42 changing conditions. More generally, explication of specialization and sensitization effects should have great relevance for job training and placement among stress-adapted youth. Conclusion Comparative research on birds, rodents, and humans highlights the role of stress in regulating development of adaptively-relevant skills and abilities. Leveraging these strengths could help stress-adapted individuals achieve their full potential and lead more satisfying and productive lives. The adaptation-based approach to resilience thus converges on a pressing research agenda: to uncover a high-resolution map of the skills and abilities of children and youth from high-risk backgrounds (specialization), and to determine how developmental exposures to stress interact with current psychological states and conditions to regulate learning and performance (sensitization). In pursuing this agenda, the field will need to pay careful attention to types of developmental stress (e.g., acute vs. chronic vs. unpredictable), the timing of stress exposures (e.g., sensitive periods, delays between developmental stress exposures and the manifestation of beneficial/detrimental effects), and their interaction with current states (under what conditions, and for which cognitive abilities, do we expect to observe sensitization effects?). Addressing such questions will require continued research efforts from behavioral scientists coupled with increased dialogue and collaboration with teachers, workforce development specialists, and other community-engaged professionals who work with stressadapted children and youth. Such cross-disciplinary interaction should promote a better understanding of how classroom environments, instructional strategies, job training, and related domains can be designed to support stress-adapted individuals in ways that converge with their life experiences to leverage their unique skills and abilities. Interdisciplinary collaboration will be critical for translating basic research into applications that enhance educational and life
43 outcomes in children and youth growing up under harsh, unpredictable conditions. Although much research needs to be done, this work holds the promise for transformative interventions that work with, instead of against, the skills and abilities of individuals from a diverse range of life circumstances.