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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION 3 Chapter 1: Sample Overview 5 Respondent Characteristics 5 Chapter 2: Description of Respondents’ Transactions 11 Income 11 Household Spending 16 Financial Tools and Networks 20 Chapter 3: Attitudes Toward Risk Management, Future Planning, and Financial Service Providers 27 Trust 27 Time Horizons 28 Conclusions 29 Chapter 4: Cash Flow Management and Consumption Smoothing 31 Income Segments and Consumption Smoothing 32 Financial Tools and Consumption Smoothing 35 Chapter 5: Managing Unusual Purchases And Events 39 Managing Lump Sum Purchases 39 Asset Purchases 41 Life Cycle Events 42 Emergencies 43 Chapter 6: Implications And Policy Recommendations 45 Technical Annex 47 Methodology 47 Sample: Respondent Characteristics 47 Respondent Transactions 51 Cash Flow Management 66 Lump Sum Purchases 67 Go To Menu i

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Respondent Map - Country View 5 Figure 2: Respondent Map - Province View 5 Figure 3: Farmer Breakdown by Province 7 Figure 4: Farming Households’ Consumption of Crops from Most Recent Harvest 7 Figure 5: Histogram of Respondents’ Ages 8 Figure 6: Respondents’ Asset Ownership 8 Figure 7: Household Ownership 9 Figure 8: Average Number of Income Sources by COV 12 Figure 9: Average Number of Income Sources by Proportion of Zero Income Weeks to Total 13 Figure 10: Income Segmentation Model by Livelihood 14 Figure 11: Income Seasonality - Micro-Retail Businesses 15 Figure 12: Income Seasonality - Informal Labor Services 15 Figure 13: Income Seasonality - Farmers 16 Figure 14: Size and Frequency of Top 3 Business Spending Categories 17 Figure 15: Distribution of Household Spending by Gender 18 Figure 16: Distribution of Household Spending by Income Segment, Amounts 19 Figure 17: Distribution of Household Spending by Income Segment, Share of Amount 19 Figure 18: Seasonality of Agricultural Purchases by Farming Households 20 Figure 19: Financial Network Use by Gender 21 Figure 20: Financial Service Use During the Study 22 Figure 21: Financial Service Amounts by Respondent Intensity of Use 23 Figure 22: Financial Service Use by Respondent Intensity of Use 24 Figure 23: The Consumption Smoothing Challenge 31 Figure 24: Martha’s Cash Flows 32 Figure 25: Average Income, Spending and Balances by Income Segment 33 Figure 26: Income and Spending Variation by Income Segment 34 Figure 27: Income and Expenses Before and After Childbirth, Woman 42 Figure 28: Income and Expenses Before and After Childbirth, Man 43 Figure 29: Average Household Size per Province 49 Figure 30: Household Ownership by Province 49 Figure 31: Water Access by Province 50 Figure 32: Access to the Electrical Grid by Province 50 Figure 33: Income Segmentation by Gender 53 Figure 34: Income Segmentation by Province 54 Figure 35: Distribution of Household Spending by Province 55 Figure 36: Distribution of Household Spending by Livelihood 56 Figure 37: Household Spending Seasonality by Gender 57 Figure 39: Average Weekly Business Expenditures 58 Figure 40: Financial Tool Use 60 ii Go To Menu

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