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ENERGY POVERTY HANDBOOK

energypovertyhandbook-online

Distribution of

Distribution of population by tenure status Figure 5: Tenure status by country (Eurostat, 2014) Table 1 - Climate regions DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY TENURE STATUS Tenant, rent rent at reduced at reduced price price or freeor free Tenant, rent rent at market at market price price Owner, no no outstanding mortgage mortgage housing or housing loan loan Owner, with with mortgage mortgage loan or loan southern dry mediterranean southern continental oceanic continental northern continental nordic 100 80 60 40 20 0 Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom PT CY BG BE AT DK EE ES GR FR IE CZ LT FI IT SI UK DE PL LV MT HU RO SE LU SK NL 4. The building envelope The quality of the new housing stock has been improving continuously after the big reconstruction that followed the Second World War. A very important quality indicator leading to alleviating energy poverty is the level of insulation. Decent insulation for walls, windows, floors and roofs allows the building to be heated or cooled with an efficient use of energy. Improved energy requirements translate to reduced energy costs, improved indoor air quality, higher comfort and to a reduction of energy poverty. These requirements vary widely across Europe, to a large extent due to the climate of each region. Nordic countries, for example, developed high efficiency standards as a response to extreme cold temperatures, while continental countries benefited from the reduced range of extreme temperatures. The following table categorises the 28 Member States into seven climate regions that are used to exemplify the improvements in energy efficiency over the past century. Over the past seven decades many countries made significant improvements in the energy efficiency of their housing stock by adopting mandatory standards for new construction. The choice of the building materials determines the exchange of heat between the interior and exterior of the building and is commonly measured by U-values. Lower U-values indicate better levels of insulation. The following graphs offer a historical evolution of residential U-values for walls, windows, floors and roofs by climate region, weighted averaged over total floor area (iNSPiRe, 2014). 64 ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK 65

Figure 6 - Residential weighted average U-values for walls RESIDENTIAL WEIGHTED AVERAGE U-VALUES W/M²/K - WALL Figure 8 - Residential weighted average U-values for floors RESIDENTIAL WEIGHTED AVERAGE U-VALUES W/M²/K - FLOOR Southern dry Mediterranean Southern Continental Oceanic Continental Northern Continental Nordic Southern dry Mediterranean Southern Continental Oceanic Continental Northern Continental Nordic 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.0 pre 1945 1945 - 1970 1970 - 1980 1980 - 1990 1990 - 2000 post 2010 0.0 pre 1945 1945 - 1970 1970 - 1980 1980 - 1990 1990 - 2000 post 2010 Figure 7 - Residential weighted average U-values for windows RESIDENTIAL WEIGHTED AVERAGE U-VALUES W/M²/K - WINDOW Figure 9 - Residential weighted average U-values for roofs RESIDENTIAL WEIGHTED AVERAGE U-VALUES W/M²/K - ROOF Southern dry Mediterranean Southern Continental Oceanic Continental Northern Continental Nordic Southern dry Mediterranean Southern Continental Oceanic Continental Northern Continental Nordic 6 2.5 5 2.0 4 1.5 3 1.0 2 0.5 1 pre 1945 1945 - 1970 1970 - 1980 1980 - 1990 1990 - 2000 post 2010 0.0 pre 1945 1945 - 1970 1970 - 1980 1980 - 1990 1990 - 2000 post 2010 The progressively stricter efficiency standards in new construction for all climate regions are evident. Room insulation in particular has been given increased attention and thus U-values decreased in Member States with colder temperatures from around 2 to 0.3 W/m2/K. Dramatic 66 ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK 67

ENERGY POVERTY HANDBOOK
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