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ENERGY POVERTY HANDBOOK

energypovertyhandbook-online

snell, c., bevan, m. and

snell, c., bevan, m. and thomson, h. (2014) Fuel Poverty and disabled people: the impact of policy change. Retrieved from: https://www.york. ac.uk/media/spsw/documents/research-and-publications/Snell- Bevan-Thomson-EAGA-Charitable-Trust-Fuel-Poverty-And-Disabled- People-Summary.pdf Accessed: 07-10-2016. thomson, h., snell, c. and bouzarovski, s. (2016) Examining the relationship between fuel poverty and health and well-being in 32 European countries. Manuscript in preparation. thomson, h., thomas, s., sellstrom, e. and petticrew, m. (2013) Housing improvements for health and associated socioeconomic outcomes (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration: The Cochrane Library, Issue 3. tod, a. m., hirst, j. (eds.) (2014) Health and inequality: Applying Public Health Research to Policy and Practice. Routledge. London. ISBN: 978-0-415-63393-2 tod, a. m., nelson, p., cronin de chavez, a., homer, c., powell-hoyland, v. and stocks, a. (2016) Understanding influences and decisions of households with children with asthma regarding temperature and humidity in the home in winter: a qualitative study. BMJ Open, 6(1): e009636. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009636 tod, a. m., lusambili, a., homer, c., abbott, j., cooke, j. m., stocks, a. j. and mcdaid, k. a. (2012) Understanding factors influencing vulnerable older people keeping warm and well in winter: a qualitative study using social marketing techniques. BMJ Open, 2(4): e000922 doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000922 uk health forum, energy bill revolution, and friends of the earth (2013) Putting health at the heart of fuel poverty strategies. A special evidence summit on health, fuel poverty and cold homes. Event report. November 20, London. 56 HEALTH IMPACTS OF COLD HOUSING AND ENERGY POVERTY

ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK filippos anagnostopoulos and maarten de groote buildings performance institute europe introduction The European building stock presents a considerable diversity in terms of size, age, energy performance, tenure size, heating & cooling needs and choice of energy carriers. The present chapter offers a comprehensive overview of the European building stock by providing the latest available relevant statistical data. It has to be noted that there is a lack of data on European buildings and their energy consumption, exemplified clearly by the absence of renovation statistics. Europe’s population of 508 million inhabitants is occupying over 117 million1 (Buildings Performance Institute Europe, 2015). Of those buildings, 92 million are Single Family Houses (SFH – a single dwelling unit within its own building, for example a detached, semi-detached or terrace house) and 25 million are Multi Family Houses (MFH – a multi-occupancy building comprising of many dwellings, for example an apartment within a block of flats). The EU building stock is comprised of about 240 million dwellings2, which collectively have a useful floor area3 of 22,022 km2 (almost the size of Sardinia) while the average dwelling floor area4 ranges from 70m2 to 130m2 depending on the country. The 28 EU Member States cover seven climate regions (i.e. Mediterranean, Nordic, Continental, etc.5) that have affected the historical energy performance requirements of their building stock. Nordic countries, for example, adopted stricter energy performance standards ahead of Western European countries. Building standards have been improving since the 1970s across Europe and as of 2020 all new buildings will have to be nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEBs). While new construction will deliver high performing buildings, the existing building stock will need to be renovated to high standards, thus offering occupants multiple benefits, including the avoidance of energy poverty. ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK 59

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