 1, we asked respondents a series of questions from the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI) that captured their likelihood of living below the poverty line. The following compares respondents’ likelihood of living below the Göttingen Poverty Line of $2.00 per day. 1 Similar to our discussion in Chapter 1, we reviewed PPI scores by province, which revealed some notable differences in poverty likelihoods. Respondents in Eastern Province were the most likely group to be living below the poverty line, followed by Western Province, while respondents in Copperbelt Province were the least likely to do so. Table 26: PPI Scores by Province Average PPI Score Likelihood of Living below the Poverty Line Copperbelt 71.4 28.5% Eastern 36.7 96.4% Lusaka 56.1 56.5% Western 41.0 89.2% Micro-retail business owners, farmers, and informal service workers all had very high likelihoods of living below the poverty line. Formally employed workers were the least likely among the different livelihoods to be living below the poverty line. Table 27: PPI Score by Livelihood Average PPI Score Likelihood of Living below the Poverty Line Micro-Retail Businesses 45.1 83.3% Farmer 35.5 96.4% Informal Labor Services 46.5 83.3% Formal Employment 70.4 28.5% Dependent 57.8 56.5% RESPONDENT TRANSACTIONS INFLOWS In Chapter 2, we explored the weekly income behavior of respondents by livelihood. Continuing from that section, we examine the same characteristics by gender. Men had more sources of income than women did and earned more than twice what women earned per week, on average. The $2.00 figure mentioned here was adjusted based on the purchasing power parity (PPP) from 2005. Go To Menu 51

Table 28: Income and Income Sources by Gender Number of Income Sources Average Weekly Income (ZMW) Male 5.3 364 Female 4.5 170 Total 4.8 253 If we take into consideration that women were more likely to be dependents, it would make sense for them to have fewer income sources and earn less than men did, on average. If we exclude dependents from the analysis, women had a slightly greater number of income sources than men did, but women still earned roughly two-thirds of what men earned. Table 29: Income and Income Sources by Gender, Excluding Dependents Number of Income Sources Average Weekly Income (ZMW) Male 5.4 378 Female 5.8 252 Total 5.6 318 Respondents in Copperbelt Province earned the most per week, on average, while those in Eastern Province earned the least. Respondents in Western Province had the greatest number of income sources, while respondents in Copperbelt Province had the fewest, though they only had slightly fewer sources than respondents in Lusaka Province did. Table 30: Average Weekly Income and Number of Income Sources by Province Number of Income Sources Average Weekly Earnings (ZMW) Copperbelt 2.3 479 Eastern 5.6 127 Lusaka 2.7 260 Western 7.1 285 The data suggest that the respondents’ incomes were highly variable during the study, and women’s incomes were more variable than men’s (Table 31). Table 31: Average COV and Zero Income Weeks by Gender Average COV Zero Income Weeks as a Proportion of Total Weeks Male 1.8 50% Female 2.4 61% However, as we discussed in Chapter 2, dependents were more likely to have high levels of income variation due to their limited number of income sources and plentiful zero income weeks. When we exclude dependents from this analysis, we find that men and women had the same level of income variation, and we find that women actually had slightly fewer zero income weeks than men did. 52 Go To Menu