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HEALTH IMPACTS OF COLD HOUSING AND ENERGY POVERTY 1 angela tod university of sheffield harriet thomson university of manchester introduction A range of adverse health and well-being outcomes are caused or worsened by cold weather and living in under-heated homes, resulting in extensive costs to society. Furthermore, mortality and morbidity is most commonly experienced by those in energy poverty and/or with an additional vulnerability (Marmot Review Team, 2011). This chapter seeks to provide an overview of the known outcomes associated with cold homes, by way of case studies, and references to scientific and policy literature. We start with the issue of cold-related mortality, which is often talked about in terms of excess winter deaths. It has been estimated that energy poverty causes almost 40,000 excess winter deaths in 11 European countries each year (Braubach et al., 2011). Our attention then turns to cold-related morbidity, in terms of impacts to physical health, psychological health and mental wellbeing, and social health and isolation. Here we outline the cumulative nature of the health impacts associated with living in cold housing. Subsequently, we consider some of the present and future challenges relating to research, policy and practice on the health impacts of cold housing and energy poverty, before offering a number of conclusions and policy recommendations. cold-related mortality Population vulnerability to both high and low outdoor temperatures has long been recognised within peer-reviewed scientific journal articles, as well as in policy guidance from influential public bodies such as The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE, 2015), leading to the funding of projects such as EuroMOMO (European Monitoring of Excess Mortality for Public Health Action). HEALTH IMPACTS OF COLD HOUSING AND ENERGY POVERTY 39

Understanding Fuel Poverty - CARDI
A review of Fuel Poverty and Low Income Housing, 2002
Fuel Poverty Strategy publication - South Ayrshire Council
Energy Poverty
Handbook on Poverty and Inequality - ISBN: 9780821376133
Still cold
Wright, Christine - National Energy and Utility Affordability Conference
Mapping Poverty - Combat Poverty Agency