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still be standing in 30 years. Their inefficient construction and the volatility of energy prices offer incentives to direct more government and investor supported action towards the renovation of the existing stock. One of the multiple benefits of building energy efficiency is the alleviation of energy poverty, provided that the dwellings undergo deep renovations. A long term vision is required to meet a number of challenges related to the building stock. The extension of its current lifetime, the minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions (currently the EU building stock accounts for about 38% of all EU emissions), the elimination of fuel poverty, the integration of buildings into the energy system, the challenges of a further urbanisation and so on. A long term vision needs to be combined with accurate monitoring tools, implementing instruments such as an individual building renovation roadmap7. As with the car maintenance logging booklet, so with buildings, it is possible to set periodical benchmarks for the upgrade of buildings. Appropriate staged renovations improve the building’s performance avoiding lock-in effect. Renewable energy systems can make use of the upgrades implemented during renovations and heating system replacements in regular periods allow for a more efficient use of energy, which will increasingly be provided by renewable energy. Buildings have the potential to become small energy hubs offering a number of benefits to the energy system such as generation of electricity, thermal storage, load balancing and peak load shaving through demand response. Buildings can help the EU move from centralised fossil-fuel based systems towards a more decentralised, renewable, interconnected and variable system. conclusions Energy poverty is in part due to the low energy efficiency of the old building stock. The post-war needs for rapid construction gave secondary importance to the quality and energy efficiency of buildings, thus leaving behind as inheritance to younger generations a faulty building stock. Over 10% of Europeans are unable to keep their house warm and 15% live in unhealthy conditions, where their dwelling has a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundation, or rot in window frames. These conditions are deteriorating as the building stock gets older and does not undergo proper maintenance. The state of the building stock and heating systems needs improvement. Embedded within a long term strategy, buildings’ energy characteristics should be adequately registered and their aggregated information be used to design measures that will facilitate a holistic or stepwise energy upgrading. Window, wall, roof and floor insulation increases the thermal retention of a building, while mending issues caused by poor construction (i.e. leaking roofs), thus improving the health of residents. Insulation also reduces the energy demand for heating. Replacing the heating system, with modern condensing boilers or more advanced technologies such as renewable energy powered heat pumps, offers significant energy savings. Lastly, waste heat from industrial or other facilities can be reused via the district heating network. notes No data is available in BPIE’s DataHub for the number of buildings in Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands and UK 2 Sources: Odyssee and BPIE Data Hub for the stock of 2013 3 No data is available in BPIE’s DataHub for useful floor area in Belgium, Flanders, Croatia and Luxembourg. Note that iNSPiRe (2014) estimates the useful floor area to be 14,000km2a 4 Average floor area of dwellings is taken from the Odyssee database 5 See Table 1 on Climate regions 6 BPIE (2015) has estimated the EU-wide rate of renovation to be around 1%, while Ecofys (2016) puts it at 0.6% and the European Commission (2015) at 0.4% to 1.2%. 7 Example of an individual building renovation roadmap being implemented in the German state Baden-Württemberg: sanierungsfahrplan-bw/ references buildings performance institute europe (2015) Buildings Data Hub. Retrieved from: buildings performance institute europe (2015) Indoor Air Quality, Thermal Comfort and Daylight. 76 ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK 77

ecofys (2016) EU pathways to a decarbonised building sector. european commission (2016) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: An EU Strategy on Heating and Cooling, COM(2016) 51 final. european commission directorate-general for energy (2016) Mapping and analyses of the current and future (2020 - 2030) heating/ cooling fuel deployment (fossil/renewables). Work Package 1: Final energy consumption for the year 2012. eurostat (2014) Household composition statistics. Retrieved from: composition_statistics Accessed: 07-10-2016. eurostat (2014) Household Statistics. Retrieved from: eurostat/web/income-and-living-conditions/data/database Accessed: 07-10-2016. inspire (2014) Project iNSPiRe - Development of Systemic Packages for Deep Energy Renovation of Residential and Tertiary Buildings including Envelope and Systems. Deliverable 2.1: Survey on the energy needs and architectural features of the EU building stock. joint research center (2016) Synthesis Report on the assessment of Member States’ building renovation strategies. Retrived from: building_renovation_strategies_online_fin.pdf?file=1& type=node&id=9117 Accessed: 07-10-2016. odyssee database (n.d.) Retrieved from Energy Efficiency Database: qualicheck project (2016) Improving the compliance of Energy Performance Certificates and the quality of building works. Retrived from: QUALICHeCK-Booklet-1.pdf Accessed: 07-10-2016. 78 ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE HOUSING STOCK

Fuel Poverty Strategy publication - South Ayrshire Council
Handbook on Poverty and Inequality - ISBN: 9780821376133
Understanding Fuel Poverty - CARDI
A review of Fuel Poverty and Low Income Housing, 2002
Energy Poverty
UK Fuel Poverty Monitor
London’s Poverty Profile 2015
Still cold
Mapping Poverty - Combat Poverty Agency