1 year ago

Brexit Movement of Goods and the Supply Chain



SPECIAL TRADE COMMISSION 10.2 From a customs perspective, ANZCERTA does not insist on harmonised customs legislation between Australia and New Zealand, nor does it require that both countries administer their customs legislation in the same way. Each customs agency makes its own risk assessments and conducts their day-to-day customs administration within the different contexts pertaining to each country. 10.3 There are differences between Australia’s and New Zealand’s customs legal framework and systems in a number of areas including reporting, revenue and payment requirements, customs clearance, approaches to low value consignments, and customs processing systems. 10.4 What ANZCERTA does is provide an effective and mutually accepted framework for ongoing cooperation between the respective customs administrations with the objective of improving border management at the same time as endeavouring as far as possible to reduce compliance costs for business. 10.5 As far back as 1988 there was a “Joint Understanding on the Harmonisation of Customs Policies and Procedures” entered into by the respective governments. There are formal annual meetings between Customs Ministers and between Agency Heads. A High Level Steering Group to address border issues was formed in 2005 and a joint time release study was conducted in 2010 to help identify and simply trans-Tasman import/export procedures. There are intelligence sharing arrangements between the respective customs/border agencies which includes tactical/operational level intelligence, the exchange of risk and threat analyses, and exchange of commercial shipping risk assessments. In July 2016 the Australian Department of Immigration and Border Protection and New Zealand Customs Service signed a Mutual Recognition Agreement under the auspices of ANZCERTA to recognise the supply chain security programs of both countries. 10.6 The shared goal of both Australian and New Zealand governments under the current ANZCERTA is now “a seamless business environment”, with the primary objective to “further reduce compliance costs for businesses operating in both economies, through eliminating duplicate or conflicting regulation’. The current work program is focused on four themes: 10.6.1 reducing the impact of borders; 10.6.2 regulatory coordination; 10.6.3 improving regulatory effectiveness; and 10.6.4 supporting business opportunities. 10.7 ANZCERTA could be used quite effectively as a model for customs cooperation and perhaps mutual recognition of specific approaches to customs/border issues between the UK and EU post-Brexit but at least part of its effectiveness has been the underlying comity between Australia and New Zealand; and the fact that it is implemented between countries that to an extent, share a common regulatory approach to a range of issues. Since it is envisaged under the Great Repeal Bill that product requirements will be transposed into UK law, the regulatory approach between the UK and EU will be identical at the Exit Date. However, as the UK and EU may diverge after this, the framework should reflect the fact that with respect to standards and technical regulations, the ultimate end-state for the UK-EU relationship is a free trade agreement where standards and technical regulations should not be used as disguised barriers to trade. 10.8 Its effectiveness as a model for customs cooperation is stronger with respect to alignment of customs procedures and border risk management than with respect to the actual legislation that must be put in place to underpin those procedures. ANZCERTA provides an effective mechanism for mutual recognition, in particular given that the UK will be consistent with the UCC and interoperating with EU member state authorities already. 28 |

SPECIAL TRADE COMMISSION CASE STUDY 11. THE US CANADA EXPERIENCE 11.1 The border between Canada and the USA is subject to the North American Free trade Agreement (“NAFTA”) but the two countries are not in a customs union so a full customs border is in operation. Over the period 2011 to 2015, Canada’s imports from the USA averaged $US234.6 billion, about 52% of Canada’s total imports. Exports from Canada to the USA accounted for 75% of a total of $US450 billion. The products imported and exported cross the full spectrum of goods from live animals and fresh and processed foods to natural resources, semi-processed goods and the full range of intermediate and final manufactured products. Motor vehicles and their parts alone accounted for about 20 per cent of this two-way trade, with trade in parts, many of which cross the border more than once during their production before being installed into a vehicle, accounting for about one-third of this trade. | 29

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