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PEACE

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Peacebuilding &

Peacebuilding & peacekeeping expenditure Peacebuilding and peacekeeping expenditure has approximately doubled during last nine years. Peacekeeping expenditure includes the contribution by countries to UN peacekeeping missions which has nearly tripled from 2007 to 2015. Peacekeeping expenditure include spending on military and civilian personnel and the operational cost of the UN peacekeeping missions. Peacebuilding expenditure is composed of categories of ODA that aim to sustain peace in the longer term. The expenditures include supporting the provision of basic safety and security and post-conflict institutional building for peace. This may involve disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programs, removal of land mines and civilian peacebuilding and mediation activities. Box 1 lists the different categories of peacebuilding expenditure considered. Peacekeeping expenditure includes all the expenditures to maintain the 16 UN peacekeeping missions currently active. It includes all payments to military and civilian personnel, operational costs to maintain peace and security, facilitate political processes, protect civilians, assist in the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants, support the organization of elections, protect and promote human rights and assist in restoring the rule of law. These expenditures are borne by the international community and recorded each year by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. BOX 1 CATEGORIES OF PEACEBUILDING EXPENDITURE The following 17 categories are based on three peacebuilding priority areas identified as peacebuilding expenditure by the 2009 report of the UN Secretary-General on ‘Peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict’. Priority area 1 BASIC SAFETY AND SECURITY • Security system management and reform • Reintegration and small arms and light weapons (SALW) control • Removal of land mines and explosive remnants of war • Child soldiers (prevention and demobilisation) • Participation in international peacekeeping operations Priority area 2 INCLUSIVE POLITICAL PROCESSES • Legal and judicial development • Legislatures and political parties • Anti-corruption organisations and institutions • Democratic participation and civil society • Media and free flow of information • Human rights • Women’s equality organisations and institutions • Civilian peacebuilding, conflict prevention and resolution Priority area 3 CORE GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONS • Public sector policy and administrative management • Public finance management • Decentralisation and support to subnational government OTHER • Specific peace-related expenditures. CONSTANT 2014 US$, MILLIONS FIGURE 21 PEACEBUILDING AND PEACEKEEPING EXPENDITURE, 2007-2015 Both peacebuilding and peacekeeping expenditures have followed a similar trajectory since 2007. 8,500 8,000 7,500 7,000 6,500 6,000 5,500 5,000 4,500 Peacekeeping Peacebuilding 4,000 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Source: UN, IEP THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF PEACE 2016 | Results & Trends 28

Conflict Conflict has a substantial economic impact, through the loss of life, the displacement of civilian population, associated types of violence such as terrorism and GDP losses. The economic impact of conflict has increased over the past nine years by approximately 150 per cent and now stands at $739 billion. The increase has been driven by the conflicts in MENA, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. While the total cost of conflict has been rising, the costs from purely external conflicts have fallen. The cost of deaths from external conflict did increase by 44 per cent in 2015, however, it is still 70 per cent lower than it was in 2007. The involvement of the international community in the war against ISIL in Iraq and Syria has contributed to greater costs in the external conflict category in the last year but the drawdown of international troops from Iraq and Afghanistan has more than counter-balanced it. Conversely, the cost arising due to battle deaths from internal conflict has increased more than 400 per cent from its 2007 levels. Figure 22 shows this diverging trend in costs associated with internal and external conflict. FIGURE 22 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF VIOLENCE FROM INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ARMED CONFLICTS Costs associated with internal violent conflicts have increased substantially, but the cost of external conflicts has fallen by more than half. 500 ECONOMIC IMPACT OF VIOLENCE INDEXED TO 2007 (2007=100) 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Internal conflict External conflict 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Source: IEP “ The economic impact of conflict has increased over the past nine years by approximately 150 per cent and now stands at $739 billion. The increase has been driven by the conflicts in MENA, sub- Saharan Africa and South Asia. THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF PEACE 2016 | Results & Trends 29

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