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ENERGY POVERTY HANDBOOK

energypovertyhandbook-online

100%= final energy

100%= final energy demand for H&C 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2. Fuel mix and energy demand In order to meet their heating and cooling demand, energy consumers in the 28 Member States use a variety of heating fuels. The following graph presents the residential total final energy demand for heating and cooling in all EU Member States. Four countries, namely Germany, France, the UK and Italy, are responsible for the lion’s share of energy demand, which is plotted using the black continued line. Figure 13 - Share of energy carriers for heating and cooling demand in residential buildings by country (European Commission Directorate-General for Energy, 2016) Germany France United Kingdom Italy Poland Spain Netherlands Belgium Romania Sweden Finland Austria Czech Republic Switzerland Greece Hungary Denmark Norway Ireland Portugal Bulgaria Slovakia Croatia Lithuania Latvia Slovenia Estonia Iceland Luxembourg Cyprus Malta Other RES Waste non-RES Fuel oil 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Total final energy demand for H&C [TWh] As seen from Figure 13, there is a high variation between Member States in regards to their fuels of choice: • Natural Gas is the fuel of choice of many countries, such as the UK, Slovakia, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, Hungary, Germany, France, Czech Republic and Belgium; • Fuel Oil is used in high shares in Luxembourg, Ireland, Greece, Cyprus and Belgium; • District heating is also used in high shares in Sweden, Lithuania, Finland, Estonia and Denmark; • Biomass, mainly wood, is still in significant use in Romania, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Bulgaria. Biomass is often unaccounted and therefore the real shares might differ significantly; • Electricity is also used to a large extent for heating in Sweden, Portugal, Malta, Finland Cyprus and Bulgaria. New technologies (e.g. heat pumps) are bringing the electrification of heat to increasingly more markets; • Coal occupies a significant share of heating energy carriers in Poland, and is still used in small shares as a heating fuel in a number of countries. 3. Inability of citizens to heat their buildings and pay their bills Despite the range of options available to households to heat their dwellings, it is observed that a large share of the population is unable to keep their homes adequately warm. This issue is so severe that over 20% of citizens earning less than 60% of the median equivalised income are being forced to withstand cold temperatures in 13 out of 28 Member States. The countries most affected by cold homes are Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania and Portugal. Lastly, the UK, as a highly advanced economy, is suffering by disproportionately high rates of energy consumers who cannot keep their homes warm. Ambient heat total Electricity Coal Geothermal District heating Natural gas Solar energy Waste RES Biomass Other fossil fuels TOTAL 72 ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK 73

Figure 14 - Inability to keep home warm (Eurostat, 2014) INABILITY TO KEEP HOME ADEQUATELY WARM % 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Total population Population below below 60% 60% of median of median equivalised equivalised income income EU 28 Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France FYROM Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom Figure 15 - Arrears on utility bills (Eurostat, 2014) ARREARS ON UTILITY BILLS 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Total Total population population Population Population below below 60% of 60% median of equivalised median equivalised income income % EU 28 Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France FYROM Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom As a result of their inability to heat their homes adequately, many energy consumers are reducing their heating demand by heating only one room in their house. Others are even resorting to highly unhealthy practices of burning inappropriate material, namely old furniture and dry garbage, in unsuitable devises such as fireplaces and old stoves. Another important aspect that needs to be taken into account is the financial ability to heat dwellings. Across the EU, 10% of the total population are having trouble paying their utility bills on time. This figure rises above 30% for populations earning below 60% of the median equivalised income. It has to be highlighted that significant shares of those arrears are already cutting back on adequate heating needs. As seen from the following graph, residents in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece and Slovenia are impacted the most. The inability of significant shares of the European population to adequately heat their homes and the fact that many are lagging behind on utility bills, are signs of energy poverty. An important cause of energy poverty and a factor that hinders efforts to overcome it, are poor quality dwellings that impact the health of their occupants and require high energy expenditure. The renovation of the existing building stock needs to be accelerated, and policies supporting the shares of the European population living under conditions of energy poverty need to be set in place. outlook for the eu future building stock Buildings, once erected, will be standing for many decades. Member States are required under the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive to ensure that, after 2020, all new buildings should be nearly Zero-Energy Buildings, or nZEB for short. This will limit the excess emissions of greenhouse gases, will shrink energy expenditure and will bring standards up to speed with existing, tested and applied construction techniques. Historical buildings and the vast number of post-war developments will 74 ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK 75

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