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ENDNOTES 1. Mottaghi,

ENDNOTES 1. Mottaghi, L., ‘The Impact of War and Peace in MENA’, The World Bank, 2016. 2. Stiglitz, J., and Blims, L., ‘The $3 trillion war.’, New Perspectives Quarterly, 2008, 25.2, p.61-64. 3. United Nations High Commission For Refugees, ‘Global Trends Forced Displacement in 2015.’, 2016, accessed 21 July 2016, http://www.unhcr.org/576408cd7 4. U.S. Department of Defence, ‘Weekly Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) Cost Report through May 15, 2016.’, 2016, accessed 15 July 2016, http://www.defense.gov/ Portals/1/features/2014/0814_iraq/costUpdates/ISIL_ Master_Report_-_15May16.pdf 5. Brück, T., ‘An Economic Analysis of Security Policies’, Defence and Peace Economics, 2005. 6. The definition of Fragile situation or state is taken from the 2016 OECD States of Fragility report 7. Only developing, oil importing countries in the region are included to avoid the effects of oil price decline 8. Note this data differs very slightly to SIPRI military expenditure trend data due to slightly different GDP data. Also note SIPRI and IEP measurement years differ by one year. 9. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Central Government Expenditure https://data.oecd.org/gga/ central-government-spending.htm, and 10. Gaibulloev, K., and Sandler, T., ‘The Impact of Terrorism and Conflicts on Growth in Asia, 1970–2004.’ 2009, Asian Development Bank Institute. 11. Brauer, J., and Marlin, J.t., ‘Nonkilling Economics: Calculating the size of peace gross world product’, Toward Nonkilling, 2009, p. 125-148. 12. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, ‘Military Expenditure Database’, 2016, accessed 1 July 2016, https:// www.sipri.org/databases/milex 13. SIPRI fact sheet Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2015 and 2016, accessed 14 May 2016, http://books.sipri. org/files/FS/SIPRIFS1604.pdf 14. Reuters, ‘Russia’s Putin Order Cuts to Interior Ministry Payroll As Economy Struggles’, 13 July 2015, accessed 15 May 2016, http://www.themoscowtimes.com/news/article/ russias-putin-order-cuts-to-interior-ministry-payroll-aseconomy-struggles/525531.html 15. Le Bronge, E., ‘Spillovers from the Syrian crisis stretching Lebanon to the breaking point’, The World Bank, 2013, accessed 22 June 2016, http://wwwwds.worldbank. org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/ IB/2013/09/24/000333037 _20130924111238/Rendered/ PDF/810980LB0box379831B00P14754500PUBLIC0.pdf 16. Collier, P., ‘On the economic consequences of civil war.’, Oxford economic paper, 51(1), 168-183, 1999. 17. Sgueo, G., ‘Counter terrorism funding in the EU budget.’, 2015, accessed 22 June 2016, http://www.europarl. europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2015/559490/EPRS_ BRI(2015)559490_EN.pdf 18. A scenario in which the cost of violence was maintained at pre-war levels. 19. SIPRI fact sheet Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2015 and 2016, accessed 14 May 2016, http://books.sipri. org/files/FS/SIPRIFS1604.pdf 20. Davidson, J. R., ‘The association of sexual assault and attempted suicide within the community.’ 1996, Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 530-555. 21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ‘Sexual Violence: Prevention Strategies’, 2016, accessed 2nd August 2016, http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/ sexualviolence/prevention.html 22. Grabosky, P. N., ‘Fear of crime, and fear reduction strategies.’ Current Issues Criminal Justice 1995, accessed 27 July 2016, http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein. journals/cicj7&div=6&id=&page 23. SIPRI fact sheet Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2016, accessed 14 May 2016, http://books.sipri.org/files/ FS/SIPRIFS1604.pdf 24. European Commission, ‘Turkey: refugee crisis’, 2016, accessed 14 May 2016, http://ec.europa.eu/echo/files/aid/ countries/factsheets/turkey_syrian_crisis_en.pdf 25. United Nations High Commission For Refugees, ‘Global Trends Forced Displacement in 2015.’, 2016, accessed 14 May 2016, http://www.unhcr.org/576408cd7 26. United Nations High Commission For Refugees, ‘Global Trends Forced Displacement in 2015.’, 2016, accessed 14 May 2016, http://www.unhcr.org/576408cd7 27. http://www.defense.gov/News/Special-Reports/0814_ Inherent-Resolve 28. Data on public order and safety is sourced from IMF Government Financing Statistics (FGS). Public order and safety is defined in the Systems of National Accounts (SNA) as government spending on police services, law courts, prisons, fire protection services and R&D on public safety. The analysis undertaken here is on data for the latest available year for public order and safety as percentage of GDP. 29. Brauer, J., and Marlin, J.t., ‘Nonkilling Economics: Calculating the size of peace gross world product’, Toward Nonkilling, 2009, p. 125-148. 30. McCollister, K. E., Michael T. F., and Fang, H. ‘The cost of crime to society: New crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation.’ 2010, Drug and alcohol dependence 108.1, p. 98-109. 31. Dolan, P., Peasgood, T. ‘Estimating the economic and social costs of the fear of crime.’ 2007, British Journal of Criminology 47.1 p. 121-132. THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF PEACE 2016 | Endnotes 48

