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Figure 37: Household

Figure 37: Household Spending Seasonality by Gender Only respondents in Copperbelt Province displayed any kind of seasonal spending spikes upon reviewing the provincial data. These spikes included peaks around the Christmas and summer holidays and dips during the hunger season. Western Province also experienced a slight increase in spending around the harvest time immediately following the hunger season. Looking at Eastern Province and Lusaka Province, however, we did not see seasonal spending like in the other provinces. For Eastern Province, where we saw no spike in spending around harvest time, the likely explanation is that respondents held onto a greater proportion of their crops for consumption when compared to farmers in Western and Lusaka Provinces. 1 This limited the amount of money respondents could earn from their crops, reducing the amount they could spend later on in the study. Another factor affecting the provinces’ spending was the depreciation of the kwacha against the dollar throughout 2015, resulting in inflation towards the latter half of the study. Whereas respondents in Lusaka Province were slightly better off than Eastern Province respondents were, they were more likely able to respond to the increased prices by slightly spending more. Respondents in Eastern Province, with their limited means, were more likely to spend less due to the higher prices and to rely more on their own subsistence. Although a higher proportion of farmers in Copperbelt reported keeping their crops for consumption than in Eastern, the sample of farming households in Copperbelt was about one-tenth that of the sample in Eastern, leading us to exclude Copperbelt from this discussion on crop consumption. Go To Menu 57

Figure 38: Household Spending Seasonality by Province In terms of business expenditures, we see that micro-retail business operators outspent the other livelihoods in this area. Dependents spent the least as their businesses only tended to be part-time and, therefore, required fewer and smaller purchases. Figure 39: Average Weekly Business Expenditures We also see slight differences in the spending habits of male and female micro-business owners. Though male micro-business owners spent almost twice as much per week as female micro-business owners did, women conducted almost twice as many business transactions per week as men did. Farmers and informal service workers had roughly similar business expenditure behavior regardless of gender. 58 Go To Menu

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