MEASURING AND UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF TERRORISM CONCEPTUALISING AND MEASURING THE ATTITUDES, INSTITUTIONS AND STRUCTURES THAT BUILD A MORE PEACEFUL SOCIETY 12 ENTREVISTAS CON CONSTRUCTORES DE PAZ GlobalPeaceIndex LOWERING CORRUPTION MEASURING AND UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF TERRORISM A GLOBAL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE EMPIRICAL LINK BETWEEN PEACE AND RELIGION Other publications from the Institute for Economics and Peace 2016 Positive Peace Report Institute for Economics and Peace, Aug 2016 Peace and Corruption Institute for Economics and Peace, May 2015 This report investigates the eight domains of Positive Peace, why they are important, and how they work together to reduce levels of violence and improve resilience. The relationship between peace and corruption is statistically significant, as corruption is a leading indicator of peace. 2016 Global Peace Index Institute for Economics and Peace, June 2016 2015 Mexico Peace Index Institute for Economics and Peace, Mar 2014 A statistical analysis of the state of peace in 163 countries outlining trends in peace and conflict, the economic cost of violence, and an assessment of SDG 16. The Mexico Peace Index measures the state of peace in all 32 Mexican states analysing trends and drivers of peace over the last decade. 2016 Mexico Peace Index Institute for Economics and Peace, Apr 2016 2014 Global Terrorism Index Report Institute for Economics and Peace, Nov 2014 The 2016 Mexico Peace Index analyses Mexico’s progress in improving peacefulness from the height of the drug war through 2015. 2014 The 2014 Global Terrorism Index Report analyses the impact of terrorism in 162 countries and identifies the social, economic and political factors associated with it. 2015 Global Terrorism Index Institute for Economics and Peace, Nov 2015 The Link between Peace and Religion Institute for Economics and Peace, Oct 2014 The 2015 Global Terrorism Index Report analyses the impact of terrorism in 162 countries and identifies the social, economic and political factors associated with it. A global statistical analysis on the empirical link between peace and religion. 2015 Positive Peace Report Institute for Economics and Peace, Oct 2015 2014 Global Peace Index Institute for Economics and Peace, Feb 2014 This report introduces new thinking and evidence about Positive Peace. It includes the Positive Peace Index, which measures Positive Peace in 162 countries, covering 99 per cent of the world’s population. The 2014 GPI Report analyses the state of peace around the world and identifies countries most at risk of becoming less peaceful. Radical Realism Institute for Economics and Peace, Sept 2015 The Economic Cost of Violence Containment Institute for Economics and Peace, Feb 2014 Twelve interviews with peacebuilders on developing the attitudes, institutions and structures of Positive Peace in Mexico. A new methodology that calculates the cost of preventing and containing violence in over 150 countries. 2015 Global Peace Index Institute for Economics and Peace, June 2015 Pillars of Peace Institute for Economics and Peace, Sept 2013 A statistical analysis of the state of peace in 162 countries and an assessment of the attitudes, structures and institutions that sustain peaceful societies. Pillars of Peace is a new conceptual framework for understanding and describing the factors that create a peaceful society. AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD AT WWW.ECONOMICSANDPEACE.ORG

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